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The babes unborn shall (O!) be born to bleed Might think our blot the first, not done before, In this thy quarrel, if thou do proceed.”

That new-made sins might make us blush the more. This said, she ceas'd—When he, in troubled thought and let unresting Charity believe, Griev'd at this tale, and sigh'd, and thus replies : That then thy oath with thy intent agreed, “ Dear country, o I have not bither brought And others' faith thy faith did first deceive, These arms to spoil, but for thy liberties :

Thy after-fortune forc'd thee to this deed: The sin be on their head that this have wrought, And let no man this idle censure give, Who wrong'd me first, and thee do tyrannize. Because th' event proves so, 't was so decreed : I am thy champion; and I seek my right: “ For oft our counsels sort to other end, Provok'd I am to this by others spite."

Than that which frailty did at first intend." “ This, this pretence,” saith she, “the ambitious Whilst those that are but outward lookers on, To smooth injustice, and to flatter wrong : (find, Thou dost not know what then will be thy mind,

(Who seldom sound these mysteries of state) When thou shalt see thyself advanc'd and strong.

Deem things were so contrir'd as they are done, When thou hast shak'd off that which others bind, Imagining all former acts did run

And hold that policy, which was but fate ; 'Thou soon forgettest what thou learned'st long : Men do not know what then themselves will be,

Unto that course they see th' effects relate; When as more than themselves themselves they see."

Whilst still too short they come, or cast too far,

“ And make these great men wiser than they are." And herewithal turning about, he wakes, Lab'ring in spirit, troubld with this strange sight;

But by degrees he ventures now on blood, And mus'd awhile, waking advisement takes

And sacrificed unto the people's love Of what had pass'd in sleep, and silent night;

The death of those that chief in envy stood; Yet hereof no important reck'ning makes,

As th' officers, (who first these dangers prove) But as a dream that vanish'd with the light:

The treasurer, and those whom they thought good, The day-designs, and what he had in hand

Busby and Green 34 by death he must remore: Left it to his diverted thoughts unscann'd.

These were the men the people thought did cause

Those great exactions, and abus'd the laws.
Doubtful at first, he wary doth proceed;
Seems not t' affect that which he did effect;

This done, his cause was preach'd with learned

skill, Or else perhaps seems as he meant indeed, Sought but his own, and did no more expect.

By Arundel th' archbishop *; who there show'd Then, Fortune, thou art guilty of his deed,

A pardon sent from Rome, to all that will That did'st his state above his hopes erect;

Take part with him, and quit the faith they ow'd And thou must bear some blame of his great sin,

To Richard, as a prince unfit and ill, That left'st him worse than when he did begin.

On whom the crown was fatally bestow'd :

And easy-yielding Zeal was quickly caught,
Thou did’st conspire with pride, and with the time, with what the mouth of Gravity had taught.
'To make so easy an assent to wrong,
That he who had no thought so high to climb,

O that this power from everlasting given,

(The great alliance made 'twixt God and us, (With sav'ring comfort still allur'd along) Was with occasion thrust into the crime;

Th' intelligence that Earth should hold with HeaSeeing others' weakness, and his part so strong.

Sacred Religion 36! O that thou must thus (rin)

Be made to smooth our ways unjust, uneven ; “ And who is there in such a case that will Do good, and fear, that may live free with ill ?”

Brought from above, Earth quarrels to discuss.

Must men beguile our souls to win our wills; We will not say nor think, O Lancaster,

And make our zeal the furtherer of ills?
But that thou then didst mean as thou didst swear:

But the ambitious, to advance their might,
Upon th' Evangelists at Doncaster,
In tb'eye of Heaven, and that assembly there;

Dispense with Hearen, and what religion would :

“ The armed will find right, or else make right;" That thou but as an upright orderer Sought'st to reform th' abused kingdom here,

If this means wrought not yet another should.

And this and other now do all incite And get thy right, and what was thine before:

To strength the faction that the duke doth bold; And this was all; thou would'st attempt no more.

