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many perils, having with difficulty made my escape from Hamburgh to where I imagined myself secure, but the Danish authorities caused me to be arrested and thrown into prison, where I remained several days, closely confined.We have an account here of a great victory having been obtained over Victor's corps near Berlin, by the combined Swedes and Prussians: it was nearly annihilated. Buonaparte had dispatched it to take possession of Berlin. We hear also that General Tettenborn, with the Hanseatic Legion and the Cossacks, has gained a signal advantage over the enemy near Bergedorff.Hamburgh was betrayed by the Danes after repeated promises of protection-they sent over their boats to carry the French army over the Elbe. The Russians, Swedes, and Prussians having left it, it was obliged to surrender or the 31st-but it was expected to be free again in a few days. A battle with the Danes was also expected this week.In revenge of Count Bernstorff's return, the Danish Authorities ordered all travellers coming from England to be made prisoners.- I enclose you a very interesting document, the Proclamation of M. Von Hesse, General of the Hamburgh Militia.' We give the above letter as we received it from a Gentleman with whom we are acquainted. We trust the intelligence will be confirm-solve you from the duties you have assumed, ed. In his dispatch, dated on the evening I have only to require of you to reserve for of the 18th ult. Buonaparté said that Vic- other times a lively feeling of hatred totor, Sebastiani, and Regnier were march- wards the despotism which again threatens ing upon Berlin.In a subsequent dis-our desolated city, and to remove your perpatch, dated on the 23d, we find that sons to the most suitable places to await Victor and Regnier were in the late great the moment, now at no great distance, battles ; but no mention is made of Sebas- which shall destroy the delusion of tyranny, tiani. If the report, therefore, be correct, that the citizens of Hamburgh may be the it must have been his corps that has been first to rouse, and return with honour to defeated. their restored country. VON HESSE."


continued to advance, and at length after having obtained possession of Wilhelmsburgh, was enabled at any moment to take the city by assault, we may attribute it to the active co-operation of our fellow-citizens that the troops of His Majesty the Emperor of Russia did not give way to superior force.The event of the war now calls the Russian army to more decisive successes. A dark concatenation of impenetrable misunderstandings compels the sons of the North, who were destined to our assistance, to witness our fate, if not with indifference, at least without doing any thing to avert it. -Thus is the city of Hamburgh surrounded by enemies thrown back upon her own efforts. Called upon by the request of my fellow-citizens, and by the determination of the Senate, I stand at the head of the Burgher guard. I quitted the repose of my former life, because I thought to be of use in a moment of desponding hope to a city in whose happiness my own was so closely interwoven. Had I followed the dictates of personal feeling, I should have preferred death with my brethren to return to this embittered repose.- But with the faint dawn which still opens to the future, I dare not wantonly expose the lives of those invaluable men who are intrusted to my care. While, therefore, with the deepest emotion, I ab

Last Order of the Day of the Hamburgh
Burgher Guard.

Extract of another Leller from Heligoland, dated June 5. "When two months ago the fairest "A respectable merchant who arrived prospects led us to the greatest exertions, here this morning from Hamburgh, asit appeared the period for relieving the in-companied by a merchant of that city, habitants of Hamburgh from an irresistible states, that they left Hamburgh on Wedtyranny.Almost without arms and un-nesday morning; there were then 5,000 prepared, they offered to the cities of Ger- French troops in the town, under the commany the most noble example of unwearied mand of Marshal Davoust and Gen. Vanperseverance in the severest duty, of the damme, that these troops were mostly most determined courage in the defence of wretched looking soldiers, consisting of

their borders.The blood of our fellow-douaniers, gens d'armes, mariners, and citizens has not been shed ingloriously for national guards; that although the Danes the common cause of our German country- were supposed to have allied themselves men, and for the independence of our be- with them, the French seemed much loved native city.When the enemy alarmed, and bivouacked outside the gates

