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The babes unborn shall (O!) be born to bleed In this thy quarrel, if thou do proceed."

This said, she ceas'd-When he, in troubled thought
Griev'd at this tale, and sigh'd, and thus replies:
"Dear country, O I have not hither brought
These arms to spoil, but for thy liberties:
The sin be on their head that this have wrought,
Who wrong'd me first, and thee do tyrannize.
I am thy champion; and I seek my right:
Provok'd I am to this by others spite."

"This, this pretence," saith she, "the ambitious To smooth injustice, and to flatter wrong: [find, Thou dost not know what then will be thy mind, When thou shalt see thyself advanc'd and strong. When thou hast shak'd off that which others bind, Thou soon forgettest what thou learned'st long : Men do not know what then themselves will be, When as more than themselves themselves they see."

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And herewithal turning about, he wakes,
Lab'ring in spirit, troubl'd with this strange sight;
And mus'd awhile, waking advisement takes
Of what had pass'd in sleep, and silent night;
Yet hereof no important reck'ning makes,
But as a dream that vanish'd with the light:
The day-designs, and what he had in hand
Left it to his diverted thoughts unscann'd.

Doubtful at first, he wary doth proceed;
Seems not t' affect that which he did effect;
Or else perhaps seems as he meant indeed,
Sought but his own, and did no more expect.
Then, Fortune, thou art guilty of his deed,
That did'st his state above his hopes erect;
And thou must bear some blame of his great sin,
That left'st him worse than when he did begin.

Thou did'st conspire with pride, and with the time,
To make so easy an assent to wrong,
That he who had no thought so high to climb,
(With sav'ring comfort still allur'd along)
Was with occasion thrust into the crime;
Seeing others' weakness, and his part so strong.
"And who is there in such a case that will
Do good, and fear, that may live free with ill ?"

1

We will not say nor think, O Lancaster,
But that thou then didst mean as thou didst swear:
Upon th' Evangelists at Doncaster,
In th' eye of Heaven, and that assembly there;
That thou but as an upright orderer
Sought'st to reform th' abused kingdom here,
And get thy right, and what was thine before:
And this was all; thou would'st attempt no more.

Though we might say and think that this pretence
Was but a shadow to th' intended act;
Because the event doth argue the offence,,
And plainly seems to manifest the fact.
For that hereby thou might'st win confidence
With those, whom else thy course might hap dis-
And all suspicion of thy drift remove;
"Since easily men credit whom they love."

[tract,

But God forbid we should so nearly pry
Into the low deep bury'd sins long past,
T' examine and confer iniquity,
Whereof Faith would no memory should I ast;
That our times might not have t' exemplit 'y
With aged stains; but with our own sham è cast,

Might think our blot the first, not done before, That new-made sins might make us blush the more.

And let unresting Charity believe,

That then thy oath with thy intent agreed,
And others' faith thy faith did first deceive,
Thy after-fortune forc'd thee to this deed:
And let no man this idle censure give,
Because th' event proves so, 't was so decreed:
"For oft our counsels sort to other end,
Than that which frailty did at first intend."

Whilst those that are but outward lookers on,
(Who seldom sound these mysteries of state)
Deem things were so contriv'd as they are done,
Imagining all former acts did run
And hold that policy, which was but fate;

Unto that course they see th' effects relate;
Whilst still too short they come, or cast too far,
"And make these great men wiser than they are."

But by degrees he ventures now on blood,
And sacrific'd unto the people's love
The death of those that chief in envy stood;
As th' officers, (who first these dangers prove)
The treasurer, and those whom they thought good,
Busby and Green 34 by death he must remove:
These were the men the people thought did cause
Those great exactions, and abus'd the laws.

This done, his cause was preach'd with learned skill,

By Arundel th' archbishop "; who there show'd
A pardon sent from Rome, to all that will
Take part with him, and quit the faith they ow'd
To Richard, as a prince unfit and ill,
On whom the crown was fatally bestow'd:
And easy-yielding Zeal was quickly caught,
With what the mouth of Gravity had taught.
O that this power from everlasting given,
(The great alliance made 'twixt God and us,
Th' intelligence that Earth should hold with Hea-
Sacred Religion! O that thou must thus [v'n)
Be made to smooth our ways unjust, uneven;
Brought from above, Earth quarrels to discuss.
Must men beguile our souls to win our wills;
And make our zeal the furtherer of ills?