Who easily obtained what he sought; Though we might say and think that this pretence

His virtues and his love so greatly wrought.
Was but a shadow to th' intended act;

The king still busied in this Irish war,
Because the event doth argue the offence,
And plainly seems to manifest the fact.

(Which by bis valour there did well succeed) For that hereby thou might'st win confidence

Had news how here his lords revolted are, With those, whom else thy course might bap dis- And how the duke of Her ford doth proceed;

In these affairs he fears are grown too far; And all suspicion of thy drift remove; [tract, Hastes his return from thence with greatest speed; “ Since easily men credit whom they lovia." But God forbid we should so nearly pry

34 The duke put to death William Scroope, earl Into the low deep bury'd sins long past,

of Wiltshire, treasurer of England'; with sir Henry T examine and confer iniquity,

Green, and sir John Busby, for misgoverning the Whereof Faith would no memory should I ast; king and the realm. That our times might not have t exemplity 35 Thomas Arundel, archbishop of Canterbury. With aged stains; but with our own sham e cast, 36 Bis peccat, qui pretexu religionis peccat.

But was by tempests, winds, and seas, debarr'd, “ Calm these tempestuous spirits, O mighty Lord; As if they likewise had against him warr'd. This threatning storm, that over-hangs the land :

Make them consider e're they unsheath the sword, But at the length (though late) in Wales he lands; How vain is th’Earth, this point whereon they stand; Where thoroughly inform'd of Henry's force, And with what sad calamities is storld And well advertis d how his own case stands, The best of that, for which th' ambitious band; (Which to his grief he sees tends to the worse) Labour the end of labour, strife of strife, He leaves t' Aumarle », at Milford, all those bands Terrour in death, and horrour after life.” He brought from Ireland; taking thence his course To Conway *'(all disguis’d) with fourteen more, Thus they in zeal, whose humbl'd thoughts were To th' earl of Salisbury, thither sent before.

good,

Whilst in this wide-spread volume of the skies Thinking the earl "9 had rais'd some army there; The book of Providence disclosed stood, Whom there be finds forsaken, all alone:

Warnings of wrath, foregoing miseries, The forces in those parts which levied were, In'lines of fire, and characters of blood; Were closely shrunk away, dispers'd and gone. There fearful forms in dreadful flames arise, The king had stay'd too long; and they, in fear, Amazing comets, threatning monarchs might, Resolved every man to shift for one.

And new-seen stars, unknown unto the night : At this amaz'd, such fortone he laments; Poresees his fall, whereto each thing consents. Red fir'y dragons in the air do fly,

And burning meteors, pointed streaming lights; In this disturb'd, tumultuous, broken state, Bright stars in midst of day appear in sky, Whilst yet th' event stood doubtful what should be; Prodigious monsters, ghastly fearfull sights; Whilst nought but headlong running to debate, Strange ghosts and apparitions terrify: And glitt'ring troops and armour men might see ; The woful mother her own birth affrights; Fury and fear, compassion, wrath, and hate, Seeing a wrong deformed infant born, Confus'd through all the land, no corner free: Grieves in her pains, deceiv'd, in shame doth mourn. The strong, all mad, to strife, to ruin bent; The weaker wail'd; the aged they lament, The Earth, as if afraid of blood and wounds,

Trembles in terrour of these falling blows; And blame their many years that live so long, The hollow concaves give out groaning sounds, To see the horrour of these miseries.

And sighing murmurs, to lament our woes: “Why had not we,” say they, “dy'd with the strong The ocean all at discord with his bounds, In foreign fields, in honourable wise,

Reiterates his strange untimely flows. In just exploits, and noble without wrong;

Nature all out of course, to check our course, And by the valiant hand of enemies?

Neglects her work, to work in us remorse.
And not thus now reserved in our age,
To home-confusion, and disordered rage." So great a wreck unto it self doth (lo!)
Unto the temples flock the weak, devout,

Disorder'd, proud mortality prepare,

That this whole frame doth even labour so
Şad wailing women; there to vow, and pray

Her ruin unto frailty to declare;
For husbands, brothers, or their sons gone out
To bloodshed; wbom nor tears nor love could stay. That weak improvidence could not beware.

