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ners, and whospitable disposition; and is well qualified for the important station he has long held, as English resident at this court.
"On the day following, I went to view the Hindoo temples, and saw the great black bull of Tanjore. It is said to be of one stone, hewn out of a rock of granite, and so large that the temple was built around it. While I surveyed it, I reflected on the multi- tude of natives, who during the last hundred years, had turned away their eyes from this idol. When I returned, I sat some hours with the missionaries, conversing on the general state of christianity in the provinces of Tanjore, Tritchinopoly, Madura and Palamcottah. They want help. Their vineyard is increased, and their laborers are decreased. They have had no supply from Germany in the room of Swartz, lænicke, and Gericke; and they have no prospect of further supply, except from the Society for promoting Christian knowledge;' who, they hope, will be able to send out English preachers to perpetuate the mission.”
“Tanjore, Sept. 2, 1806. “Last Sunday and Monday were interesting days to me, at Tanjore. It being rumored that a friend of the late Mr. Swartz had arrived, the people assembled from all quarters. On Sunday three ser. mons were preached in three different languages. At eight o'clock we proceeded to the church built by Mr. Swartz within the fort. From Mr. Swartz's pulpit I preached in English from Mark xiii, 10; And the Gospel must first be published among all nations. The English gentlemen here attended, civil and military, with the missionaries, catechists, and British soldiers. After the service was ended, the congregation of Hindoos assembled in the same church, and filled the aisles and porches. The Tamul service commenced with some forms of prayer, th which all the congregation joined with loud fervor.
A chapter of the Bible was then read, and a hymn of Luther's sung. After a short extempore prayer, during which the whole congregation knelt on the floor, the Rev. Dr. John delivered an animated discourse in the Tamul tongue, from these words, 'Jesus stood and cried, saying, If any man thirst, let him come to me and drink. As Mr. Whitefield, on his first going to Scotland, was surprised at the rustling of the leaves of the Bible, which took place immediately on his pronouncing his text (so different from any thing he had seen in his own country) so I was surprised here at the sound of the iron pen engraving the Palmyra leaf. Many persons had their ollas in their hands writing the sermon in Tamul short-hand. Mr. Kohloff assured me that some of the elder students and catechists will not lose a word of the preacher if he speak deliberately.*. This, thought I, is more than some of the students at our English universities can do. This aptitude of the people to record the words of the preacher, renders it peculiarly necessary that the priests' lips should keep knowledge. An old rule of the mission is, that the sermon of the morning should be read to the schools in the evening, by the catechist, from his Palmyra leaf.
“Another custom obtains among them which pleased me much. In the midst of the discourse the preacher sometimes puts a question to the congregation; who answer it without hesitation, in one voice. The object is to keep their attention awake, and the minister generally prompts the answer himself.Thus, suppose that he is saying, “My dear brethren, it is true that your profession of the faith of Christ is attended with some reproach, and that you have lost your cast with the Brahmins. But your case is not peculiar. The man of the world is the man of
It is well known that natives of Tanjore and Travencore can write fuengly what is spoken deliberately. They do not look much at their ollas while writing. The fibre of the leaf guides the pen.
cast in Europe; and he despises the humble and devout disciple of Christ, even as your brahmin contemns the sooder. But, thus it hath been from the begining. Every faithful Christian must lose cast for the gospel; even as Christ himself, the forerunner, made himself of no reputation, and was despised and rejected of men. In like manner, you will be despised; but be of good cheer, and say, Though we have lost our cast and inheritance amongst men, we shall receive in heaven a new name and a better inheritance, through Jesus Christ our Lord.' He then adds, What, my beloved brethren, shall you obtain in heaven? They answer, ‘A new name and a better inheritance, through Jesus Christ our Lord. It is impossible for a stranger not to be affected with this scene. This custom is deduced from Ziegenbalg, who proved its use by long experience.
