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ber indeed brought to my mind the countless multitude of the Revelations; but their voices gave no tuneful Hosannah or Hallelujah; but rather a yell of approbation, united with a kind of hissing applause.* I was at a loss how to account for this latter noise, until I was directed to notice the women; who emit. ted a sound like that of whistling, with the lips circular, and the tongue vibrating, as if a serpant would speak by their organs, uttering human sounds.

“The throne of the idol was placed on a stupendous car, or tower, about sixty feet in height, resting on wheels which indented the ground deeply, as they turned slowly under the pronderous machine. Attached to it were six cables, of the size and length of a ship's cable, by which the people drew it along. Upon the tower were the priests and satellites of the idol, surrounding his throne. The idol is a block of wood, having a frightful visage painted black, with a distended mouth of a bloody color. His arms are of gold, and he is dressed in gorgeous apparel. The other two idols are of a white and yellow color. Five elephants preceded the three towers, bearing towering flags, dressed in crimson caparisons, and having bells hanging to their caparisons, which sounded musically as they moved.”

“I went on in the procession, close by the tower of Moloch; which, as it was drawn with difficulty, grated on its many wheels harsh thunder. After a few minutes it stopped: and now the worship of the god began. A high priest mounted the car in front

See Milton's Pandemonium, book X. + Two of the military gentlemen had mounted my elephant that they might witness the spectacle, and had brought him close to the tower; but the moment it began to move, the animal alarned at the unu:ual noise, touk fright and ran afl through the crowd till he was s:opped by a wall. The natural fear of the elephant lest he should injure human life, was remarkably exemplified on this oen casion

Though the crowd was very closely set, he endeavoured, in the midst of his own terror, to throw the people off on both sides with his feet, and it was found that he had only trod upon one person I was with great concern lafterwards learnt that this was a poor woman, and that the deshy part of her leg had been torn off. There being no medical person here, Lieut Woodcock with great humanity endeavored to dress the wound and attended her daily, and Mr. Hunter ordered her to be supplied with every thing that might conduce to her teoovery.

move.

of the idol, and pronounced his obscene stanzas in the ears of the people; who responded at intervals in the same strain.

“These songs, said he, "are the delight of the god. His car can only move when he is pleased with the song." The car moved on a little way and then stopped. A boy of about twelve years was then brought forth to attempt something yet more lascivious, if peradventure the god would

The "child perfected the praise" of his idol with such ardent expression and gesture, that the god was pleased, and the multitude emitting a sensual yell of delight, urged the car along. After a few minutes it stopped again. An aged minister of the idol then stood up, and with a long rod in his hand, which he moved with indecent action, completed the variety of this disgusting exhibition. I felt a consciousness of doing wrong in witnessing it. I was also somewhat appalled at the magnitude and horror of the spectacle; I felt like a guilty person, on whom all eyes were fixed, and I was about to withdraw. But a scene of a different kind was now to be presented. The characteristics of Moloch's worship are obscenity and blood. We have seen the former. Now comes the blood.”

“After the tower had proceeded some way, a pilgrim announced that he was ready to offer himself a sacrifice to the idol. He laid himself down in the road before the tower as it was moving along, lying on his face, with his arms stretched forward.

The multitude passed round him, leaving the space clear, and he was crushed to death by the wheels of the tower. A shout of joy was raised to the god. He is said to smile when the libation of the blood is made. The people threw cowries, or small money, on the body of the victim, in approbation of the deed. He was left to view a considerable time, and was then carried by th Hurties to the Golgotha, where I have just bean viewing his remains. How much I wished that the proprietors of India stock could have at

tended the wheels of Juggernaut, and seen this peculiar source of their revenue."

Juggernaut, 20th June. «Moloch, horrid king, besmeared with blood

"Of human sacrifice, and parents' tears."--Milton. -The horrid solemnities still continue. Yesterday a woman devoted herself to the idol. She laid herself down on the road in an oblique direction, so that the wheel did not kill her instantaneously, as is generally the case; but she died in a few hours. This morning as I passed the Place of Skulls, noth: ing remained of her but her bones."

"And this, thought I, is the worship of the Brahmins of Hindoostan! And their worship in its sublimest degree! What then shall we think of their private manners, and their moral principles! For it is equally true of India as of Europe. If you would know the state of the people, look at the state of the temple."

