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bishop of Canterbury on the subject,
117; letter to the Bishop of London
on the Pope's Bull dividing England
into sees, 118; the notorious Durham
Letter, 119–122; introduces a Bill to
resist the Pope's action, 121 ; under-
takes to deal with the equalisation of
county and borough franchise, 122;
defeated on Mr. Locke King's motion
on the franchise, 122; letter to the
Queen, 122; Lord Minto's letter on
the matter, 123; resignation, 123;
advises the Queen to send for Lord
Stanley, 123; memorandum of re-
construction of Ministry based on a
combination of the Whigs and the
followers of Sir Robert Peel, 123;
Lord Aberdeen's and Sir James Gra-
ham's answer thereto, 124; his reply
thereon, 126; they decline further
negotiations, 128; letter to his col-
leagues on his failure, 128; is reluc-
tantly induced to resume office, 128;
endeavours to get Sir James Graham
in the Cabinet, 128, 129; memo-
randum on Reform, 129; offers the
Duke of Newcastle the Irish Vice-
royalty, 130 n ; threatens to retire if
Lord Lansdowne resigns, 130 n; de-
parture of his first wife's children for
Italy, 130; tour in Wales, 131; pro-
jected visit to Paris postponed, 132;
urges Palmerston not to receive Kos-
suth, 132; Palmerston's reply, 133;
further letter to Palmerston and con-
sultation with the Cabinet on the
matter, 133, 134; letters to and from
Palmerston on the latter's reception
of addresses disrespectful to the Em-
perors of Russia and Austria, 136,
137; letter from the Queen on the
coup d'état, 138; letter to Lord
Palmerston dismissing him from the
Foreign Office for his action on the
coup d'état, 138; offers him the
Lord-Lieutenancy of Ireland, 139;
letter of explanation to Lady Pal-
merston, I41; a defence of his action
in, and his own later judgment on,
the dismissal of Palmerston, 142;
denies that he himself expressed
approval of the coup d'état to Count
Walewski, 142 n ; answer to Mrs.
Maurice Drummond's new-year con-
gratulations, 143; speech in the
House on his difference with Pal-
merston, I43; on Lord Clarendon's
defence, 143, 144; defeat on the
Militia scheme and resignation, 1.44;

review of his five years and eight
months' administration, 1.44; never
in debt till he became First Lord of
the Treasury, 145 n; encouragement
of letters, science, and art, 14.5;
makes Tennyson Poet Laureate, 14.5;
declines Lord Rectorship of Glasgow
in favour of Wordsworth, 145; dis-
crimination in conferring pensions,
145, 146; letters of application and
thanks from Charles Dickens in be-
half of a Mr. P., 146, 147; redeems
an old promise and edits Moore's
letters and papers, 149; simulta-
neously prepares the Fox correspon-
dence for publication, 150; re-elec-
tion for the City of London, 151 ;
conflicting forces in opposition to
him, 151; Punch's satire on him,
152; at ‘The Gart, near Callander,
152; letter from Lord Clarendon on
the suggestion of an intrigue against
his leadership, 153; Sir James Gra-
ham's testimony to his endeavour to
check corrupt election practices, 154;
sympathetic letter from Sir James,
154; letters to and from Lord Aber-
deen, 155–157; letter to Lord Lans-
downe on his correspondence with
Lord Aberdeen, 157; Duke of Bed-
ford's letter on his conversation with
Palmerston, 158; presented with the
freedom of the boroughs of Stirling
and Perth, 159 n ; speech on the
memory of the Duke of Wellington,
159 n ; is willing to serve under Lord
Lansdowne, 159; protest from Sir
F. Baring against this course, 16o;
at Woburn with Lords Lansdowne
and Aberdeen, 161 ; letter from the
Queen asking his aid in the Aberdeen
Ministry, 162; Mr. Macaulay's advo-
cacy in that behalf, 162; offers to
lead in the House and sit in the
Cabinet without office, 163; takes
the Foreign Office, 164; misunder-
standings in office with Lord Aber-
deen, 166; letters to and from Lord
Aberdeen on his relief from the
Foreign Office and position in the
Government, 167–17o; resigns the
Foreign Office, 171 ; introduces a