And travails to fore-signify the woe,
Here grave religious fathers (which much doubt

“ For Heav'n and earth, and air and seas, and all,, The sad events these broils procure them may) As prophets warn, exclaim, dissuade these crimes,

Taught men to see, but not to shun their fall." By the examples fresh of other times.

Is man so dear unto the Heavens, that they And “O! what do you now prepare,” said they; Respect the ways of Earth, the works of sin? “ Another conquest, by these fatal ways ?

Doth this great all, this universal weigh
What, must your own hands make your selves a prey Or doth our fear, father of zeal, give way

The vain designs that weakness doth begin?
To desolation, which these tumults raise?
What Dane, what Norman shall prepare his way,

Unto this error ignorance lives in;
To triumph on the spoil of your decays?

And deem our faults the cause that move these That which nor France, nor all the world could do, That have their cause from other cause than ours ?

pow'rs, In union, shall your discord bring you to? “ Conspire against us, neighbour nations all, But these beginnings had this impious war, That envy at the height whereto w' are grown: Th' ungodly bloodshed that did so defile Conjure the barb'rous North, and let them call The beauty of thy fields, and ev'n did mar Strange fary from far distant shores unknown; The flow'r of thy chief pride, thou fairest Isle: And let them all together on us fall,

These were the causes that incens'd so far So to divert the ruin of our own;

The civil-wounding hand, enrag'd with spoil ; That we, forgetting what doth so incense,

That now the living, with afflicted eye, May turn the hand of malice to defence.

Look back with grief on such calamity.

37 Edward duke of Aumarle, son to the duke of York.

38. Conway-castle in Wales.
* Montague, earl of Salisbury.

THZ

Like when some great Colossus, whose strong base
Or mighty props are shrunk, or sunk away,

Foreshowing ruin, threatning all the place
HISTORY OF THE CIVIL WAR. That in the danger of his fall doth stay;
BOOK II.

All straight to better safety flock apace,
None rest to help the ruin while they may:
“The peril great, and doubtfull the redress,

Men are content to leave right in distress.”
THE ARGUMENT.

And look how Thames, enrich'd with many a flood, King Richard moans bis wrong, and wails his reign; And goodly rivers, (that have made their graves, And here betray'd, to London he is led,

And bury'd both their names, and all their good, Basely attir'd, attending Her'ford's train;

Within his greatness, to augment bis waves) Where th' one is scorn'd, the other welcomed.

Glides on with pomp of waters, unwithstood, His wife, mistaking him, doth much complain; Unto the ocean, (which his tribute craves) And both together greatly sorrowed :

And lays up all his wealth within that pow'r, In hope to save his life, and ease his thrall,

Which in it self all greatness doth devour.
He yields up state, and rule, and crown and all.

So flock the mighty', with their following train,
Unto the all-receiving Bolingbroke;

Who wonders at himself, how be should gain In dearth of faith, and scarcity of friends,

So many hearts as now his party took ; The late great mighty monarch, on the shore,

And with what ease, and with how slender pain, In th' utmost corner of his land attends, To call back false Obedience, Aed before;

His fortune gives him more than he could look:

What he imagin'd never conld be wrought,
Toils, and in vain his toil and labour spends ;
More hearts he sought to gain, he lost the more :

Is pour'd upon him far beyond his thought.
All turn'd their faces to the rising sun,
And leave his setting fortune, night begun.

So, often, things which seem at first in show,

Without the compass of accomplishment, Piercy', how soon, by thy example led,

Once ventur'd on, to that success do grow, The houshold-train forsook their wretched lord !