I was surprised to see the Brahmins with their heads uncovered in the open plain, faMing down in the midst of the Sooders before "the horrid shape, and mingling so complacently with "that polluted cast.” But this proved what I had before heard, that so great a god is this, that the dignity of high cast disappears before him. This great king recog. nizes no distinction of rank among his subjects. All men are equal in his presence.”

"Juggernaut, 21st June. “The idolatrous processions continue for some days longer, but my spirits are so exhausted by the constant view of these enormities, that I mean to hasten

away from this place sooner than I at first intended. 'I beheld another distressing scene this morning at the Place of Skulls; a poor woman lying dead, or nearly dead, and her two children by her, looking at the dogs and vultures which were near:

The people passed by without noticing the children. I asked them where was their home. They said "they had no home but where their mother was.'' O, there is no pity at Juggernaut! no mercy, no tenderness of heart in Moloch's kingdom! Those who support his kingdom, err, I trust, from ingnorance. "They know not what they do."

"As to the number of worshippers assembled here at this time no accurate calculation can be made.--The natives themselves, when speaking of numbers at particular festivals, usually say that a lack of people (100,000) would not be missed. I asked a Brahmin how many he supposed were present at the most numerous festival he had ever witnessed. “How can I tell," said he, “how many grains there are in a handful of sand?"

“The languages spoken here are various, as there are Hindoos from every country in India: but the two chief languages in use by those who are resident, are the Orissa and the Telinga. The border of the Telinga country is only a few miles distant from the Tower of Juggernaut.”

Chilka Lake, 24th June. I felt my mind relived and happy when I had passed beyond the confines of Juggerneaut. I certainly was not prepared for the scene. But no one can know what it is who has not seen it. From an eminence* on the pleasant banks of the Chilka Lake (where no human bones are seen), I had a view of the lofty tower of Juggernaut far remote; and while ( viewed it, its abominations came to mind. It was on the morning of the Sabbath. Ruminating long on the wide and extended empire of Molock in the heathen world, I cherished in my thoughts the design of some "Christian Institution," which being fostered by Britain, my Christian country, might

• Maniek patay

gradually undermine this balefule idolatry, and put
out the memory of it forever."
Annual Expenses of the Idol fuggernaut, presented

to the English Government.
[Extracted from the Official Accounts.)

Rupees. I. sterling 1. Expenses attending the table of the idol

Ditto of his dress or wearing apparel
Ditto Ditto of the wages of liis servants
Ditto of contingent expenses at the differrent seasous
of pilgrimage

10.989 5. Ditto of his elephants and horses

3,030 6. Ditto of his tuti or annual state carriage

6,713

36,115 or 1,51%

2,712 339 10,057 1.959

1,373

378 839

[blocks in formation]

“In item third, "wages of his servants,” are included the wages of the courtezans, who are kept for the service of the temple.

" Item sixth. What is here called in the official account "the state carriage,” is the same as the car or tower. Mr. Hunter informed me that three "state carriages” were decorated this year (in June 1806) with upwards of 1.200 sterling worth of English broadcloth and baize.

“Of the rites celebrated in the interior of Juggernaut called the daily service, I can say nothing of my own knowledge, not having been within the temple."*

The temple of Juggernant is under the immediate control of the English government, who levy a tax on pilgrims as a source of revenue. See “A regulation (by the Bengal government) for lerving a tax from pilgrims resorting to the temple of Juggernaut, and for the superintendance and management of the temple. Passed April 3, 1806."

The province of Oris sa first became subject to the British empire under the administration of the Marquis Wellesley, who permitted the pilgrims at first to visit Juggernaut without paying tribule, It was proposed to his lordship soon after, to pass the above regulation for the management of the temple, and lessing the tax; but he did not approve of it, and actually left the government without giving his sanction to the approbious law. When the measure was discussed by the succeding government, it was resisted by George Cany, Esq. one of the members of the Supreme Council, who recorded his solemn dissent on the proceedings of government, for transmission to England, The other members considered Juggernaut to be a legitimate source of rerenue, on the principle, I believe, that money from other temples in Hindostan bad long been brougbt into the treasury. It is just that I should state that these gentlemen (though their opinion on this subject will differ so much from that of their countrymen at home) are men of the most honorable principles and of unimpeached integrity Nur would any one of them, I believe (for I have the honor to know thein) do any thing which be though: injurious to the honor or religion of his country. But the truth is this, that those persons who go to India in early youth, and witness the Hindeo customs all their lie, seeing little at the same time of the Christian Religion to counteract the effect, are disposed to view them with complacency, and are sometimes iu danger of at length considering them even as proper ur necessary.

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