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offers to resign rather than that Lord
Aberdeen should lose the services of
the Roman Catholic members of the
Government, 174; letter from Lord
Aberdeen on the subject, 174; birth
of his only daughter by his second
wife, 175; in Scotland, 176; paper
in his possession containing questions
issued by Napoleon III. on the possi-
bility of invading and holding Austra-
lia, 177; correspondence with Lord
Mount-Edgcumbe on French aggres-
sive preparations, 178; despatches on
the Montenegrin and Holy Places
questions, 178; persuades Lord Strat-
ford de Redcliffe to return to Constan-
tinople, 179; privately informed by
Sir George Seymour that the Czar
does not seriously meditate an attack
on the Porte, 181 ; conflict between
his and Lord Aberdeen's views on
treating Russian pretensions, 182;
memorandum on the political out-
look in 1853 with regard to Russia,
183; letter from Palmerston on the
subject, 184; is of opinion that the
Turks should be forced to sign the
Vienna Note, 185; letters to Lord
Clarendon, 185, 186; at Roseneath
with his family, 186; letters from
and to Lord Aberdeen and Lord
Clarendon, 186, 187; on the en-
tanglements of the Eastern question,
188; correspondence with Sir A.
Gordon, 188zz ; is ‘for the Turk
against the Russian, 188; memoran-
dum on the Eastern question, 188,
189; letter from Lord Aberdeen on
the situation, 190; letters to Lords
Clarendon and Aberdeen, 191, 192 ;
speech at Greenock on the crisis,
192; letter to Lord Clarendon, 193;
memorandum on Russia and Turkey,
193–196; thinks Lord Aberdeen's
peace policy calculated to ensure
war, and that he should resign, 197;
his scheme of Parliamentary Reform,
197; letter to Lord Palmerston de-
fending his action in pushing Reform,
198; agreement with Lord Aberdeen
on Reform and the Eastern question,
20o; asked to take the Home Office
on Lord Palmerston's resignation,
2OI ; letter to and from Lord Lans-
downe on the Cabinet meeting, 202;
annoyance at the dissensions in the
Cabinet on the Eastern question,
203; letter of reproach to Sir James
Graham, 203; receives the assurance

