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and then prove a negative to it by enforcing the literal interpretation of an incidental circumstance mentioned in the history. The apostle Paul says, “God, that made the world and all things therein, hath made of one blood all nations of men, for to dwell on the face of all the earth.” This is truly rational, agrees with the common sentiments of mankind, and, as I am persuaded, with the teaching of E.S. But the Editor's opinion on this subject goes to reject the sublime and important doctrine taught by E.S. in “The Worship and Love of God” concerning the origin of man. This work ought to be received as an authority on the subject. It was published after the especial illumination of E.S. But this is not all;—it annihilates also the doctrine taught by E.S. in that work concerning the development of the created universe according to certain laws there explained, and on the truth of which our whole system of the Science of Correspondence rests.

Thus it appears to me that the opinions expressed in the Editor's answers to two of the questions referred to, go to subvert the letter of the divine Word, and the other the principles of creation laid down under the Lord's Providence by the learned and enlightened Swedenborg; and, therefore, as one member of the New Church, I beg most respectfully to refuse my assent. Newcastle-upon-Tyne.

H. L.

The Editor's Reply. In reply to our correspondent's remarks, we beg to observe, that we are not conscious of having stated any thing, which in the least tends to invalidate, still less to subvert, the letter of the Divine Word. It will be admitted, we presume, by the intelligent receivers of the doctrines of the New Church, that there is in the Word a natural literal sense, and a spiritual literal sense; that is, a literal sense recording facts which really occurred in the natural world, and a literal sense recording facts and phenomena which did not really take place in the natural, but in the spiritual world. Real facts in the historical part of the Word, we are informed by E.S., commence with the inention of Abram in the latter part of chap. xi. in Genesis. Thus all the facts recorded of the people of Israel, and likewise all those mentioned in the Gospel respecting the Lord and His divine miracles, literally occurred in the natural world. But the phenomena and facts recorded in the prophets, especially in Ezekiel and John (in the Revelation) were for the most part spiritual literal facts which occurred in the spiritual world, before the spiritual senses of the prophets in question ; and our correspondent admits this when he says :

“ It is true that in some parts of the Word the ground of the literal sense was in the spiritual world.” These latter facts are ultimated by being written and described in natural language. There are, however, in some parts of the historical Word both spiritual and natural facts recorded together in the letter; and the chapter in question (Genesis xix.) is a striking instance of this. For the angels who came to Lot could not be seen by his natural eyes, nor in the natural world, but by his spiritual eyes in the spiritual world, and this could happen without Lot's being conscious that he saw them otherwise than with the natural eye in the natural world. (See H.H. 76.) Admitting, then, as we must admit, that there are spiritual literal facts recorded in this chapter as well as natural literal facts, we still continue to believe that “Lot's wife being turned into a pillar of salt” belongs to the former class of facts, which, as explained in our former remarks, are representatives of mental states. And we rejoice in this belief, because we can rationally see, according to the knowledge we now possess of the spiritual world and of representatives and appearances in that world, how the case is; but receiving it merely as a natural literal fact, no man can rationally see why she was turned into a pillar of salt, and, consequently, instead of invalidating or subverting the letter of the Word, its defence and security are placed upon a new basis, and the scoffs and objections of the sceptic and the infidel are either silenced or dispersed.

In respect to the star which appeared to the wise men, the same remarks apply. It is by no means denied that it was a literal fact, that the wise men did see a star, and follow it to Bethlehem. But this fact we still consider belongs to the class of spiritual literal facts, and not to merely natural facts. It is admitted by all, that it was a miraculous star; and E.S. says, that it was a representative star, representing the knowledges which the orientals had of the coming of the Lord into the world. That this star was seen by their spiritual sight, and not by their natural eye, although they inight not be conscious that they beheld it with the spiritual eye, (H.H. 76.) cannot, we apprehend, be doubted; and if so, it was not a natural, but a spiritual star.

As to our correspondent's remarks respecting our brief answer to the question: Were all the different races of men on the earth equally the children of one pair ? we really thought that no person who had been twelve months acquainted with the writings of Swedenborg, could still cling to the old contracted notion of one pair, one man and one woman, being the only earthly parents of all the human race. Such an idea is by no means derived from the letter of the Divine Record, which our correspondent admits does not in these first chapters of Genesis relate literal facts; for the term Adam, as all the learned admit, is a generic term, implying mankind in general, and specifically the men of the most ancient church. Swedenborg expressly states in T.C.R. 520, that Adam was not the first of men ;” and in 466 of the same work he adduces arguments from the letter of the Word, to prove that there were inhabitants on earth prior to Adam. See also the Coronis, 23, in which he states, that “ by creating heaven and earth, is understood to collect together from among those who had died in the world (prior to Adam], and to found an angelic heaven, and by this to derive and produce a church on earth,” &c. The apostle's declaration, adduced by our correspondent, that “God hath made of one blood all nations of men,” &c. (Acts xvii. 26.) does not imply that all mankind are from one pair, but that they are of one species, and that before God there is no distinction of persons,

but that all, whether Jews or Gentiles, Greeks or Barbarians, are equal in his sight.

sight. Our correspondent has adduced as an authority on this subject Swedenborg's work on the “Worship and Love of God.” This work has never been looked upon as an authority in any thing theological; on the contrary, the translator, the late Rev. J. Clowes, guards the reader in the preface against the obscure and erroneous views therein presented concerning several subjects of Christian doctrine. It has been lately ascertained from Swedenborg's Diary and from the Adversaria, or Notes on Genesis, written prior to the Arcana Cælestia, that his spiritual illumination commenced in April, 1745, after the above work was written, and most probably after it was printed.