them the most, the fine appearance of these troops or their number. There was in effect a great difference between what they saw and what was related to them, and the physical and numerical weakness of the French battalions.We will immedide-ately give some details respecting the manners, habits, and acts of the adventurers who have just left us. Towns, which like us, have had the misfortune to possess these liberators of nations, know how dearly it costs them.The Russians had only time to save their persons, and were not happily able to follow their custom of destruction and fire.We found 150 cannon in the Marine Arsenal and nearly 80 upon the ramparts. All the establishments are in the best state. The works constructed to make Hamburgh a place d'armes are very considerable. All military men are astonished at them, and now consider Ham


of the town at night, not trusting to the inhabitants nor to the Danes, who openly declared, that they would not fight for the French but against them.— It was reported and credited on Wednesday, that a corps of 20,000 men, under the Duke of Belluno, which had been tached from the Grand Army, had been cut off by the Allies, supported by the levy en masse, on the 27th ult. and completely routed. -Letters from Berlin, on the 29th ult. are very satisfactory, and such was the confidence entertained there of the success of the Allies, that orders were sent for large supplies of colonial produce and manufactured goods.". -We subjoin the contents of the Hamburgh Paper of the 1st. It mentions the entrance of Davoust and Vaudamme on the preceding day, of their having reviewed 35 battalions of troops, and of their first measure having been to order all papers or libels, as they are call-burgh as a strong place.-Same Paper. ed, published since the 24th February, to be delivered up, and every stranger to make his appearance at the Police Office, to receive permission to remain in the city. Not the least mention is made of the Danes.

-Hamburgh is not more than 150 or 160 miles from Dresden, and intelligence from the armies might easily reach in three days. As there is none in the Hamburgh Papers, we infer that nothing of importance, at least not favourable to the enemy, had occurred between the 23d and 28th of last month.

By the decision of his Excellency Mar shal Prince Eckmuhl, Governor-General, it is ordered to every inhabitant of Hamburgh, to bring without the least delay to the general direction of Police,-"Every libel, pamphlet, foreign or not authorized gazette, caricatures, portraits, pieces in verse, &c. &c. published or introduced since the 24th Feb. of the current year; every individual who shall delay in submitting to this order, or who shall not entirely fulfil it, by retaining any of the objects, the giving up of which is prescribed, shall be prosecuted with rigour.-The Director General of Police,


Hamburgh, May 30. Yesterday we heard a brisk fire from the side of Rollenspecker: we soon knew that the French had forced all the passes, and were pursuing the enemy in the direction of Boitzenburg. Towards evening we saw se'veral battalions enter, which occupied the public squares and most important posts. Journal du Departement des Bouches de l'Elbe, June 1.

May 31.

A moment has not this day passed without our seeing fresh French troops enter our wallsAt four in the afternoon their Excellencies Marshal Prince Echmuhl, Governor, and Lieutenant-General Vandamme, reviewed 35 battalions of French infantry.The inhabitants have not recovered from their astonishment. It would be difficult to determine which surprised |

(Same Paper.)

"In execution of the orders of his Excellency Marshal Prince Eckmuhl - Every stranger residing in Hamburg his ordered to present himself, within 24 hours, at the general direction of police, for the purpose of legitimatizing himself, and obtaining permission, should there be reason for sojourning:-Every housekeeper, lodger, or tavern-keeper, is forbidden to afford any asylum to a stranger, who has not received permission to remain at Hamburgb.The old ordinances concerning the movements of travellers are again in vigour. Every breach shall be strictly prosecuted (To be continued.)

Published by R. BAGSHAW, Brydges-Strect, Covent-Garden.
LONDON: Printed by J. M'Creery, Black Horse-Court, Fleet-street.

VOL. XXIII. No. 25.]



To the "Most Thinking People" in the France.

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who, not content with defeating their enemies, extended vastly the dominions of

Most thinking People,

Though I, who have had the misfortune Lot to reside amongst you during a very considerable part of my life, do not, of course, pretend to be so "thinking" as the rest of you, or, at least, as the greater part of you, you will, I am sure, excuse me for thinking upon the subject of the Treaty with Sweden, and also for expressing my thoughts to you thereon.