But the ambitious, to advance their might,
Dispense with Heaven, and what religion would:
"The armed will find right, or else make right;"
If this means wrought not yet another should.
And this and other now do all incite

To strength the faction that the duke doth hold;
Who easily obtained what he sought;
His virtues and his love so greatly wrought.

The king still busied in this Irish war,
(Which by his valour there did well succeed)
Had news how here his lords revolted are,
And how the duke of Her'ford doth proceed;
In these affairs he fears are grown too far;
Hastes his return from thence with greatest speed;

34 The duke put to death William Scroope, earl of Wiltshire, treasurer of England; with sir Henry Green, and sir John Busby, for misgoverning the king and the realm.

35 Thomas Arundel, archbishop of Canterbury. Bis peccat, qui pretexu religionis peccat.

"Calm these tempestuous spirits, O mighty Lord;
This threatning storm, that over-hangs the land:
Make them consider e're they unsheath the sword,
How vain is th' Earth, this point whereon they stand;
And with what sad calamities is stor'd
The best of that, for which th' ambitious band;
Labour the end of labour, strife of strife,
Terrour in death, and horrour after life."

But was by tempests, winds, and seas, debarr'd,
As if they likewise had against him warr'd.

But at the length (though late) in Wales he lands;
Where thoroughly inform'd of Henry's force,
And well advertis'd how his own case stands,
(Which to his grief he sees tends to the worse)
He leaves t' Aumarle ", at Milford, all those bands
He brought from Ireland; taking thence his course
To Conway (all disguis'd) with fourteen more,
To th' earl of Salisbury, thither sent before.

Thinking the earl 39 had rais'd some army there;
Whom there he finds forsaken, all alone:
The forces in those parts which levied were,
Were closely shrunk away, dispers'd and gone.
The king had stay'd too long; and they, in fear,
Resolved every man to shift for one.
At this amaz'd, such fortune he laments;
Foresees his fall, whereto each thing consents.

In this disturb'd, tumultuous, broken state,
Whilst yet th' event stood doubtful what should be;
Whilst nought but headlong running to debate,
And glitt'ring troops and armour men might see;
Fury and fear, compassion, wrath, and hate,
Confus'd through all the land, no corner free:
The strong, all mad, to strife, to ruin bent;
The weaker wail'd; the aged they lament,

And blame their many years that live so long,
To see the horrour of these miseries.
"Why had not we," say they, "dy'd with the strong
In foreign fields, in honourable wise,
In just exploits, and noble without wrong;
And by the valiant hand of enemies?
And not thus now reserved in our age,
To home-confusion, and disordered rage."

Unto the temples flock the weak, devout,
Sad wailing women; there to vow, and pray
For husbands, brothers, or their sons gone out
To bloodshed; whom nor tears nor love could stay.
Here grave religious fathers (which much doubt
The sad events these broils procure them may)
As prophets warn, exclaim, dissuade these crimes,
By the examples fresh of other times.

And "O! what do you now prepare," said they;
"Another conquest, by these fatal ways?
What, must your own hands make your selves a prey
To desolation, which these tumults raise?
What Dane, what Norman shall prepare his way,
To triumph on the spoil of your decays?
That which nor France, nor all the world could do,
In union, shall your discord bring you to?

"Conspire against us, neighbour nations all,
That envy at the height whereto w' are grown:
Conjure the barb'rous North, and let them call
Strange fury from far distant shores unknown;
And let them all together on us fall,
So to divert the ruin of our own;

That we, forgetting what doth so incense,
May turn the hand of malice to defence.

37 Edward duke of Aumarle, son to the duke of York.

38. Conway-castle in Wales.

39 Montague, earl of Salisbury.

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THE

HISTORY OF THE CIVIL WAR.

BOOK II.

THE ARGUMENT.

King Richard moans his wrong, and wails his reign;
And here betray'd, to London he is led,
Basely attir'd, attending Her'ford's train ;
Where th' one is scorn'd, the other welcomed.
His wife, mistaking him, doth much complain;
And both together greatly sorrowed:
In hope to save his life, and ease his thrall,
He yields up state, and rule, and crown and all.

In dearth of faith, and scarcity of friends,
The late great mighty monarch, on the shore,
In th' utmost corner of his land attends,
To call back false Obedience, fled before;
Toils, and in vain his toil and labour spends;
More hearts he sought to gain, he lost the more:
All turn'd their faces to the rising sun,
And leave his setting fortune, night begun.

