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to succeed to his station, in the event of his decease; but this stranger, ignorant of the language of the country, with the character of being violent in his temper, and not averse, as it is supposed, to the views of the Romisk church, it is to be hoped will be prevented from ever taking charge of this precious remnant of a pure and valuable people.

“ The Metropolitan has several archdeacons and deacons under him, who act as vicar-generals. They have fifty-five churches: and the number of their people, as given in to the Resident, is estimated at twenty-three thousand,

“ The residence of their Metropolitan is at Candenatte, twelve or fourteen miles inland from Cochin. In some of their churches divine service is performed in the Syrian and Latin ritual alternately, by the priests of the Christians of St. Thome, who have adhered to their ancient rites, and those who have been united to the church of Rome.* When the latter have celebrated mass, they carry away the images from the church before the others enter,

“ The character of this people is marked by a striking superiority over the heathens in every moral excel lence; and they are remarkable for their veracity and plain dealing. They are extremely attentive to their religious duties, and abide by the decision of their priests and Metropolitan in all cases, whether in spiritual, or, as I heard, in temporal affairs. They are respected very highly by the Nairs, who do not consider themselves deħled by associating with them, though it is well known that the Nairs are the most particular of all the Hindoos in this respect; and the rajahs of Travancore and Cochin admit them to rank next to Nairs. Their numbers, it is conjectured, are under-rated in the statement given to the Resident, as it is generally supposed that they may be estimated at seventy or eighty thousand. They are not persecuted; but they are not permitted to make converts, by the governments under which they reside; and it is supposed, that many respectable Hindoos would be happy to join their sect, were it not for this circumstance: but at present they suffer, as far as I can learn, no other hardship • This shows a spirit of toleration and Christian liberality; very different

from the bigotry of the Romish cburcb.

“ If good men from Syria could be obtained, not as parish priests, but to superintend and regulate their concerns, I conceive it would be a great blessing to these good people.

“ The direct protection of the British government has been already extended to them; but as they do not reside within the British territories, I am somewhat doubtful how far it may be of use to them.

“ To unite them to the church of England, would, in my opinion, be a most noble work; and it is most devoutly to be wished for, that those who have been driven into the Roman pale might be recalled to their ancient church; a measure which it would not, I imagine, be difficult to accomplish; as the country governments would, it is supposed, second any efforts to that purpose.

“Their occupations are various as those of other Christians; but they are chiefly cultivators and artizans; and some of them possess a comfortable, if not a splendid independence. Their clergy marry in the same manner as protestants. Their residence is entirely inland.

Syrian Roman Catholics. ". These people, as stated above, were constrained to join the Latin church, after a long struggle for the power of maintaining their purity and independence; and still appear a people perfectly distinct from the Latin church, being allowed to chant and perform all the services of the church of Rome in the Syrio. Chaldaic language by a dispensation from the Pope. They live under the authority of the Metropolitan of Cranganore and the bishop of Verapoli, and dress differently from other priests. They wear a white surplice, while the priests of the Latin communion wear black gowns, like the Capuchin friars of Madras. The Roman catholic Syrians, it is thought, are much more numerous than the members of the original church. Their clergy, are spread through the ancient churches, and by retaining their language, and acting under the church of Rome, they leave no means unessayed to draw over their primitive brethren to the Latin communion. It appears to me, that they are allowed to use their original language, and to frequent the original church entirely with this view; and as far as I can learn their numbers are gaining ground. There

are said to be eighty-six parishes of Roman catholic Syrians subject to the diocese of Cranganore and Verapoli. Their priests, to the number of four hundred, are styled Catanars, which is a Syrian appellation: their congregations are reported at ninety thousand, (old and young included) agreeably to the last return transmitted to Rome.... There is an interior order of priests, who are called Chiamas, in number about one hundred and twenty. The Hindoos have, as far as I can learn, a much greater respec for the Christians of the original church than for the converts of the Latin communion; which may be sccounted for by their not associating with the lower orders of people. Attached to each church is a convent, where the catanars reside in community, there being three, four or five to each church. The service is performed weekly, in rotation. There is a seminary at the college of Verapoli for the education of the Syrio Roman catholics, and also one for the Latin church. The Syrio Roman catholics are chiefly engaged, as already mentioned, in drawing their ancient brethren within the Romish pale; but it a pears that some of them have been employed formerly in extending the general object of conversion over the peninsula. I saw one of their churches at a village near Pillambaddy, about thirty miles on the Madra's side of Trichinopoly; and I heard of several others. They had at this village adopted the use of the sawiny coach, like that of the heathens, with the crucifix and the Virgin Mary in it, instead of the Hindoo sawmy.