But, during this memorable conflict, the grandest and most interesting that was ever read of by us of this age, the people of France themselves were hurried into numerous acts of folly and cruelty, All the passions were let loose; and, while the love of glory led to conquest in the armies, the base passions were at work at home. So that, at last, it became necessary to contract the focus of power, in order to enable the government to yield protection to the weak against the strong. To one change, in this retrograde way, another succeeded, till, in

The fact, however, to be borne in mind, is, that the war originated in the openlyavowed motive of preventing the democratical and disorganizing politics of the French from spreading over the rest of Europe. It was a league of the old governments of Europe for their mutual protection, against

Before I come to speak to you of this precious document in detail, let me call your recollection up a little as to some his-the end, the man who had shone most in torical facts. The war, in which we now arms, was chosen the sovereign of the counare with France, was, in reality, begun in try, and was called Emperor of France. 1793; the interval, called peace, being, in He has been at peace with all Europe, exreality, no peace at all. This war was en- cept England; but, now again, other tered into in order to save what was called Powers have raised their heads, and, by regular government, in Europe, from de- the aid of English money, are now leagued struction. The French people, weary of against him in war. the burdens which they had to bear, and having imbibed the principles of freedom from the writings of Rousseau, Voltaire, and others, having also the example of the United States of America before their eyes, rose upon the government of the Bourbons and destroyed it. The other governments of Europe, taking the alarm at so danger-insurrections of their several peoples against ous, an example, combined, for the most them. The league did not answer its purpart of them, against the French people, pose; for, of the numerous potentates of who had then formed themselves into a re- Europe, there remain, at this hour, but publican people, governed by an Assembly two, that I can think of, whose governof Deputies of their own choosing. In ments have not been overthrown. Look this league against France, or, as it was about you, most Thinking People, and see termed, the Democracy of France, all the where are now the Kings of Sweden, Prusother Powers of Europe entered the field,sia, Naples, Sardinia, Spain, and Portugal; first or last; and this "mud democracy, the Stadtholder of Holland, the Emperor of as it was called, without any King or other Germany, the Pope, the Electors of GerChief, without Nobility, without Clergy, many, the Swiss Aristocracy, the Doge of without Old and experienced Officers of Genoa, the Dukes of Modena and Tuscany; any kind, had to contend against England, see where they all are, most Thinking PeoSweden, Denmark, Prussia, Russia, Hol- ple, and particularly see where are the old land, Switzerland, Sardinia, the Empire of Royal Family of France; and, then consiGermany, the Dukedoms of Italy, the Pope, der, that, in this war, you have added six Naples and Sicily, Spain, and Portugal. hundred millions to a debt, of which you One after another all these Powers made have to pay the interest, whether you now their peace with the Republicans of France, have peace or war.


Having thus refreshed your most Thinking Minds; having called to your recollection, the fact, that this long, and, apparent ly, endless war, arose out of the alarm of the old governments for the safety of the settled order of things; having reminded you of the time when you were called upon to make a voluntary offering of your money in this cause, we will now, if you please, read over this famous treaty together; and, when we have so done, let us give way to that disposition for deep thinking, for which the sinecure placeman, Lord Stormont, said we were so remarkable.

of Charles XIII. Great Eagle of the Legion of Honour of France; and Gustavus Baron de Wetterstedt, Chancellor of the Court,

Commander of the Order of the Polar Star, one of the Eighteen of the Swedish Academy; who, after having exchanged their respective full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed upon the following articles :



Courts of Stockholm and St. Petersburgh.

ARTICLE I. His Majesty the King of Sweden engages to employ a corps of not less than thirty thousand men, in a direct operation upon the Continent, against the common enemies of the two high contracting parties. This army shall act in concert with the Russian troops placed under the In the name of the most Holy and Undi- command of his Royal Highness the Prince vided Trinity, Royal of Sweden, according to stipulations His Majesty the King of the United King-to this effect already existing between the dom of Great Britain and Ireland, and his Majesty the King of Sweden, equally animated with the desire of drawing closer the ties of friendship and good intelligence which so happily subsist between them, and penetrated with the urgent necessity of establishing with each other a close concert for the maintenance of the independence of the North, and in order to accelerate the so much wished for epocha of a general peace, have agreed to provide for this twofold object by the present Treaty. For this purpose they have chosen for their Plenipotentiaries, namely, His Royal Highness the Prince Regent, in the name and on behalf of His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Honourable Alexander Hope, Major-General of His Majesty's Armies; and Edward Thornton, Esquire, his Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to his Majesty the King of Sweden; and his Majesty the King of Sweden, Lawrence Count d'Engestrom, one of the Lords of the Kingdom of Sweden, Minister of State and for Foreign Affairs, Chancellor of the Univer-co-operation in concert with his Swedish or sity of Lund, Knight Commander of the Russian forces. It is nevertheless to be King's Orders, Knight of the Royal Order understood, that recourse shall not be had

