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man's story, but, as soon as it was concluded, fixed his eyes on the countenance of the youthful guest, in whom he felt so greatly interested. The three remained together till Rabbi Abraham had returned thanks, when Zinzendorf took the young man with him; and, as they wandered together under the shade of the trees, their hearts were opened to each other, and a deep affection sprung up from that day.

And who was the young stranger? It was John Caspar Horst afterwards preacher of Sindheim-a man full of ar

dent love to the Saviour, and one whose memory--still living-is blessed. At the period of our story he was a candidate for the ministry, and subsequeatly offered himself as a missionary to the Jews. He spoke Hebrew with equal facility with his mother-tongue, and was well versed in rabbinism. In society he was timid and retiring, with a very humble opinion of himself; but in the pulpit was full of fire, aná without fear of man. His memory will not quickly be forgotten.-The Churchman's Monthly Penny Magazine.

W. B.

SUBSCRIPTIONS AND DONATIONS
RECEIVED IN AID OF THE SOCIETY, FROM APRIL 1 TO JULY 1, 1856.

£ 8. d. SUBSCRIPTIONS & DONATIONS.

Strawson, Miss

090 East Cowes
£ 1. d.
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0 12 4 Fareham

• 0 14 6 A Friend at Cullompton 0 2 6

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1 0 0
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• 1 2 3 A lover of Israel and Israel's

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· 090 Redeemer

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W. W.

. 03 0 Hackney Gravel Pite . 20 3 3 Anonymous

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0 10 6 Hammersmith

. 15 3 4 Alliot, Rev. R , li.d. 1 1 0 Wig Mre.

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060 Lavenham

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6 107 Dankin, Mrs.

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• 6 15 0 . 10 The late Misg Butler

8 00

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• 3 1 10 ETC. Royston

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Sowerby Bridge
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tion after Annual Meeting 13 13 10 Stockton-on-Tees.

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Trinity Chapel, Edgware-rd. ? 194 Grgury. Mrs. 0 7 6 Rev, T. W. Aveling 8 48 L'xbridge

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Notices, &c. ANNUAL REPORT.-We very much regret the omission of the following in the List of Contributions:-Bridport (Treasurer, T. Beach, Esq.; Secretary, Miss Hussey): Subscriptions and Donations, £6 58. 10d. ; Collection, £1 16s. 6d. Total, £8 28. 4d. And also that in the account of Bolion, the amount stated at £34 16s. Od., instead of £38 16s. 4d.

The MONTHLY MEETING of Jewish and Gentile Christians, for Prayer and Scriptural Conference, will be held at the Office, No. 1, Crescent Place, New Bridge Street, Blackfriars, on WEDNESDAY EVENING, July 13th, (instead of Third Wednesday, as usual), at Seven o'Clock.—The Meeting is open to all Friends of Israel.

Just Published, price 7s. 6d., pp. 580,
HISTORY OF THE JEWS, AFTER THE DESTRUCTION OF JERUSALEM

UNDER TITUS.
By the REV. ALFRED EDERSHEIM, Ph. D., Old Aberdeen.

Published by CONSTABLE, Edinburgh.

:

London : Published by JOHN SNOW, 35, Paternoster Row. Printed by Charles Frederick Adams, op 23, Middle Street, Cloth Fair, City, and William Gee, of 18, Seward Street,

St. Luke's,

at their Printing Office, 23, Middle Street, Cloth Fau, City.

The Jewish Herald,

,

AND

RECORD OF CHRISTIAN EFFORT FOR THE SPIRITUAL GOOD

OF GOD'S ANCIENT PEOPLE.

PUBLISH YE, PRAISE YE, AND SAY, O LORD, SAVE THY PEOPLE, THE REMNANT

OF ISRAEL."

PUBLISHED UNDER THE SUPERINTENDENCE OF THE BRITISH SOCIETY FOR THE

PROPAGATION OF THE GOSPEL AMONG THE JEWS.

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[From Rev. Dr. Edersheim's very valuable and interesting “ History of the Jewish Nation after the Destruction of Jerusalem under Titus."]

Passing from the didactic to lyrical poetry, the Shir, or song, claims our special attention. It will scarcely be expected that the profane or secular song should have been much attended to amongst the Hebrews. On festive occasions, no doubt, the song formed part of the entertainment; but if the common Shir was less known amongst the Hebrews, the sacred song or hymn had, under the guidance of scriptural example, early attained a place of eminence. Not only the hymn of praise, but many portions of the regular prayers of the synagogue breathe the spirit of the purest, truest, and most elevated poetry. The songs of praise in general use in the synagogue were those poetic portions of Scripture which have always formed the groundwork of this exercise to the Church. But the Hebrew festivals were festivals in the truest sense.