Piercy', how soon, by thy example led,
The houshold-train forsook their wretched lord!
When with thy staff of charge dishonoured,
Thou brak'st thy faith, not steward of thy word,
And took'st his part, that after took thy head;
When thine own hand had strengthen'd first his sword.
"For such great merit do upbraid, and call
For great reward, or think the great too small."

And kings love not to be beholden ought; [worst:
Which makes their chiefest friends oft speed the
For those, bywhom their fortunes have been wrought,
Put them in mind of what they were at first;
Whose doubtful faith if once in question brought,
'Tis thought they will offend, because they durst;
And, taken in a fault, are never spar'd;
"Being easier to revenge than to reward."

And thus these mighty actors, sons of change,
These partizans of factions often try'd,
That in the smoke of innovations strange
Build huge uncertain plots of unsure pride;
And on the hazard of a bad exchange,
Have ventur'd all the stock of life beside;
"Whilst princes rais'd, disdain to have been rais'd
By those whose helps deserve not to be prais'd."

But thus is Richard left, and all alone,
Save with th' unarmed title of his right;
And those brave troops, his fortune-followers, gone,
And all that pomp, (the complements of might)
Th' amusing shadows that are cast upon
The state of princes, to beguile the sight;
All vanish'd clean, and only frailty left,
Himself of all besides himself bereft.

Thomas Piercy was earl of Worcester, brother to the earl of Northumberland, and steward of the king's house.

Like when some great Colossus, whose strong base
Or mighty props are shrunk, or sunk away,
Foreshowing ruin, threatning all the place
That in the danger of his fall doth stay;
All straight to better safety flock apace,
None rest to help the ruin while they may:
"The peril great, and doubtfull the redress,
Men are content to leave right in distress."

And look how Thames, enrich'd with many a flood,
And goodly rivers, (that have made their graves,
And bury'd both their names, and all their good,
Within his greatness, to augment his waves)
Glides on with pomp of waters, unwithstood,
Unto the ocean, (which his tribute craves)
And lays up all his wealth within that pow'r,
Which in it self all greatness doth devour.

So flock the mighty, with their following train,
Unto the all-receiving Bolingbroke;
Who wonders at himself, how he should gain
So many hearts as now his party took ;
And with what ease, and with how slender pain,
His fortune gives him more than he could look:
What he imagin'd never could be wrought,
Is pour'd upon him far beyond his thought.

So, often, things which seem at first in show,
Without the compass of accomplishment,
Once ventur'd on, to that success do grow,
That ev'n the authors do admire th' event:
So many means which they did never know,
Do second their designs, and do present
Strange unexpected helps; and chiefly then,
When th' actors are reputed worthy men,

And Richard, who look'd Fortune in the back,
Sees headlong Lightness running from the right,
Amazed stands, to note how great a wreck
Of faith his riots caus'd; what mortal spite
They bear him, who did law and justice lack:
Sees how concealed Hate breaks out in sight,
And fear-depressed Envy, (pent before)
When fit occasion, thus unlock'd the door.

Like when some mastiff-whelp, dispos'd to play,
A whole confused herd of beasts doth chase,
Which with one vile consent run all away;
If any hardier than the rest, in place
But offer head that idle fear to stay,

Back straight the daunced chaser turns his face;
And all the rest (with bold example led)
As fast run on him, as before they fled:

So, with this bold opposer rushes on
This many-headed monster, Multitude:
And he, who late was fear'd, is set upon,
And by his own (Actæon-like) pursu'd;
His own, that had all love and awe forgone:
Whom breath and shadows only did delude,
And newer hopes, which promises persuade;
Though rarely men keep promises so made.

2 The duke of York, left governor of the realm in the absence of the king, having levied a great army, as if to have opposed against Bolingbroke, brought most of the nobility of the kingdom to take his part.

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Which when he saw, thus to himself complains; Thus he complain'd-When lo, from Lancaster, “O why do you, fond, false-deceived, so

(The new entitl'd duke) with order sent Run beadlong to that change that nothing gains, Arriv'd Northumberland 3, as to confer, But gain of sorrow, only change of woe?