Their church was much out of repair; and the ignorance of he few christians remaining in charge of it is striking: the letters I, N, R, I, over the figure of our Saviour on the cross, being absolutely inverted: nor did the priests who visit them ever notice the circumstance. They read prayers in Malabar, according to the ritual of the church of Rome. Their church ap pears to have been once respectable, but is now fallen into decay.

Latin Roman Catholics. “ Within the province of Travancore and Cochin there are one archbishop and two bishops:...the archbishop of Cranganore, and the bishops of Cochin and Verapoli.


" The two former have sees. the latter is titular, The archbishops of Cranganore and the bishop of Cochin are nominated by she queen of Portugal, after the following

-Three names are sent, (when either of these sees become vacant,) by the sovereign of Portugal to the pope; and the Roman pontiff is bound to select the name that stands first, and to issue bis brevet or patent accordingly.

""They are subject in all spiritual concerns to the primate of Goa; who has power also during a vacancy, of sending from Goa a locum tenens, who is styled Padre Governador. Both sees

are at this moment filled by such.

“ The titular bishop, who resides at the college of Ve. rapoli, is appointed directly by the pope, and is subject to no jurisdiction but that of his holiness, or the propaganda at Rome. This mission being more susceptible of control and regulation than the others, has been countenanced by the honorable company, as the following copy of a proclamation issued by the government of Bombay will show.

“ PROCLAMATION. “ The honorable the court of directors of the honorahle English East-India Company, having been pleased to order that the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Roman catholic churches under this government, shall be withdrawn from the archbishop of Goa, and restored to the Carmelite bishop of the apostolic mission, the president in council has accordingly resolved, that the said restitution shall take place on the first of the ensuing month; from which time he hereby enjoins all the catholic in. habitants in Bombay, as well as the several factories and settlements subordinate thereto, to pay due obedience in spiritual matters to the said bishops, on pain of incurring the severe displeasure of government.

By order of the Honorable the Governor in Council, Bombay Castle, 2( Signed) WILLIAM PAGE. 2d Aug. 1791."S

Secretary “ The priests attached to the college of Verapoli are all Carmelites, united to the apostolic mission at Bombay, but not subject to it. The jurisdiction of each is not


marked by distinct bounds; the parishes and churches being so intermingled, that it is difficult to form a right notion of their extent. The bishop of Cochin, however, may be said to have a controul over all the Romish churches situated on the sea coast, immediately (with few exceptions,) from Cochin to Ramnad, and thence round the whole of the island of Ceylon; the churches are numerous; but as they are in general poor, and are obliged to be supplied with priests from Goa, it would appear that one vicar holds, upon an average, five or six churches, The number of Christians composing these churches must be great, as all and every of the fishermen are Ro. man catholics. The bishop of Cochin usually resides at Quilon. There are very few European clergy, (not above seven or eight) under the three jurisdictions, and none of them men of education; and it cannot be expected that the native priests, who have been educated at Goa, or at the seminary at Verapoli, should know much beyond their missals and rituals, The Latin communicants, in the diocese of Verapoli, are estimated at thirtyfive thousand. The catechuman suffers no persecution on account of his religion, when once converted; but the conntry governments are excessively jealous upon this point, and do their utmost to discountenance any conversion.

“ The converts are from various casts, viz. Chegars or Teers; Muckwas and Pullers; and there can be no doubt but that many of higher cast would be baptized if they did not dread the displeasure of their governments.

It is well known that the Roman religion was introduced by the Portuguese, at the commencement of the sixteenth century; the number converted in each year, upon an average, reach to nearly three hundred; the number, of course, naturally diminishes. The morality of the converts is very loose; and they are generally interior in this respect to the heathens of the country.”

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. “ Refccting on the whole subject, several suggestions present themselves to my mind; and I shall not be considered as deviating from the line of my profession, or the intention of your lordship, in calling for my report, by, offering some opinions to government, which in a moral

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