Not confined to certain cere. monies in the temple or synagogue, the day or week was spent in festive enjoyment and festive communication with God and Israel. Each individual or family confined not its religious enjoyments to the hours of worship, or even to the narrow circle of the family. It was enlarged so as to embrace all who shared the same hopes, and unmingled joy characterised the intercourse. On occasions like these the hymn found its proper place, and few as these relics of temple times are, they sufficiently indicate the relation to which we have referred. We will not expect them to breathe a purely devotional spirit. They

are rather the social songs of a happy brotherhood congregated on festive occasions.

One of the happiest seasons was the Feast of Tabernacles, which

VOL. XI.-NEW SERIES, VOL. II.

a

occurred five days after the Day of Atonement, and lasted uninterruptedly for a full week, and was followed by the “Sabbath of the joy of the law, on which the annual prelection of Scripture was completed. On this occasion, which equally commemorated Israel's stay in the wilderness, and the goodness of the Lord in granting year by year of the fruits of the land, which had newly been ingathered, the people lived in booths constructed generally of branches of fruit-trees, from many of which their rich clusters still depended. The worshippers, lately purified from sin, kept this as a feast of thanksgiving. Arrayed in festive garments, carrying in one hand a citron, and in the other the "lulav,” or palm-branch, intertwined with willows and myrtle, the worshippers appeared daily in the temple. Every morning, after the customary sacrifice, a priest drew from the pool of Siloam water into a golden pitcher, capable of containing three logs. Amidst the sound of trumpets he entered the temple through the water-gate, and poured it on the altar of burnt-offering. On the second, the sixth, and the seventh day, “that great day of the feast," (John vii. 37,) wine was also poured, which, through a separate vase, flowed into a receptacle under the altar, destined to receive drink-offerings. Louder than the sound of the Levites' instruments was the voice of praise, or the call for mercy and deliverance. In the evening a religious feast was celebrated. After the evening sacrifice, announced by the customary nire blasts from the trumpets of the Levites, the people congregated in the court of the women, the men below, the women upon balconies all around. Immense golden candelabra, each with four branches, gave their light; and on four ladders, one beside each branch to feed the flame, youthful priests were placed. The glare of that light shed its brightness over the city beneath, and every court in Jerusalem was lit up by the flame in the temple. The pious and chief (perhaps the Essenes and Pharisees) danced before the people, and swung and threw up the torches in their hands. The musie of the harp, of the cymbal, and of the psaltery, of flutes and of trumpets, resounded from the courts of the sanctuary. On the fifteen steps which led to the court of the women stood Levites, who, with their instruments, accompanied those hymns, of which the following is a fragment:

THE PIOUS AND THE MEN OF RENOWN.

"O happy youth, devoted sage,
Who will not put to shame our age!"

THE PENITENTS.
"O) happy, also, is our age,
Which now atones for youth, not sage!"

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BOTH IN CHOIR.

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"O happy he on whom no guilt does rest,

And he who sinn'd with pardon shall be blest." At the upper gate, which led from the court of the people to that of the women, stood two priests with trumpets. As soon as the crowing of the cock announced the approach of dawn, with blast of trumpets they descended into the court and passed on to the eastern gate, when, facing round toward the temple, they sang

« Our fathers here establishid by Thy grace,
Had turn'd their back upon Thy holy place,
And to the rising sun they set their face;
But we will turn to Thee, Jehovah God;
Our eyes are set on Thee, Jehovah God.”

!

Another happy day was the 15th of Ab, when the collection of wood, required in the sanctuary, was finished. Then the maidens all went forth arrayed in white garments, specially lent them, that so rich and poor might be on an equality, into the vineyards round Jerusalem, where they danced and sung. The following fragment of a song has been preserved :

.
" Around in circle gay the Hebrew maidens seo,

From them the happy yonths their partners choose.
Remember, beauty soon its charms must lose,
And seek to win a maid of faic degree.
When fading grace and beauty low are laid,
Yet her who fears the Lord shall praise await;
God blessed ber handiwork, and, in the gate,

Her works have followed her, it shall be said." Such are some of the interesting relics of temple-days and temple-usages which have been preserved. It is scarcely necessary to state, that as in Scripture, so in early Jewish poetry, neither definite and continued metre, nor regular and premeditated rhyme, must be sought. As it was composed for song, a certain metre no doubt must have been observed, but it was rather that of thought, the unfettered, immediate outpouring of the soul, than the measured step to which we have been accustomed. Gradually, however, these forms also developed. One of the most ancient attempts at it was in stanzas of four unequal lines. If only the long lines corresponded, it was termed “Lerenah al gabeh levenah," (brick upon brick); if the short lines “ Ariah al gabeh ariah,” (piece of brick upon piece of brick). If one and two were short, and three and four long, it was " Ariah al gabeh levenah ;” in the opposite caso, “Levenah al gabeh ariah.” But it was comparatively long ere Hebrew poets learned-some think from strangers-regularly to range their ideas in the order in which they are now marshalled. Josephus and some of the fathers have, at least in the interpretation of some, attempted to find in Hebrew poetry the classical forms to which they were strangers both in matter and manner. The modern and scientific mode of pronouncing the Hebrew is that in trochees. The traditionary, and to our mind more musical and appropriate, if not more correct, is that in iambics.