That ev'n the authors do admire th' event: When with thy staff of charge dishonoured,

So many means which they did never know, Thou brak’st thy faith, not steward of thy word,

Do second their designs, and do present And took'st bis part, that after took thy head;

Strange unexpected helps; and chiefly then, When thine own hand had strengthen'd first hissword. When th' actors are reputed worthy men, « For such great merit do upbraid, and call For great reward, or think the great too small.” And Richard, who look'd Fortune in the back,

Sees headlong Lightness running from tbe right, And kings love not to be beholden ought; (worst : Amazed stands, to pote how great a wreck Which makes their chiefest friends oft speed the Of faith his riots caus'd; what mortal spite For those, bywhom their fortunes have been wrought, They bear him, who did law and justice lack : Put them in mind of what they were at first; Sees how concealed Hate breaks out in sight, Whose doubtful faith if once in question brought, And fear-depressed Envy, (pent before) 'Tis thought tbey will offend, because they durst; When fit occasion, thus unlock'd the door. And, taken in a fault, are never spard; “ Being easier to revenge than to reward." Like when some mastiff-whelp, dispos'd to play,

A whole confused herd of beasts doth chase, And thus these mighty actors, sons of change, Which with one vile consent run all away ; These partizans of factions often try'd,

If any bardier than the rest, in place That in the smoke of innovations strange

But offer head that idle fear to stay,
Build huge uncertain plots of unsure pride; Back straight the daunced chaser turns his face;
And on the hazard of a bad exchange,

And all the rest (with bold example led)
Have ventur'd all the stock of life beside; As fast run on him, as before they fied:
" Whilst princes rais'd, disdain to have been rais'd
By those whose helps deserve not to be prais'd.” So, with this bold opposer rushes on

This many-headed monster, Multitude :
But thus is Richard left, and all alone,

And he, who late was fear'd, is set upon, Save with th' uparmed title of his right;

And by his own (Actæon-like) pursu'd; And those brave troops, his fortune-followers, gone, His own, that had all love and awe forgone: And all that pomp, (the complements of might) Whom breath and shadows only did delude, Th' amusing shadows that are cast upon

And newer hopes, which promises persuade; The state of princes, to beguile the sight; Though rarely men keep promises so made. All vanish'd clean, and only frailty left, Himself of all besides himself bereft.

· The duke of York, left governor of the realm

in the absence of the king, having levied a great · Thomas Piercy was earl of Worcester, brother army, as if to have opposed against Bolingbroke, to the earl of Norihumberland, and steward of the brought most of the nobility of the kingdom to king's house.

take his part.

Which when he saw, thus to himself complains; Thus he complain'd-When lo, from Lancaster, “O why do you, fond, false-deceived, so

(The new entitl'd duke) with order sent Run beadlong to that change that nothing gains, Arriv'd Northumberland 3, as to confer, But gain of sorrow, only change of woe?

And make relation of the duke's intent:
Which is all one; if he be like who reigns : And offer'd there, if that he would refer
Why will you buy with blood what you forego ? The controversy unto parli’ment,
T'is nought but shows that ignorance esteems: And punish those that had abus'd the state,
The thing possess'd is not the thing it seems. As causers of this universal hate;
" And when the sins of Bolingbroke shall be And also see that justice might be had
As great as mine, and you unanswered

On those the duke of Gloc'ster's death procur'd,
In these your hopes; then may you wish for me, And such remov'd from council as were bad;
Your lawful sov'reign, from whose faith you fled; His cousin Henry would, he there assurd,
And, grieved in your souls, the errour see

On humble knees before his grace be glad That shining promises had shadowed:

To ask him pardon, to be well secur'd, As th' hum'rous sick removing, find no ease, And have his right and grace restor'd again: When changed chambers change not the disease. The which was all he labour'd to obtain. “ Then shall you find this name of liberty, And therefore doth an enterparle exhort; (The watch-word of rebellion ever us'd;

Persuades him leave that unbeseeming place, The idle echo of uncertainty,

And with a princely bardiness resort That evermore the simple bath abus'd)

Unto his people, that attend his grace. But new-turn'd servitude, and misery ;

