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wanted, and in such cases it is separated by a hyphen; as in Sel. 148, ver. 1. A similar case occurs in Sel. 70, ver. 2, line 2.
Verses of three clauses occur occasionally, and the extra clause must be sung by repeating one of the strains of the chant. This is indicated by placing before one of the clauses a figure which numbers the strain to which it is to be sung. Some other irregularities are indicated in the same manner, the practice of which will occasion no difficulty. There are a few instances in which a distinct clause, as Amen and amen, Praise ye Jah, and the like, will be found to remain after the cadence is sung through; and these should be sung by repeating a sufficient number of the last notes of the cadence,
RULES FOR CHANTING RECOMMENDED IN USING THIS WORK,
[The figures in parentheses refer to the Examples on pages 394 and 395.]
In singing the words to the chanting note, the utterance, pronunciation, accent, emphasis, inflection, pauses and expression, should be the same as in deliberate reading. In reading or speaking, unimportant words occupy much less time in the utterance than important words, even though both be of but one syHable; and in singing to the chanting note, the same relative duration should be carefully preserved.
If there is a pussing note in the chanting measure, sing to it the last syllable before the dash, if the syllable be unaccented; but if accented or important, commence this syllable on the chanting note, and slur it on the passing note.
The above rule for singing to the chanting note ceases when we come to the cadence; for the cadence should always " be given in correct time, the beat of which can be felt.” Still, however, as much of the expression of reading or speaking should be given to the words of the cadence, as is consistent with correct time.
But the last note of the cadence should not be regarded as having a fixed time. If the word which is sung to it is a single syllable, the sound may be protracted as far as the production of good effect may dictate (1); but if there falls to it more than one syllable, they should be uttered agreeably to the rule for singing to the chanting note, or nearly 80 (2).
The measures of the cadences are generally made up of minims, and the application of the words is simple where there is a syllable to each minim, that is, two syllables to each measure, as before stated (1); though, in a few instances, the accented syllable may fall to the wrong part of the measure (38). When three syllables fall to a measure, they may be1, the first and second accented or important, and the third not, -2, the first accented, and the other two not,—3, the first and third accented, and the second not, -or 4, the first and second unaccented, and the third accented. Four other cases are mathematically possible, but would be absurd in practice, and do not occur.
In the first of these cases, where the first and second syllables are accented, and the third unaccented, as the syllables all thine in-, Sel. 126, ver. 3, the first syllable must evidently be sung to the first minim of the measure, and the other two to the last (3); but the last minim must not be sung as two crotchets, but as a pointed crotchet and quaver; or rather,
in most instances, less time than a quaver should be given to the unaccented syllable, throwing it in slightly after the accented one (3 and 4, the pointed crotchet being indicated by a dot).
In the second kind, where the first syllable is accented, and the other two not, the first is sung to the first minim, and the two others to the second minim as two crotchets; as the syllables blow and the, Sel. 138, ver. 7 (5, 6). But, though combinations of this kind are very common, yet there are few wherein the former of the two last syllables is not more accented and more important than the latter; as to in deeds to the, Sel. 126, ver. 7; and therefore a very great majority of the cases apparently falling under this class should be sung by making the last minim a pointed crotchet and quaver (7, 8). But when the three syllables of this class are made up of a word of two syllables accented on the first, and followed by an unimportant syllable, as children of, Sel. 126, ver. 7, the word of two syllables should always be sung to the first minim, in the manner explained in the next paragraph (9, 10).
In examples of the third class above named, where the first and third are accented, and the second unaccented, the unaccented syllable should be invariably sung with the first syllable to the first minim; yet it should rarely receive the time of a quaver, but should be thrown in slightly after it; as the syllables joy of thy, Sel. 127, ver. 6, or acts of Je-, ver. 2 (11, 12). Words of three syllables accented on the first, as merciful, or the three last syllables of in-iquity, belong to this class, since the first syllable after an accent is less accented than the second: they should therefore be sung as here explained (13, 14).
In the fourth case, where the first and second syllables are unaccented and the third accented, as in the Red, Sel. 133, ver. 3, the two first syllables should be sung to the first minim, precisely as explained of the two unimportant syllables in case second above (15, 16). In some instances, as before stated, it has been' impossible
avoid putting four syllables into one measure ; but these cases are few, not amounting to twenty in the whole work. Except four, they all consist of three syllables in the same word followed by another syllable; as the three last syllables of an-ticipate, Sel. 109. ver: 4,-of pros-perity, Sel. 44, ver. 6,--and the words publisheth and comforted, in Sel. 65. In all such, the three syllables belonging to the same word should be sung to the first minim, and the following syllable to the second (19, 20); and several words so situated, as pitieth, reverenced, covenant, Israel, may contracted and uttered nearly as two syllables (21, 22), which will much improve the effect. The four cases excepted above are the syllables heavens and up-, Sel. 91, ver 6,-solitary, Sel. 96, ver. 4-feet into the, Sel. 42, ver 4,—and the three last syllables of con-tinually, Sel. 92, ver. 1. The first and second of these are given (17, 18): in the third, into the should be sung to the second minim; and in the fourth, the three first syllables should be contracted into two.