From the Shir we naturally pass to the Tefila or prayer. Properly prayer was considered the spontaneous effusion of the soul, called forth by a sense of immediate wants or experienced blessings. The measures taken by Ezra for the celebration of public worship throughout the land and the regulation of the temple-service, were the first steps towards a liturgy, which at first consisted probably in traditionally preserved prayers of sages and leaders of congregational devotions (the "Sheliach," "angelos,” or messenger of the congregation). They were afterwards committed to writing, and gradually became the nucleus of the present Jewish prayerbook. In this liturgy about fifty fragments belonging to the talmudical period are incorporated. The oldest, which date from “ the men of the great synagogue,"' comprise the confessions of the high-priest on the day of atonement, the arrangement of the “Shema," its three accompanying prayers, and six of what are called the eighteen eulogies. The highpriestly confessions on the great fast were successively for himself, for his household, for the priests, and for the people. Turning towards the most holy place, and laying his hands on the bullock which stood between the court and the altar of incense, he pronounced the first, which in substance is similar to all the others. “Alas, O Jehovah! I have committed iniquity, I have transgressed, I have sinned, I and my house. Alas, Jehovah ! atone for the iniquities, the transgressions and the sins which I have committed and sinned before thee, I and my house, as it is written in the law of Moses thy servant: for on that day will He atone for you to make you clean, from all your transgressions shall ye before Jehovah be cleansea."

Again, after he had tied a strip of red wool round the head of the scape-goat, and another round the neck of the goat to be sacrificed, he turned the former towards the east gate, whence it was to be led forth, and laid his hands upon the head of the bullock, confessing the sins of the sons of Aaron. Legend had it that the voice of confession was heard eren as far as Jericho. It was responded in the praises of the people, who, when the high priest pronounced the ineffable name of Jehovah, fell on their faces and exclaimed, “Blessed be the name of the glory of his kingdom for ever and ever." Though pronounced ten times on that solemn day, yet the voice and praise and the sound of the priests' instruments concealed the mysterious name from priest and layman. Then the high-priest slew the bullock, caught its blood in a vase, and caused it to be stirred by an attendant. Having put fire into a golden censer, and incense into a spoon, he rapidly advanced to the Ark of the Covenant, placed the censer between its staves, and put the incense on the coals. A second and a third time he entered with the blood of the bullock, and then with that of the goat, and sprinkled the Ark once above and seven times below. In the same manner he sprinkled the curtain, and then, mingling the blood of the sacrifices, the golden altar and its horns. He then confessed over the scape. goat the sins of the people. At the close of the service he prayed, “May it please Thee, O Lord our God, and the God of our fathers, that neither this day nor during this year any captivity come upon us; yet if captivity befall us this day or this year, let it be to a place where the law is cultivated. May it please Thee, O Lord our God, and the God of our fathers, that no want come upon us either this day or this year ; but if want visit us this day or this year, let it be due to the liberality of our charitable deeds. May it please Thee, O Lord our God, and the God of our fathers, that this year may become a year of cheapness, of fulness, of intercourse, and of trade; a year with abundance of rain, of sunshine, and of dew; one in which Thy people Israel shall not require assistance one from another. And listen not to the prayers of those who go forth on a journey. And as to Thy people Israel, may no enemy exalt himself against them. May it please Thee, O Lord our God, and the God of our fathers, that the houses of the men of Saron may not become their graves."

The only really fixed form of daily prayer was a collection of passages constituting a kind of confession of faith, which every Israelite was to repeat morning and evening. It consisted of Deut. vi. 4-9; xi. 13-21; Numb. xv. 37-41, and was in the morning preceded by two and succeeded by one; and in the evening both preceded and succeeded by two prayers, which, although considerably enlarged, are still in use.

[After having given these, and the eighteen Berakas to be repeated every day, Dr. Edersheim remarks :-)

It will be observed, that affection and trust in the Lord and His Word, longing for the coming of the Saviour, confidence in their privileges as Hebrews, and a desire after and respect for knowledge of the law (in the rabbinical sense), constitute the chief burden of these prayers.

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