And make relation of the duke's intent:
Which is all one; if he be like who reigns : And offer'd there, if that he would refer
Why will you buy with blood what you forego ? The controversy unto parli’ment,
T'is nought but shows that ignorance esteems: And punish those that had abus'd the state,
The thing possess'd is not the thing it seems. As causers of this universal hate;
" And when the sins of Bolingbroke shall be And also see that justice might be had
As great as mine, and you unanswered

On those the duke of Gloc'ster's death procur'd,
In these your hopes; then may you wish for me, And such remov'd from council as were bad;
Your lawful sov'reign, from whose faith you fled; His cousin Henry would, he there assurd,
And, grieved in your souls, the errour see

On humble knees before his grace be glad That shining promises had shadowed:

To ask him pardon, to be well secur'd, As th' hum'rous sick removing, find no ease, And have his right and grace restor'd again: When changed chambers change not the disease. The which was all he labour'd to obtain. “ Then shall you find this name of liberty, And therefore doth an enterparle exhort; (The watch-word of rebellion ever us'd;

Persuades him leave that unbeseeming place, The idle echo of uncertainty,

And with a princely bardiness resort That evermore the simple bath abus'd)

Unto his people, that attend his grace. But new-turn'd servitude, and misery ;

They meant his public good, and not his hurt ; And ev'n the same, and worse, before refus'd. And would most joyful be to see his face. Th' aspirer once attain'd unto the top,

He lays his soul to pledge, and takes his oath, Cuts off those means by which himself got up. The host of Christ, an hostage for his troth. “ And with a harder hand, and straiter rein, This proffer, with such protestations, inade Doth curb that looseness he did find before ; Unto a king that so near danger stood, Doubting th’occasion like might serve again: Was a sufficient motive to persuade, His own example makes him fear the more. When no way else could show a face so good : Then, O injurious land! what dost thou gain, Th' unhonourable means of safety bad To aggravate thine own afflictions' store?

Danger accept, what majesty withstood. Since thou must needs obey kings government; “ When better choices are not to be had, And no rule ever yet could all content.

We needs must take the seeming best of bad.” “What if my yonth hath offer'd up to lust Yet stands h' in doubt awhile what way to take; Licentious fruits of indiscreet desires,

Conferring with that small-remaining troop When idle heat of vainer years did thrust

Fortune had left; which never would forsake That fury on? Yet now when retires

Their poor, distressed lord ; nor ever stoop To calmer state, why should you so distrust To any hopes the stronger part could make : To reap that good whereto mine age aspires ? Good Carlisle 4, Ferby, and sir Stephen Scroope, The youth of princes have no bounds for sin, With that most worthy Montagues, were all Unless themselves do make them bounds within. That were content with majesty to fall. “Who sees not, that sees ought,(woe worth the wbile) Time, spare; and make not sacrilegious theft The easy.way, that greatness hath to fall ? Upon so memorable constancy: Environ'd with deceit, hemm'd in with guile;

Let not succeeding ages be bereft Sooth'd up in flatt'ry, fawned on of all;

Of such examples of integrity. Within his own living as in exile;

Nor thou, magnan'mous Leigh", must not be left Hears but with others ears, or not at all;

In darkness, for thy rare fidelity; And ev'n is made a prey unto a few,

To save thy faith, content to lose thy head; Who lock up grace, that would to other show. That rev'rent head, of good men honoured. “ And who (as let in lease) do farm the crown,

Nor will my conscience I should injury And joy the use of majesty and might;

Thy memory, most trusty Jenico?, Whilst we hold but the shadow of our own,

For b'ing not ours; though wish that Gascony

Claim'd not for hers the faith we rev’rence so; Pleas'd with vain shows, and dallied with delight: They, as huge unproportion'd mountains grown,

That England might have this small company Between our land and us, shadowing our light,

Only to her alone, having no mo. Bereave the rest of joy, and us of love,

But let's divide this good betwixt us both; And keep down all, to keep themselves above.

Take she thy birth, and we will have thy troth, “ Which wounds, with grief, poor unrespected zeal, 3 The earl of Northumberland sent to the king, When grace holds no proportion in the parts ; from Henry Bolingbroke, now duke of Lancaster. When distribution in the common-weal

4 The bishop of Carlisle. Of charge and honour, due to good deserts, Is stopt ; when others' greedy hands must deal

5 Montague, earl of Salisbury. The benefit that majesty imparts;

6 This was sir Peter Leigh's ancestor, (of Lyme What good we meant, comes gleaned home but light; in Cheshire) that now. is. Whilst we are robb'd of praise, they of their right.” 7 Jenico d'Artois, a Gascoign. VOL IIL

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Grave Montagne 5, whom long experience taught "Twas greater hopes that bereto him did call; In either fortune, thus advis'd his king:

And he will thrust for all, or else lose all. “ Dear sov'reign, know, the matter that is sought Is only how your majesty to bring

“ Nor trust this subtle agent, nor his oath. (From out of this poor safety you have got) You know his faith-you try'd it beforehand. Into their hands, that else hold ev'ry thing. His fault is death-and now to lose his troth, For now, but only you they want of all;

To save his life, he will not greatly stand. And wanting you, they nothing theirs can call.