The species of contraction just mentioned should be used in several other instances; as tow'rd for to'ward (not toward'), Sel. 124, ver.5 (26, 27); psalt ry for psaltery, Sel. 73, ver. 2 (25) ;—so th' oppressor for the oppressor, Sel. 10, ver. 4; th' upright for the upright, Sel. 95 (23, 24); and many other cases, especially where a word ends with a vowel, and the next begins with a vowel: but care should be taken in pronouncing them, as the sound either of w or y is always implied in contractions of the latter kind (23, 24).
The proper manner of singing the last note of the cadence has been
before stated; and it is only necessary to add, that the last accented syllable of a clause should be carefully made to fall on this last note (28, 29), so as to preserve, as far as possible, the expression of correct reading: for example, Sel. 122, ver. 6, line 2, might have been pointed thus :Save with thy right | hand and answer me; which would have injured the sense, as the last accented syllable is not me, but the first syllable of an-swer, and the phrase answer me conveys a unity of idea (34, 35). This proper expression and unity of idea is, in some instances, lost, for the want of a sufficient number of syllables in the clause, to apply to the cadence. Thus, in Sel. 22, ver. 2, line 2, the three last syllables, -viveth me, ought to fall to the last note (30); but this could not be done without placing the dash before thy, and making it fill the second measure, that is, singing it to four crotchets in the treble; which was esteemed a greater evil than the loss of expression. So in Sel. 112, ver. 6, taught me ought to fall to the last note (31); but then the two preceding syllables must each fill a measure, and it may be doubted which is the better way. Some care will be found necessary in order to bring the last accented syllable upon the last note; and the case must always be decided by the proper manner of reading the clause, and not by the apparent importance or unimportance of the words. Indeed, this syllable is often apparently a very unimportant word, a preposition, for example, followed by a word of one syllable; as, to me, Sel. 4, ver 4,—with me, Sel. 14, ver. 1,-against thee, Sel. 20, ver. 3,-by it, Sel. 19, ver. 4, and be-fore him, ver. 8,-also, Sel. 49, ver. 3; 25, ver. 4 and 7 (32, 33); and many more : but prepositions so situated are evidently more frequently not accented. [The remaining examples (36, 37, 38) are only a few particular instances of the more difficult application of the words.]
These remarks proceed on the supposition that the cadences are made up of minims. Crotchets are a defect in them, inasmuch as they are an additional hindrance to the proper utterance of the words; and though they must, in some cases, vary the application of the foregoing principles, yet they may be sung as a pointed crotchet and quaver, where the effect would thereby be improved.
The object in chanting is to express the sentiments of the words in musical tones; and, consequently, the first of these rules cannot be too carefully studied and followed. No one, whatever may be his merits as a singer, can give full effect to chanting, unless he is also a good reader. He must attend to the sentiments, feel them, and wish to express them musically. Many choirs assume the chanting note with the voice, and read the several syllables to it very hastily, giving to each, as nearly as possible, the same time and the same force. Comment on this practice is needless. The habit, unavoidably contracted in singing psalm tunes, of giving the same time to every syllable, whether important or unimportant, is also injurious to chanting, and must be carefully resisted. Sentences are composed not only of clauses, but of phrases consisting of two or three words. The following clause consists of three phrases ;-And in the same country, were shepherds, abiding in the field. Now, in reading, we make nearly a pause, though not an actual suspension of the voice, after each phrase. In chanting, these phrases should be carefully studied. But to follow the rules of good reading mechanically, will produce the same stiffness in chanting as in reading. Ease and expression are the things to be aimed at, and these rules, it is believed, will be found to promote them. To utter the words with that spirit and those feelings which their sense seems calculated to inspire,
should be the highest aim. This is not the place for a dissertation on the character of the Psalms and other (usually styled) poetical parts of the Word, from which the Selections in this work are drawn. Viewed in their literal sense, they are calculated to excite the deepest emotions, whether of sublimity or of pathos, of exaltation or of humility, of comfort or of reproof, of confiding trust or of trembling hope, of joy or of sadness, of prayer or of praise. Add to this, that we are taught that they are spirit and life; that they are the medium through which the Divine Spirit flows into, and operates in the minds and hearts of men: still, it may be safely said, that all the sentiments which they can inspire in our hearts, may find their full expression, and experience full satisfaction in the chant.