They meant his public good, and not his hurt ; And ev'n the same, and worse, before refus'd. And would most joyful be to see his face. Th' aspirer once attain'd unto the top,

He lays his soul to pledge, and takes his oath, Cuts off those means by which himself got up. The host of Christ, an hostage for his troth. “ And with a harder hand, and straiter rein, This proffer, with such protestations, inade Doth curb that looseness he did find before ; Unto a king that so near danger stood, Doubting th’occasion like might serve again: Was a sufficient motive to persuade, His own example makes him fear the more. When no way else could show a face so good : Then, O injurious land! what dost thou gain, Th' unhonourable means of safety bad To aggravate thine own afflictions' store?

Danger accept, what majesty withstood. Since thou must needs obey kings government; “ When better choices are not to be had, And no rule ever yet could all content.

We needs must take the seeming best of bad.” “What if my yonth hath offer'd up to lust Yet stands h' in doubt awhile what way to take; Licentious fruits of indiscreet desires,

Conferring with that small-remaining troop When idle heat of vainer years did thrust

Fortune had left; which never would forsake That fury on? Yet now when retires

Their poor, distressed lord ; nor ever stoop To calmer state, why should you so distrust To any hopes the stronger part could make : To reap that good whereto mine age aspires ? Good Carlisle 4, Ferby, and sir Stephen Scroope, The youth of princes have no bounds for sin, With that most worthy Montagues, were all Unless themselves do make them bounds within. That were content with majesty to fall. “Who sees not, that sees ought,(woe worth the wbile) Time, spare; and make not sacrilegious theft The easy.way, that greatness hath to fall ? Upon so memorable constancy: Environ'd with deceit, hemm'd in with guile;

Let not succeeding ages be bereft Sooth'd up in flatt'ry, fawned on of all;

Of such examples of integrity. Within his own living as in exile;

Nor thou, magnan'mous Leigh", must not be left Hears but with others ears, or not at all;

In darkness, for thy rare fidelity; And ev'n is made a prey unto a few,

To save thy faith, content to lose thy head; Who lock up grace, that would to other show. That rev'rent head, of good men honoured. “ And who (as let in lease) do farm the crown,

Nor will my conscience I should injury And joy the use of majesty and might;

Thy memory, most trusty Jenico?, Whilst we hold but the shadow of our own,

For b'ing not ours; though wish that Gascony

Claim'd not for hers the faith we rev’rence so; Pleas'd with vain shows, and dallied with delight: They, as huge unproportion'd mountains grown,

That England might have this small company Between our land and us, shadowing our light,

Only to her alone, having no mo. Bereave the rest of joy, and us of love,

But let's divide this good betwixt us both; And keep down all, to keep themselves above.

Take she thy birth, and we will have thy troth, “ Which wounds, with grief, poor unrespected zeal, 3 The earl of Northumberland sent to the king, When grace holds no proportion in the parts ; from Henry Bolingbroke, now duke of Lancaster. When distribution in the common-weal

4 The bishop of Carlisle. Of charge and honour, due to good deserts, Is stopt ; when others' greedy hands must deal

5 Montague, earl of Salisbury. The benefit that majesty imparts;

6 This was sir Peter Leigh's ancestor, (of Lyme What good we meant, comes gleaned home but light; in Cheshire) that now. is. Whilst we are robb'd of praise, they of their right.” 7 Jenico d'Artois, a Gascoign. VOL IIL

Hh

Grave Montagne 5, whom long experience taught "Twas greater hopes that bereto him did call; In either fortune, thus advis'd his king:

And he will thrust for all, or else lose all. “ Dear sov'reign, know, the matter that is sought Is only how your majesty to bring

“ Nor trust this subtle agent, nor his oath. (From out of this poor safety you have got) You know his faith-you try'd it beforehand. Into their hands, that else hold ev'ry thing. His fault is death-and now to lose his troth, For now, but only you they want of all;

To save his life, he will not greatly stand. And wanting you, they nothing theirs can call.