from Sir James that a despatch (that
the allied fleet should enter the Black
Sea) had been forwarded to the French
Government in deference to his views,
203; compromise with Lord Lans-
downe on Reform, 204; defends
Prince Albert's action in affairs,
205; admits the imminence of war,
206; postpones his Reform Bill, 206;
replies to Sir John Shelley's and
Mr. Disraeli's remarks on that post-
ponement, 207; speculates on its
further postponement and the Bill's
chances of success, 208–21o; resigns,
but is persuaded to withdraw his
resignation, 210; letter from Pal-
merston, 211; also from Sidney
Herbert, 212; gives the House his
reasons for the postponement, 212;
encomiums on his speech, 213;
private troubles, 214; Punch's car-
toon of him and Lord Aberdeen,
214 n ; divergence between his policy
and that of Lord Aberdeen in the
preliminaries to the Crimean War,
215; his treatment of the offer of an
Austrian Alliance, 216; draft ad-
dresses to the Crown assuring it of
support in the war against Russia,
217; former proposal to constitute
a Board responsible for all the mili-
tary departments, 218; reverts to
this scheme, 218; further military
arrangements, 219; would subsidise
Sweden, 219; thinks the time has
arrived when he should take office
or cease to be a member of the
Government, 220; letters to Lord
Clarendon, 220; proposes to the
Cabinet the separation of the War
Department from the Colonial Office
and the subsidising of Sweden, 221;
letter to Lord Lansdowne, 221 ;
suggests to Lord Aberdeen three
ways of carrying on the Government,
222, 223; letters to and from Lord
Aberdeen on ministerial changes,
223-225; Sir George Grey suggests
the Colonial Secretaryship or the
Presidency of the Council to him,
224; Lord Aberdeen's letter to him
concurring in same, 224; declines
the Colonial Office on grounds of
ill-health, 225; appointed President
of the Council, 226; his account of
the sleeping Cabinet, 226; his reply
to Mr. Disraeli on the Aberdeen
Ministry, 227, 228; letter to and
from the Queen on his proposed
Count Buol on the four points of
the protocol of the Western powers
defining object of the Crimean War,
255; his difficulties, 255; opening
of the Conference, 255; perverse
action of Lord Stratford de Redcliffe,
257; recommends the acceptance of
Prince Gortchakoff's compromise re-
garding Russian force in the Black
Sea, 258; his embarrassment at re-
ceiving no reply from the Govern-
ment, 259, 26o; is informed that his
colleagues cannot agree to his settle-
ment of the first point, 260; his
letters to Lord Panmure and Lady
John Russell on the subject, 260,261 ;
and to Lord Clarendon and Lord
Lansdowne, 261 ; his account of the
new proposal concerning the Black
Sea, 264, 266; returns to London,
266; his letter to Lord Clarendon
on the effect of the resignation of
Drouyn de Lhuys, 268; withdraws
his resignation on the entreaty of
Lord Palmerston and Lord Claren-
don, 269; his note on the surrender
of his own opinions and the motives
which may have swayed the French
Emperor, 269; defends his own con-
duct and the policy of the Govern-
ment in the House of Commons, but
omits all reference to the Austrian
proposal, 271, 272; effect produced
consequently by Count Buol's version
of the affair, 271 ; attacked by Milner
Gibson in the House of Commons,
272; lame nature of his defence,
272; painful incidents connected
with Sir E. Bulwer Lytton's notice
of motion respecting his conduct at
Vienna, 273; sends his resignation
to Lord Palmerston, 274; explains
the circumstances of his resignation,
274; deep impression made by his
language, 275; receives letters of
thanks from Lord Granville and
Solomon Hailes (a working-man),
276; his feelings towards the mem-
bers of the Cabinet, 277; and also
towards the subordinate members of
the Government, 278; record of his
political career to this date, 278;
resumes literary labours, 279; his
biography of Fox, 279; character of
his writing, 279; on moral and
political progress, 28o; as a lecturer,
281 ; lets his London house, 283;
lengthened visit to Switzerland and
Italy, 284; dines with Sir James
Hudson, 284; at Florence, 285; in-
terview with Cavour, 286; returns to
England, 286; pleased with prospects
of eldest son's future, 286; writes
an epilogue for a play composed by
his children, 288; his social qualities,
289; his straitened pecuniary means,
289; assisted by his brother the
Duke of Bedford, 290; gives the
Palmerston Administration an inde-
pendent support, 290; his opinion
of Lord Clarendon's mission for the
conclusion of peace, 291 ; advocates
the cause of education, 291; reso-
lutions on education defeated, 292;
speech in the debate on the Address
at the opening of the session of 1857,
292; supports Mr. Locke King's
motion for reduction of county
franchise, 293; and Sir G. Lewis's
Budget, 293; in favour of Mr.
Cobden's resolution on the Arrow
affair, 294; doubts his chances of
return for the City, 297; is returned,
299; effect on the country of his
success, 299; attends meetings at
Sheffield and Birmingham, 299;
continues an independent supporter
of Lord Palmerston, 300; news of
outbreak of Indian Mutiny arrives,
3oo; answers Mr. Disraeli's attack
on Indian administration, 300;
moves an address assuring Crown
of the support of the House in the
Indian Mutiny crisis, 301; considers
the machinery of government for
India obsolete, 302; his scheme of
reform therein, 302; his letter to
Sir G. Grey on the French threats
against England, 303; opposed to
the alteration of the conspiracy laws,
303; answers Mr. Disraeli's speech
attacking the great Reform Act, 304;
his action on the Conservative Bill
for the better government of India,
305; his motives misunderstood,
307; efforts to enable Jews to sit in
Parliament, 307; Baron Rothschild's
acknowledgment of his aid, 308;
rises in popular estimation, 309;
visits Lord Derby at Knowsley, 309;
disinclined to disturb the Conserva-
tive administration, 309; on signs
of a crisis in Italy desires a congress
to settle the matter, 31o; his remedy
for the bad form of government
imposed on Italy, 31o; his distrust
of the Conservatives in this matter,
and on Parliamentary Reform, 311 ;