Nor trust your kinsman's profler ; since you bob " Here have you craggy rocks to take your part,

Show, blood in princes is no stedfast band. That never will betray their faith to you;

What though he hath no title?--he hath might : These trusty mountains here will never start,

That makes a title, where there is no right." But stand tupbraid their shame that are untrue. Here may you fence your safety, with small art, Thus he. When that good bishop, thus repla, Agaiøst the pride of that confused crew :

Out of a mind that quiet did affect: If men will not, these very cliffs will fihgt, “My lord, I must confess, as your case lies, And be sufficient to defend your right.

You have great cause your subjects to suspect,

And counterplot against their subtilties,
“ Then keep you here ; and here you shall behold, Who all good care and honesty neglect;
Within short space, the sliding faith of those And fear the worst what insolence may do,
Thai cannot long their resolution hold,

Or armed fary may incense them to.
Repent the course their idle rashness chose.
For that same mercenary faith they sold,
With least occasions discontented grows,

“But yet, my lord, fear may as well transport And insolent those voluntary bands;

Your care, beyond the truth of what is meant; Presuming how by them he chiefly stands.

As otherwise neglect may fall too short,

In not examining of their intent: “ And bow can he those mighty troops sustain

But let us weigh the thing, which they exhort; Loug time, where now he is, or any where?

'Tis peace, submission, and a parli'ment: Besides, what discipline can he retain,

Which, how expedient 'tis for either part, Whereas be dares not keep them under fear,

'Twere good we judg'd with an impartial heart For fear to have them to revolt again? So that itself when greatness cannot bear,

“ And first, for you my lord, in grief we see With her own weight, must veeds confus'dly fall, The miserable case wherein you stand ; Without the help of other force at all.

Void here of succour, help, or majesty,

On this poor promontory of your land : “ And hither to approach he will not dare; And where how long a time your grace may be Where deserts, rocks, and hills, no succours give; (Expecting what may fall into your hand) Where desolation, and no comforts are;

We know not ; since th' event of things do lie Where few can do no good, many not live. Clos'd up in darkness, far from mortal eye. Besides, we have the ocean, to prepare Some other place, if this should not relieve :

“ And how unfit it were you should protract So shall you tire his force, consume his strength, And weary all his followers out at length.

Long time, in this so dangerous disgrace?

As though that you good spir't and courage lack • Do but refer to time, and to small time;

To issue out of this opprobrious place : And infinite occasions you shall find,

When ev'n the face of kings do oft exact To quell the rebel, even in the prime

Fear and remorse in faulty subjects base; Of all his hopes, beyond all thought of mind. And longer stay a great presumption draws, For many (with the conscience of the crime) That you were guilty, or did doubt your canse. In colder blood will curse what they desigo'd; And bad success upbraiding their ill fact,

“ What subjects ever so enrag'd would dare Draws them (whom others draw) from such an act. To violate a prince; t' offend the blood

Of that renowned race, by which they are “ Por if the least imagin'd overture

Exalted to the height of all their good ? But of conceiv'd revolt men once espy,

What if some things by chance misguided were, Straight shrink the weak; the great will not endure; Which they have now rebelliously wii bistood? Th’impatient run; the discontented fly:

They never will proceed with that despite, The friend bis friend's example doth procure;

To wreck the state, and to confound the right. And all together haste them presently, Some to their home, some hide; others that stay To reconcile themselves, the rest betray.

“ Nor do I think that Bolingbroke can be

So blind-ambitious to affect the crown; “What hope have you that ever Boling broke Having himself no title, and doth see Will live a subject, that hath try'd his fate? Others, if you should fail, must keep him doen Or what good reconcilement can you look, Besides, the realm, though mad, will never 'gree Where he must always fear, and you must hate? To have a right succession overthrown; And never think that he this quarrel took,

To raise confusion upon them and theirs, To re-obtain thereby his private state :

By prejudicing true and lawful heirs.

* The earl of Salisbury, his speech to king Richard.

9 The bishop of Carlisle.

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