Nor trust your kinsman's profler ; since you bob " Here have you craggy rocks to take your part,

Show, blood in princes is no stedfast band. That never will betray their faith to you;

What though he hath no title?--he hath might : These trusty mountains here will never start,

That makes a title, where there is no right." But stand tupbraid their shame that are untrue. Here may you fence your safety, with small art, Thus he. When that good bishop, thus repla, Agaiøst the pride of that confused crew :

Out of a mind that quiet did affect: If men will not, these very cliffs will fihgt, “My lord, I must confess, as your case lies, And be sufficient to defend your right.

You have great cause your subjects to suspect,

And counterplot against their subtilties,
“ Then keep you here ; and here you shall behold, Who all good care and honesty neglect;
Within short space, the sliding faith of those And fear the worst what insolence may do,
Thai cannot long their resolution hold,

Or armed fary may incense them to.
Repent the course their idle rashness chose.
For that same mercenary faith they sold,
With least occasions discontented grows,

“But yet, my lord, fear may as well transport And insolent those voluntary bands;

Your care, beyond the truth of what is meant; Presuming how by them he chiefly stands.

As otherwise neglect may fall too short,

In not examining of their intent: “ And bow can he those mighty troops sustain

But let us weigh the thing, which they exhort; Loug time, where now he is, or any where?

'Tis peace, submission, and a parli'ment: Besides, what discipline can he retain,

Which, how expedient 'tis for either part, Whereas be dares not keep them under fear,

'Twere good we judg'd with an impartial heart For fear to have them to revolt again? So that itself when greatness cannot bear,

“ And first, for you my lord, in grief we see With her own weight, must veeds confus'dly fall, The miserable case wherein you stand ; Without the help of other force at all.

Void here of succour, help, or majesty,

On this poor promontory of your land : “ And hither to approach he will not dare; And where how long a time your grace may be Where deserts, rocks, and hills, no succours give; (Expecting what may fall into your hand) Where desolation, and no comforts are;

We know not ; since th' event of things do lie Where few can do no good, many not live. Clos'd up in darkness, far from mortal eye. Besides, we have the ocean, to prepare Some other place, if this should not relieve :

“ And how unfit it were you should protract So shall you tire his force, consume his strength, And weary all his followers out at length.

Long time, in this so dangerous disgrace?

As though that you good spir't and courage lack • Do but refer to time, and to small time;

To issue out of this opprobrious place : And infinite occasions you shall find,

When ev'n the face of kings do oft exact To quell the rebel, even in the prime

Fear and remorse in faulty subjects base; Of all his hopes, beyond all thought of mind. And longer stay a great presumption draws, For many (with the conscience of the crime) That you were guilty, or did doubt your canse. In colder blood will curse what they desigo'd; And bad success upbraiding their ill fact,

“ What subjects ever so enrag'd would dare Draws them (whom others draw) from such an act. To violate a prince; t' offend the blood

Of that renowned race, by which they are “ Por if the least imagin'd overture

Exalted to the height of all their good ? But of conceiv'd revolt men once espy,

What if some things by chance misguided were, Straight shrink the weak; the great will not endure; Which they have now rebelliously wii bistood? Th’impatient run; the discontented fly:

They never will proceed with that despite, The friend bis friend's example doth procure;

To wreck the state, and to confound the right. And all together haste them presently, Some to their home, some hide; others that stay To reconcile themselves, the rest betray.

“ Nor do I think that Bolingbroke can be

So blind-ambitious to affect the crown; “What hope have you that ever Boling broke Having himself no title, and doth see Will live a subject, that hath try'd his fate? Others, if you should fail, must keep him doen Or what good reconcilement can you look, Besides, the realm, though mad, will never 'gree Where he must always fear, and you must hate? To have a right succession overthrown; And never think that he this quarrel took,

To raise confusion upon them and theirs, To re-obtain thereby his private state :

By prejudicing true and lawful heirs.

* The earl of Salisbury, his speech to king Richard.

9 The bishop of Carlisle.

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