resignation, 229; resting in York-
shire, 229; address from the Cor-
poration of Scarborough and his
reply, 230; civic banquet to him
and his address to the members of
the Athenaeum at Bristol, 230; con-
soled by favourable news from the
Crimea, 231; announces his intended
resignation to Lord Clarendon, 231 ;
memorandum on the state of public
affairs, 231 ; on the personal arrange-
ments of the War Department, 233;
urges on Lord Aberdeen the appoint-
ment of Palmerston as War Minister,
234; communications between him
and Lord Lansdowne on the re-
modelling of the War Department,
236, 237; expresses a belief that he
does not possess the confidence of
Lord Aberdeen, 236, 237; memo-
randum on the defects in the military
arrangements of the Government,
238; proposes to Lord Aberdeen
concert with the French Government
on a fresh plan of campaign, 241 ;
his visit to Paris and conferences
with the Emperor and his ministers,
241; declines to defend the Ministry
on Mr. Roebuck's motion on the
conduct of the Crimean War, and
resigns, 241; his retrospective me-
morandum, 243; his equivocal posi-
tion in the Aberdeen Ministry, 244;
his retirement virtually terminates
the Aberdeen Administration, 246;
supports Mr. Roebuck's motion, 246;
sent for by the Queen, but unable
to form a Government, 246; Lord
Palmerston asks his assistance in
forming a Government, 246; de-
clines, but agrees to represent Great
Britain at the Vienna Conference,
246; his letter to Lord Clarendon
explaining views on the same, 247;
letters of congratulation to him on
his acceptance of the mission, 248;
has interviews in Paris with the
Emperor and others respecting the
situation, 250; Palmerston's letter
respecting his acceptance of office on
reconstruction of the Cabinet, 250;
accepts the Colonial Office, 251 ;
interview with the King of the
Belgians in Brussels, 253; interviews
in Berlin with Baron Manteuffel,
the King and the Prince of Prussia,
253; fails to withdraw Prussia from
her isolated position, 253; goes on
to Vienna, 253; interviews with

-- ~~~-
*-

INDEX. 525

his objections to the Conservatives'
proposed measure of Reform, 311;
moves a resolution in conformity
with his views, and defeats the
Government, 312; issues his address
to the electors of the City, 312;
brings the Franco-Austrian question
prominently forward, 312; is blamed
for the dissensions in the Liberal
camp, 313; his letters to Sir James
Graham on the matter, 313; and to
Lord Granville, 314; assents to the
Queen's suggestion to serve under
Lord Granville, but stipulates to lead
the Commons, 314, 315; Granville's
letter on the question, 316; Lord
John's reply, 316; takes office as
Foreign Minister under Palmerston,
318; has the Italian question to deal
with on taking office, 319; defends
the conduct of Victor Emanuel, 321;
‘Italy for the Italians' the watchword
of his policy, 321 ; events move in
favour of his policy, 322; his advice
to Victor Emanuel, 323; advises the
Queen to accept invitation to the pro-
posed congress, 324; letter to Lord
Cowley regarding Austrian inter-
vention, 324; his proposals on the
failure of the congress, 325; effects
Cavour's return to office, 326; his
policy the first step towards a United
Italy, 327; letter to and from Sir
James Hudson on the question of
Savoy, 328, 329; protests against
the annexation of Savoy and Nice to
France, 329; effect in the House of
Commons of his speech on the con-
duct of France, 331; supported by
Lord Palmerston, 331 ; assures
Count Apponyi as to the policy of
Great Britain in Italy, 331; is not
surprised at the insurrection in Sicily,
332; letters to the British Minister
at Naples on the same, 332; urges
on Cavour a policy of patience, 332;
writes to Lord Cowley on affairs in
Italy, 333,334; declines the French
suggestion to stop the passage of
Garibaldi to Naples, 334; places
pressure on Cavour to abstain from
attacking Venice, 335; sides with
Sardinia in her hour of difficulty,
335; his famous despatch of October
27, 1860, 335; Palmerston credited
with its composition, 337; on the
use of the words ‘revolution’ and
‘revolutionary, 337; letter from his
nephew, Mr. Odo Russell, on the