II. The said Courts having communicated to His Britannic Majesty the engagements subsisting between them, and having formally demanded His said Majesty's accession thereto, and his Majesty the King of Sweden having, by the stipulations contained in the preceding article, given a proof of the desire which animates him to contribute also on his part to the success of the common cause; His Britannic Majesty being desirous in return to give an immediate and unequivocal proof of his resolution to join his interests to those of Sweden and Russia, promises and engages by the present Treaty to accede to the conventions already existing between those two powers, insomuch that His Britannic Majesty will not only not oppose any obstacle to the annexation and union in perpetuity of the Kingdom of Norway, as an integral part, to the Kingdom of Sweden, but also will assist the views of his Majesty the King of Sweden to that effect, either by his good offices, or by employing, if it should be necessary, his naval

to force for effecting the union of Norway to Sweden, unless his Majesty the King of Denmark shall have previously refused to join the alliance of the North, upon the conditions stipulated in the engagements subsisting between the Courts of Stockholm and St. Petersburgh; and his Majesty the King of Sweden engages, that this union shall take place with every possible regard and consideration for the happiness and liberty of the people of Norway.

III.-In order to give more effect to the engagements contracted by his Majesty the King of Sweden, in the first article of the present Treaty, which have for object direct operations against the common enemies of the two powers, and in order to put his Swedish Majesty in a state to begin without loss of time, and as soon as the season shall permit, the said operations, His Britannic Majesty engages to furnish to his Majesty the King of Sweden (independently of other succours which general circumstances may place at his disposal), for the service of the campaign of the present year, as well as for the equipment, the transport and maintenance of his troops, the sum of one million sterling, payable at London monthly, to the agent who shall be authorized by his Swedish Majesty to receive the same, in such manner as not to exceed the payment of two hundred thousand pounds sterling each month, until the whole shall be paid.

ing Partics in the first article of the present Treaty.

V. The two High Contracting Parties being desirous of giving a solid and lasting, guarantee to their relations, as well political as commercial, His Britannic Majesty, animated with a desire to give to his ally evident proofs of his sincere friendship, consents to cede to his Majesty the King of Sweden, and to his successors to the Crown of Sweden in the order of succession esta-, blished by his said Majesty, and the StatesGeneral of his kingdom, under date the 26th of September, 1810, the possession of Guadaloupe, in the West Indies, and to transfer to his Swedish Majesty all the rights of His Britannic Majesty over that island, in so far as his said Majesty actually possesses the same. This colony shall be given up to the Commissioners of his Majesty the King of Sweden in the course of the month of August of the present year, or three months after the landing of the Swedish troops on the Continent; the whole to take place according to the conditions agreed upon between the two High Contracting Parties, in the separate article annexed to the present Treaty.

IV. It is agreed between the two High Contracting Parties, that an advance, of which the amount and the time of payment shall be determined between them, and which is to be deducted from the million before stipulated, shall be made to his Majesty the King of Sweden for the "mise en campagne," and for the first march of the troops; the remainder of the beforementioned succours are to commence from the day of the landing of the Swedish army,

VI. As a reciprocal consequence of what has been stipulated in the preceding article, his Majesty the King of Sweden engages to grant, for the space of twenty years, to take date from the exchange of the ratifications of the present Treaty, to the subjects of His Britannic Majesty, the right of entrepot in the ports of Gottenburgh, Carlshamn, and Stralsund (whenever this last-mentioned place shall return under the Swedish dominion), for all commodities, productions, or merchandise, whether of Great Britain or of her colonies, laden on board British or Swedish vessels. The said commodities or merchandise, whether they be of such kind as may be introduced and subject to duty in Sweden, or whether as it is stipulated by the two High Contract-their introduction be prohibited, shall pay

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