OF THE ARRANGEMENT OF THE PARTS IN CHORAL Music.
An ignorance has heretofore existed, and it is to be feared still exists, in this country, in regard to the proper relations of the parts in choral music. This may have originated in the custom of printing the tenor and alto on the treble staff; for it has been supposed, that as the notes stood on the same place in the staff, they meant the same sound. But it must never be forgotten, that the same note in the tenor and treble means a sound an octave lower in the tenor than in the treble: thus, in Chant 64, the first note of the second strain, both in the treble and tenor, is on C in the third space of the staff; but the C in the tenor means the C which is printed in a small note on the first leger line below the treble staff. An attempt has been made to exhibit the parts in their proper relations as to pitch, on pages 394 and 395. If a tenor voice were to sing the treble in that chant, it would sing the small black notes which are an octave below the treble. See, also, Glorification 36. The accompaniment ought throughout to have been written as in these cases; but the close harmony, to be played with the right hand, was generally preferred, because it was thought that this book might be used on the piano-forte, where it would be desirable to have the left hand play octaves in the base.
The treble should always be sung by females ; and never by men, unless from necessity : the alto should be sung by the lower female voices, and by boys; and may be sung by very high men's voices: the tenor, by the higher voices of men; never by women: and the base, by the lower voices of men. This would seem to make it proper that the treble should be the upper staff, the alto next, the tenor next, and the base at bottom : and they should always be só printed, except where it is necessary to have the treble brought down next the base, for convenience in playing the organ or piano-forte. Throughout this work, the base stands at the bottom, the treble next, the tenor next, and the alto at top; unless otherwise directed on the pages.
OF THE TIME OF THE CADENCE.
The words of the recitative should be read very deliberately; and accent and emphasis cannot be too carefully observed: but the custom has been to sing the cadence much too slow. The time in which any Chant should be sung, must be governed entirely by the subject of the Selection ; but the rule for the cadence is, to sing the minims of the
cadence in the same time as is given to an accented and emphatic word of one syllable in the recitative.
GENERAL REMARKS. Chants 81, 95, and 107, are in some degree peculiar, having two introductory notes before the chanting note. These two notes should be sung to one or more of the first syllables of the line, always passing to the chanting note by an unaccented syllable.
Some have expressed a desire to have the Chants and Selections written out at large, with the words divided under the notes by lines, in the manner sometimes found in singing-books. The present work, so arranged, would make a large folio volume. Glorification 36 is á specimen of this; and the matter, which there fills two pages, though printed in two lines, would fill but the half of one, if written like the other Selections.
Though, in general, the Choruses alone will be sung in public worship, yet a few Solos, Duets and Trios, have been inserted in the volume; but in no case, unless they were parts of the same Anthem as the Choruses, and were of sterling character. It is believed that these will be gladly received for social religious use; and the question, why they should not be sung in public, perhaps merits consideration. Åll the Anthems that have been thus fully inserted, are by Kent. Glorifications 6 and 7, and the intermediate Solos and Duet, are an Anthem of his on Psalm 23.
The reader will observe that, in some instances, the expressions in the Services, Selections and Glorifications, are not the same as in the common translation of the Bible. Indeed, nearly the whole of the contents of this book was revised, and much the largest part was carefully compared with the original, aided by the best helps that could be procured. Much pains were taken to make the translation literal ; but no alterations were attempted, unless a manifest improvement could be made. The names Jehovah and Jah, heretofore translated Lord, have been invariably restored ; and wherever the word Lord now occurs in passages from the Old Testament, it stands for the Hebrew word which signifies a lord; except in Glorifications 9 and 13, where the structure of the music did not allow a change in the words. Where the word Lord occurs in passages from the New Testament, it means the Lord Jesus Christ, or Jehovah manifested in the flesh, unless there is direct or implied reference to the Old Testament. When the word Jehovah is pointed for the vowel i in the original (Jehovih), it has been retained. A few verbal alterations have been made, for the better application of the words to the music; such as changing the location of the words, or the insertion of do, did, and the like : and, in several instances, the Hebrew word Hallelujah is given, immediately followed by its signification in English, Praise ye Jah, for the sake of lengthening the line.
In the examples on pages 394 and 395, several clauses are much altered; but this was necessary in order to shorten them so as to bring them within the width of the page.
The Committee are under great obligations to Mr. Lowell Mason, one of the Professors in the Boston Academy of Music, not only for permission to copy several chants and choruses from his musical publications; but also for the loan of the Gregorian Chants, and two other collections of Chants published in England.