"After the sermon was ended, I returned with. the missionaries into the vestry or library of the church. Here I was introduced to the elders and catechists of the congregation. Among others came · Sattianaden, the Hindoo preacher, one of whose sermons was published in England some years ago, by the society for promoting Christian knowledge. He is now advanced in years, and his black locks have grown gray. As I returned from the church, I saw the Christain families going back in crowds to the country, and the boys looking at their ollas. What a contrast, thought Í, is this to the scene at Juggernaut! Here there is becoming dress, humane affections, and rational discourse. I see here no skulls, no self-torture, no self-murder, no dogs and vultures tearing human flesh! Here the Christian virtues are found in exercise by the feeble minded Hindoo, in a vigor and purity which will surprise those who have never knowne the native character under the greatest disadvantages, as in Bengal. It certainly surprised myself; and when I reflected on the moral conduct, upright dealing, and decorous manners of
the native Christians of Tanjore, I found in my breast a new evidence of the peculiar excellence and benign influence of Christian Faith.
“At foar o'clock in the afternoon, we attended divine service at the chapel in the mission garden out of the fort. The Rev. Mr. Horst preached in the Portuguese language. The organ here accompanied the voice in singing. I sat on a granite stone which covered the grave of Swartz. The epitaph is in English verse, written by the present rajah, and signed by him, 'Serfõgee.” In the evening Mr. Kohloff presided at the exercise in the schools: on which occasion the Tamul sermon was repeated, and the boys' ollas examined.
In consequence of my having expressed a wish to hear Sattianaden preach, Mr. Kohloff had given notice that there would be divine service next day, Monday. Accordingly the chapel in Swartz's garden was crouded at an early hour. Sattianaden delivered his discourse in the Tamul language, with much natural eloquence, and with visible effect. -His subject was the ‘Marvellous Light.” He first described the pagan darkness, then the light of Ziegenbalg, then the light of Swartz, and then the heavenly light, 'when there shall be no more need of the light of the sun, or of the moon. In quoting a passage from Scripture, he desired a lower minister to read it, listening to it as to a record; and then proceeded to the illustration. The responses by the audience were more frequently called for than in the former sermon. He concluded with praying fervently for the glory and prosperity of the church of England. After the sermon, I went up to Sattianaden, and the old Christians who had kuown Swartz came around us. They were anxious to hear something of the progress of christianity in the north of india. They said, they had heard good news from Bengal. I told them that the news was good, but
that Bengal was exactly a hundred years behind Tanjore.
“I have had long conversations with the missionaries, relating to the present circumstances of the Tanjore mission. It is in a languishing state at this moment, in consequence of the war on the continent of Europe. Two of its sources have dried up, the royal college at Copenhagen, and the orphan-house at Halle, in Germany. Their remaining resources from Europe is the stipend of “The Society for promoting Christian Knowledge;" whom they never mention but with emotions of gratitude and affection. But this supply is by no means commensurate with the encreasing number of their churches and schools. The chief support of the mission is derived from itself. Mr. Swartz had in his life time acquired a considerable property, through the kindness of the English government and of the native princes.When he was dying, he said, "Let the cause of Chríšt be my heir.” When his colleague, the pious Gericke, was departing, he also bequeathed his property to the mission. And now Mr. Kohloff gives from his private funds an annual sum; not that he can well afford it; but the mission is so extended, that he gives it, he told me, to preserve the new and remote congregations in existence. He stated that there were upwards of ten thousand protestant Christians belonging to the Tanjore and Tinavelly districts alone, who had not among them one complete copy of the Bible; and that not one Christian perhaps in a hundred, had a New Testament, and yet there are some copies of the Tamul scriptures still to be sold at Tranquebar: but the poor natives cannot afford to puchase them. When I mentioned the designs of the Bible society in England, they received the tidings with very sensible emotions of thankfulness. Mr. Horst said, If only every tenth person were to obtain a copy of the scriptures, it would be an event long to be remembered in Tanjore. They lament