effect of the despatch in Italy, 339;
uses his influence to complete the
union of Italy, 339; visited by
General Garibaldi, 339; visits Scot-
land with his family, 340; projects
a new Reform Bill, 341; nature of
the measure, 341; the Bill received
with indifference, 341; withdraws
it, 341; writes to Palmerston on the
prospects of Reform in the then-
existing House of Commons, 341;
his feelings on withdrawing the Bill,
342; derived his chief support in
the Cabinet from Mr. Gladstone,
343; is a loyal supporter of Mr.
Gladstone's financial measures, 343;
his letter to Palmerston on the Paper
Duty Repeal Bill, and the expendi-
ture on fortifications, 344 n ; accom-
panies the Queen to Germany, 344;
kills his boar, 345; at a Palace con-
cert, 345 n ; marriage of his second
daughter, Victoria, to Mr. Villiers,
345; summoned to Woburn on the
Duke of Bedford's serious illness,

46; death of the Duke, 346; Lord
#: affection for him, 346; increase
of his income, 347; goes to the
House of Lords, 347; Punch on the
transition, 347 and n ; Mr. Disraeli
and Mr. Gladstone on the change,
347, 348; his language on the eve of
the great American civil war, 349;
directs the British Consul at Charles-
ton to continue his functions, 352; his
reply to Mr. Seward's despatch re-
specting agents of Southern Confede-
racy, 352; a deputation sent him
from the Southern States, 352; re-
cognises their belligerent rights,
353; advises neutrality, .353; his
despatch on the powers of blockade

entrusted to the President by Con-

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vessel, but his proposal not approved
by Cabinet, 367; Mr. Adams' de-
mands of redress for injuries inflicted
by the Alabama, 368; his answer
thereto, 369; views as to arbitra-
tion, 369; letters to Lord Palmer-
ston and Mr. Gladstone, 370, 371 ;
view of the convention signed by
Lord Stanley consenting to arbitra-
tion, 372; his opinion three years
afterwards, 373 n ; displeased with
the action of the Alabama com-
mission, 374; thinks the questions
arising out of the escape of the
Alabama should not be tried by ex
post facto law, 375; gives notice
to move address on the indirect
claims in the Alabama arbitration,
376; makes a great impression by
his speech on this occasion, 377;
Mr. John Forster's opinion of the
speech, 378; hurt by the conduct
of Mr. Gladstone's Government
respecting the Alabama, 378; his
account of the early history of the
Polish insurrection, 38o; his sym-
pathies with the Poles, 381; nature
of his despatch to Russia on the
subject, 381; controverts the Russian
arguments as to the right of Europe to
interfere in Poland, 382, 383; thinks
both Danes and Germans to blame
in the Schleswig-Holstein question,
388; efforts at conciliation, 388, 389;
his despatch accepted by Austria and
Prussia as the basis of negotiation,
390; his advice not accepted by
Denmark, 390; counsels modera-
tion, 391; effect on the German
Diet of his despatch to Sir A.
Malet, 392; urges Germany and
Denmark to accept mediation, 396;
Germany accepts his offer, 396; but,
influenced by English Press, Den-
mark refuses, 398; his opinion of
the damage done by the English
Press, 397, 398; procures the repeal
of the objectionable ordinance of
Denmark, 398; sends Lord Wode-
house to Copenhagen on a mission of
peace, 399; failure of the mission,
4oo; letter to Sir A. Paget on the
obstinacy of Denmark, 4oo; at-
tempts to separate the questions of
Schleswig and Holstein, 401; letter
from Palmerston on this subject,401;
fails in his proposal to prevent the
war, 402; his proposals for united
action on the part of France and

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