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THE most important event of 1890, as affecting the contents of this volume, was the United States census, which was taken in June, and is going rapidly through the usual processes of computation and tabulation. Many of the most significant results have been reached already, and a brief summary of them will be found in the article "United States Census," together with tables convenient for quick reference and a colored chart. In each State article the population of that State by counties is given, with the population in 1880 and the increase or decrease. In the Census article the tables showing the size and condition of cities are instructive; and in this connection the reader will also be interested in the article "Cities, American, Recent Growth of," which we have continued through four volumes of the "Annual Cyclopædia." The present article treats of eighty-four cities in the United States and Canada. For still further information as to the growth of our country, the reader should consult the articles "Commerce of the United States," "Financial Review of 1890," and "United States Finances," those on the discoveries of Tin and Salt, and those on the new States, Idaho and Wyoming, each of which is accompanied by a colored map prepared expressly for this work. There is also a large colored map of Ontario, the most important province of the Dominion of Canada.

As a proper accompaniment to our many scientific articles, we present this year a history and description of the National Academy of Sciences, with notices of all the members and a portrait of each one that has held the office of president. The article on "Associations for the Advancement of Science" is full as usual, with portraits of the British and American presidents. Other records of scientific progress may be found in the articles on "Astronomy," "Chemistry," "Metallurgy," "Meteorology," "Physics," and "Physiology"—all prepared by experts, and making an almost complete story of the year's attainments-while the articles "Koch, Robert," and "Tuberculous Diseases" tell all that is known of the scientific achievement that excited the deepest popular interest the world over.

The present condition of Newfoundland, now the center of so much interest, is fully set forth by one of her eminent citizens, with a full-page map, engraved expressly to accompany the article. We also present a view of the island of Heligoland, which has just passed from British to German possession. Other geographical topics are presented in the usual full article on "Geographical Progress."

Events in music and the fine arts are recorded under those titles, and the three articles on American, British, and Continental literature show what has


been done in the world of authorship. For an art that claims a wide popular interest, the reader is referred to the illustrated article "Portraits, Crayon," in which one of the most successful of its followers explains minutely how it may be learned and how it is practiced. Besides the mechanical achievements that are set forth in "Engineering," the volume contains a special article on the "Phonograph" and one on "Type-Writers," in which the history of that invention is traced from its earliest conception to the present day, when it has developed into a great industry and the machines are considered among the necessaries of business life. Both of these articles are fully illustrated. There is also an illustrated article showing the improvements in shot-guns. And the article "Steamers, Ocean," shows how the traffic across the Atlantic has continually increased its speed, and has gone from comparatively small vessels to those of ten thousand tons.

The organizations of which we give a history in the present volume include the Farmers' Alliance, the National League for Protection of American Institutions, the Military Order of America, the Patriotic League, the Patriotic Order of Sons of America, and the Woman's Christian Temperance Union.

Last year's interesting article on "Soldiers' Homes" is properly supplemented this year by one on "Girls' Co-operative Boarding-Homes," from the pen of Robert Stein, of Washington, who has made a special study of that most worthy charity. The other special articles include "Fungi, Edible," "Forefathers' Day," "Famines in Ireland," "Hurling," "Horsemanship," "Indian Messiah," and "Naval Apparatus, New," by Lieut. Nazro, U. S. N. The article “OriginalPackage Decision" gives the result of important legislation and legal decisions, and similar information on other topics is to be found in many of the articles on the States.

The colored illustrations of this volume have been mentioned above. The three steel portraits represent the three most famous men, in different professions, that died during the year-Gen. John C. Frémont, George Bancroft, the historian, and Cardinal Newman, each being accompanied by a very full biographical sketch. The necrology for 1890 also includes Gens. George Crook and Alfred H. Terry; ex-Speaker Samuel J. Randall; Dion Boucicault, the actor and dramatist; Richard F. Burton, the traveler and author; Amadeo, Duke of Aosta; Count Andrassy; Chatrian, the novelist; Schliemann, the explorer; Bishop Beckwith, George H. Boker and B. P. Shillaber, authors; Charles L. Brace and George H. Stuart, philanthropists; John H. C. Coffin, the mathematician; Martin B. Anderson and Frederick H. Hedge, educators; Thomas Hicks, the artist; Justice Samuel F. Miller; Prof. C. H. F. Peters, the astronomer; Rear-Admiral Stephen C. Rowan; Sitting Bull, the Sioux medicine man; Ignaz Döllinger, the theologian; Octave Feuillet, the novelist; Lord Napier of Magdala; Canon Liddon; Willem III, King of the Netherlands; and J. E. Thorold Rogers, the political economist. Of many of these we present portraits as well as biographical sketches.

NEW YORK, April 8, 1891.


Among the Contributors to this Volume of the "Annual Cyclopædia" are the following:

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