The Moon among the ancients was considered as the wife or sister of the Sun, and as such was worshiped by the Greeks under the name of Phæbe, (i.e. the light of life) Poßos, as the Sun was under that of Phæbus. Independent of this, the titles of the Moon were Hera, Hpa (the soul); Luna, the moon; Astarte, queen of heaven; Io; Diana, Jupiter's daughter; also Isis, Iris, and Erias by the Egyptians, and from thence (Hpos) Eros by the Greeks, denoting god of love and also a divine love. Again, the Moon was worshiped under the name of Juno, wife and sister of Jupiter, where the first syllables Ju, or You, or Ei, are synonymous in both names, and denote existence, and from thence we get Ei-no, or Ino, another title of the Moon.

According to Dr. Gebelin the moon being the greatest of the stars, it was called in the primitive language Ma, which signifies great, a title applied to Juno. Ma is the name of the moon in Turkish; Mah in Persian, and the name is common to a great number of people, who all give it the nasal sound in man, men, and mon.

Hence arise all the various pronunciations of the same name:

Eolian Greek, Мапа. . Alamaunic, Mano
Attic Greek,
Mene. German,


Mana. Anglo-Saxon, Mona. .

Мапа. . Arabic, before) Menat, or


Mahomet, Manah.
Maane. English,

Moon. .

These words all spring out of the primitive word Ma; and Al-ma
Ma-ter is an endearing title still conferred by scholars upon their college
or university, and by divines and churchmen upon their more sacred
Ma, the mother of their faith.

Now the words faith and truth in the original languages in which the Old Testament was written are expressed by the same term, namely, A-men, or A-muna, and evidently belong to the same class as the word “Moonabove; from which circumstance it may be inferred that faith and truth are so intimately connected that they can only be distinguished as what is interior is distinguished from what is exterior, or as truth seen in spiritual light is distinguished from truth seen in natural light; i. e. faith is formed by means of truth. Now faith is a universal principle, and by it we begin to learn the mysteries of knowledge : it is belief or a firm reliance on the truth and goodness of some superior intelligence : faith in its mother or father is a feeling of early development in the infant mind, and it is only till it has been deceived and disappointed beyond endurance that it begins to encourage the principle of scepticism : faith is a binding principle, and has preserved a church in all ages, while philosophy, science, and sectarianism have divided it.

A true faith constitutes the Church," and "the Church” throughout the Holy Scriptures has ever been denominated the bride, the wife of the Lord of heaven. Now as the natural Sun is the representative of the spiritual Sun, which is divine love and truth, so is the natural Moon the emblem of true faith, for faith is of truth. Phoebe was the wife of Phæbus, or in other words, Phæbe, that is, the light of life, faith, or a true Church, is the faithful wife of Phæbus, emblem of spiritual goodness, love, and truth. Again Juno (Luna, or the Moon) is the wife of Jupiter, their names assimilate: the You or Ei in each denoting self-existence: they therefore are one, and not only represent a natural marriage, (as man and wife are one,) but also a spiritual marriage, the union of faith and truth: but faith collectively is the Church, and therefore the bride of the Lord of heaven, who is perfect love, perfect wisdom, and perfect truth.

Again, as we receive the light of the Moon by reflexion from the Sun, so by our faith and purity of life do we reflect the rays of that spiritual Sun, from whom we derive our light or intelligence, and spiritual heat, or the ardour of our affection for goodness and truth: for if man does not put away evil, his faith or belief of truth is merely natural, and if truth is only admitted by an external way into the memory and understanding, and is not united with its corresponding spiritual affection, it is only a persuasive or historical faith : but if by degrees he recedes from the loves of self and the world, “using them, and not abusing them," and begins to live a new life, according to divine truth, then truths which were in his understanding and previously dead, are raised tọ newness of life, and shine with lucid brightness from the Spiritual Sun. Such as a man's affections or loves are, such is his life, and such his desires or internal heat; from this it will be clearly seen why menof piety and faith have sometimes been esteemed Ma-niacs and Luna-tics by the world : the latter trusting to, and thinking only of themselves, while the former look to the source of all truth, the Sun of Righteousness; and Moonies as they are called, on account of their faith, reflect in their lives the light and heat which animates them.

Again, Juno was the goddess of married women, and presided over births and marriages; and as Luna regulated the months: in her latter character there is no difficulty in reconizing why she should have been particularly worshiped by females, but it is not quite so clear with regard to the former.

In Genesis it is said that “God created Man (i. e. mankind,) in his own image, in the image of God created he him, male and female created he them ;” and this image can only be seen when it is remembered that God is Almighty and Infinite Wisdom, and Almighty and Infinite Love; that the man is representative of his wisdom, and the female of his love; the man is of truth, and the woman of faith, or charity, or love; now love is peculiarly a female attribute; it is of the affections; it is faith or belief in the wisdom of the man, and in marriage is united to that wisdom or truth; male and female then become one and are the natural representatives of the heavenly union of God and his Church; and though male and female, as were Jupiter and Juno, they both denote self-existence, and to all intents and purposes are one, as are faith and truth; the one cannot exist without the other; we have faith in the goodness of God from a knowledge of his wondrous and sublime works in creation; he is the Youpiter and Youno or Ei ; the Phæ-bus and Phe-be; the self-existent, who, under the figure of a veiled Isis, (the receptacle or treasury of nature), was worshiped by the

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