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upon the point. In the subsequent pages, I have therefore referred only to such passages as all, I believe, allow to relate to these subjects in general ; whereby I have endeavoured to avoid the necessity of any such previous proof. It will, however, be the less a matter of surprise, that these passages are, with one exception, taken from the New Testament, because, as I conceive, all the difference of opinion upon the subject originates from the interpretation of a passage in the New Testament [Note C].

Feeling convinced, as I have just observed, that this is the true origin of the difference of opinion prevailing in the Christian world, it will be necessary in the outset to call the reader's attention to that passage. And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them : and I saw the souls of them that were beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and for the word of God, and which had not worshipped the beast, neither his image, neither had received his mark upon their foreheads, or in their

and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years. But the rest of the dead lived not again until the

[C.1 That the Christian Church, so far as we can gather from the three Confessions of Faith, or Creeds, called the Apostles, Nicene, and Athanasian, which were drawn up in the first ages of Christianity, held the doctrine of the Scriptures to be, that Christ would judge all men, both those who have died, and the living at the time of his coming, appears to me evident from the following expressions in the creeds. 1. In the Apostles': From thence he shall come to judge both the quick and the dead. 2. In the Nicene: And he shall come again with glory, to judge both the quick and the dead. 3. In the Athanasian : From whence he shall come to judge the quick and the dead; at whose coming all men shall rise again, with their bodies : and shall give account for their own works. And they that have done good shall go into everlasting life; and they thal have done evil into everlasting fire. And, that the Church of England, in her Liturgy, so interprets the Scripture, appears equally evident, not only from her adopting these three creeds, but from the collect for the first Sunday in Advent; in which we find the following petitions : That in the Last Day, when he shall come again in his glorious majesty, to judge both the quick and dead (2 Tim. iv. 1), we may be found an acceptable people in thy sight, fc. And in that for the second Sunday: That at thy second coming to judge the world (Acts xvii. 31), we may be found, fc. And from the petition in the Litany, that the Lord would deliver us in the hour of death and in the day of judgment, 2 Tim. i. 18. And lastly from the collect in the burial service: And that at the general resurrection, in the last day, we may be found an acceptable people, fc. I bring this forward merely to-shew that this was interpreted to be the doctrine of the Scriptures by those who, in the different ages of the Christian church, composed and adopted those ereeds.

thousand years were finished. This is the first resurrection." (Rev. xx. 4, 5.) Before I proceed, however, to consider it, I would observe: 1. The second coming of Christ has not been described, as I conceive, in the preceding part of the book [Note D]. 2. He is not expressly

" And I

[D7 The description in chap. xix. 11 to 21, cannot, I conceive, be understood of Christ's second coming in person, because he is there described as riding upon a white horse ; clothed in a vesture dipped in blood : having a sword going out of his mouth; and having a name written upon his thigh. Now nothing of this kind was the case when he ascended; and consequently nothing of the kind will be the case when he comes in person a second time, for it is expressly declared, Acts i. 11, “ Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven ? this same Jesus which is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come in like manner as ye have seen him go into heaven.As, therefore, it cannot be understood of the second personal coming of Christ; and as the expressions which I have noticed above, cannot, I conceive, be taken in a literal sense at all, but must be understood figuratively, so the coming itself therein described, must, by analogy, be also understood figuratively. In chap. vi. 2, we have the following description : saw, and behold, a white horse ; and he that sat on him had a bow, and a crown was given unto him, and he went forth conquering, and to conquer;" which, as interpreted by Mede, Gill, &c. in loco, appears to have prefigured, in agreement with Psalm xlv. 3, 4, the rapid and extensive victories obtained by Christ in the preaching of his Gospel, in the period immediately after that of the Apostles. The description in chap. xix., however, seems to foretell, not only the spreading of the Gospel, at the period signified under the figure of the Word of God going forth upon the white horse ; but also the execution, at the same period, of terrible judgments upon the enemies of his church (vers. 15 to 18), especially in the kingdom of the beast (ver. 19), &c.

To the observations just made, in order to shew that the event noticed xix. Il cannot be the second coming of Christ in person, I might add the consideration of the absurdity which such a view appears to involve. For in ver. 19, the beast and the kings of the earth and their armies are described as being gathered together ta make war against him that sat on the horse and against his army. Now, if the going forth of Christ seated on a horse, be understood to be a literal personal going forth, then the transaction in verse 19 must also be a literal gathering together and fighting of those there mentioned, against Christ, actually present in person as described. Can we, however, conceive, that this will really be the case ? We know the overwhelming effects produced by the manifestation of Christ's glory, or of portions, as it were, of that glory, upon those who beheld such manifestation, some of whom were his own saints, such as in Dan. X. 6 to 9, and at his transfiguration, Mark ix. 6, Luke ix. 32 to 34. We are informed of the appearance of one of his angels at his resurrection, and of its effect upon the guard of Roman soldiers (Matt. xxviii. 3, 4); of the effect of his appearance to Paul and his companions, Acts ix. 3–7, and xxij. 9—11; and lastly, of his appearance to John himself (Rev. i. 17), the glory of which was so over. thousand years.

7 And when the thousand years are expired, Satan shall be loosed out of his prison, 8 and shall go out to deceive the nations, which are in the four quarters of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them together to battle: the number of whom is as the sand of the sea. 9 And they went up on the breadth of the earth, and compassed the camp of the saints about, and the beloved city; and fire came down from God out of heaven, and devoured them. 10 And the devil that deceived them, was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where the beast and the false prophet are, and shall be tormented day and night for ever and ever. 11 And I saw a great white throne, and him that sat on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away, and there was found no place for them. 12 And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were opened, and another book was opened, which is the book of life : and the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works. 13 And the sea gave up the dead which were in it: and death and hell delivered up the dead which were in them: and they were judged every man according to their works. 14 And death and hell were cast into the lake of fire: this is the second death. 15 And whosoever was not found written in the book of life, was cast into the lake of fire.--XXI. 1 And I saw a new heaven and a new earth : for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away; and there was no more sea. 2 And I John saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. 3 And I heard a great voice out of heaven, saying, Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and he will dwell with them, and they shall be his people, and God himself shall be with them, and be their God. 4 And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes; and there shall be no more death, neither sorrow nor crying, neither shall there be any more pain : for the former things are passed away. 5 And he that sat upon the throne said, Behold I make all things new. And he said unto me, Write: for these words are true and faithful.”

From the whole of this part of Scripture we collect, I conceive, the following points :

FIRST. Those, and those only, live and reign with Christ, as here described, who partake of the first resurrection (ver. 6).

SECONDLY. Those who partake of the first resurrection, and who thus live and reign with Christ, are those who have been beheaded for the testimony of Jesus, and for the word of God, and who have not worshipped the beast and his image, &c. (ver. 4.)

THIRDLY. After the millennial period, which begins with the first resurrection, is completely finished, Satan will be loosed out of his prison, and will go out to deceive the nations which are in the four quarters of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them together to battle; and the events will take place which are described vers. 7, 8. We must, therefore, carefully notice, that not only is the period of the thousand years completely finished before the judgment of the dead, described in ver. 11 to 15, begins (which finishing is peculiarly marked by its being noticed in three places, namely, vers. 3,5,7), but a distinct period occurs between the millennial period and the judgment, during which the events described in vers. 7 and 8 take place; and which, consequently, separates entirely (though but by a little season, ver. 3, either absolutely little, or by comparison with the thousand years), the period of the thousand years, and the last judgment. The reader will remark not only that this intervening period is full of highly important events, but that nearly as large a portion of the chapter is devoted to the description of it, as to the description of the preceding thousand years.

FOURTHLY. After the thousand years are thus finished, and also the intervening period just noticed, Christ (compare Acts xvii. 31) sits (ver. 11) upon the great white throne of judgment; and, upon this, the heavens and the earth fly from his face or presence (TPUOwnov, 2 Cor. x. l; ? Thess. i. 9, G and E). It must be observed, that not only are the heavens and the earth thus expressly described as flying away from the face of Christ upon his sitting on the white throne; but we do not find the slightest allusion, as far as I am aware, to this event in any of the preceding part of the book of Revelation.

FIFTHLY. The dead, small and great, stand before the white throne of judgment, not before, but after Christ sits thousand years.

✓ And when the thousand years are expired, Satan shall be loosed out of his prison, 8 and shall go out to deceive the nations, which are in the four quarters of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them together to battle: the number of whom is as the sand of the sea. 9 And they went up on the breadth of the earth, and compassed the camp of the saints about, and the beloved city; and fire came down from God out of heaven, and devoured them. 10 And the devil that deceived them, was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where the beast and the false prophet are, and shall be tormented day and night for ever and ever. 11 And I saw a great white throne, and him that sat on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away, and there was found no place for them. 12 And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were opened, and another book was opened, which is the book of life : and the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works. 13 And the sea gave up the dead which were in it: and death and hell delivered up the dead which were in them: and they were judged every man according to their works. 14 And death and hell were cast into the lake of fire: this is the second death. - 15 And whosoever was not found written in the book of life, was cast into the lake of fire.—XXI. 1 And I saw a new heaven and a new earth : for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away; and there was no more sea. 2 And I John saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. 3 And I heard a great voice out of heaven, saying, Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and he will dwell with them, and they shall be his people, and God himself shall be with them, and be their God. 4 And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes; and there shall be no more death, neither sorrow nor crying, neither shall there be any more pain : for the former things are passed away. 5 And he that sat upon the throne said, Behold I make all things

And he said unto me, Write : for these words are true and faithful."

From the whole of this part of Scripture we collect, I conceive, the following points :

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