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* And but with fifteen hundred men do land, Conducting their fresh troops against their king, Upon a land with many millions stor'd ;

(Who leaves a woman to supply his stead :) So much did high-presuming courage stand And near Northampton 23 both embattelling, in

On th' aid home-disobedience would afford. Made now the very heart of England bleed:
Nor were their hopes deceiv'd-for such a hand Where what strange resolutions both sides bring,
Had innovation ready for the sword,

And with what deadly rancour they proceed, As ere they near unto the city drew,

Witness the blood there shed, and foully shed; Their pow'r beyond all former greatness grew. That cannot but with sighs be registred.

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Muse, what may we imagine was the cause There Buckingham, Talbot, and Egremont,
That Fury works thus universally?

Beaumont and Lucy 24; parts of Lancaster,
What humour, what affection is it, draws

(Parts most important, and of chief account) Sides of such pow'r to this nobility?

In this unhappy day extinguish'd are. Was it their conscience, to redress the laws; There the lord Grey as (whose faith did not amount Or malice to a wrong-plac'd sov'reignty,

Unto the trust committed to his care) That caus'd them (more than wealth or life) desire Betrays his king, born to be strangly toss'd; Destruction, ruin, bloodshed, sword, and fire ? And late again attain'd, again is lost.

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But now against this disproportion bends

So much for absent York is acted here, The feeble king" all his best industry;

Attending English hopes on th' Irish coast : And from abroad, Skales, Lovel, Kendal sends, Which when, unlook'd for, they related were, To hold the city in fidelity;

Ambition (still on horseback) comes in post, The city, which before (for other ends)

And seems with greater glory to appear; Was wrought to leave the part of royalty :

As made the more by b’ing so long time lost: Where though the king's command was of no pow'r; And to the parli'ment with state is led, Yet work these lords so, that they took the Tow'r. Which his associates had fore-summoned.

And from thence labour to bring in again
The outlet will of disobediency;
Send terrour, threats, entreaties, but in vain.
Warwick and March 20 are with all jollity
And grace receiv'd. The city's 21 Jove did gain
The best part of a crown: for whose defence,
And entertaining still, stays Salisbury 22,
Whilst March and Warwick other fortunes try;

And com’n into the chamber of the peers,
He sets himself down in the chair of state;
Where such an unexpected face appears
Of an amazed court, that gazing sat
With a dumb silence, (seeming, that it fears
The thing it went about t' effecluate)
As if the place, the cause, the conscience gave
Bars to the words their forced course should have.

19 The king (from Coventry) sends the lord 23 The battle of Northampton. Skales, the lord Lovel, the earl of Kendal, to Lon

24 The duke of Buckingham, the earl of Shrews.' don, with others, to keep the city in obedience.

bury, the lord Egremont, John viscount Beaumont, 20. The earls of March, Warwick, and Salisbury, sir William Lucy, slain. landing at Sandwich, were met by the archbishop 25 The lord Edmund Grey of Ruthen, who led of Canterbury; who, with his cross borne before the van-guard of king Henry, withdrew himself, him, accompanied them to London, an. reg. 38.

and took part with the lords. 21 The affection which the city of London bare 26 The king is conveyed to London; the Tower to the duke of York, was an especial mean for the yielded up to the lords, and the lord Skales (who raising of that line to the crown.

kept it) murthered. 22 The earl of Salisbury left ty keep the city. 27 The duke of Somerset.

'Tis strange those times which brought such hands “ It rests within your judgments to upright
for blood,

Or else to ruin utterly the land :
Had not bred tongues to make good any side ; For this be sure, I must pursue my right
And that po prostituted conscience stood,

Whilst I have breath, or I and mine can stand Any injustice to have justify'd ;

Think whether this poor state, b'ing in this plight, (As men of the forlorn hope, only good

Stands not in need of some up-raising hand; In desperatest acts to be employ'd)

Or whether 't is not time we should have rest, And that none in th' assembly there was found, And this confusion and our wounds redress'd.” That would tambitious descant give a ground: That ev'n himself (forc'd of necessity)

This said, he turns aside, and out he goes; Must be the orator of his own cause.

Leaves them to counsel what was to be done : For having view'd them all, and could espy

Where though the most part gather'd were of those None proftring once to speak; (all in a pause)

Who with no opposition sure would run; On this friend looks with an inviting eye,

Yet some, more temp'rate, offer'd to propose And then on that, (as if he woo'd applause)

That which was fit to be consider'd on : Holding the cloth of state still in his hand;

Who, though they knew his claim was fair in sight, The sign which he would have them understand.

Yet thought it now lack'd the right face of right: But see'ng none move; with an imperial port Since for the space of threescore years, the crown Gath'ring his spirits, he rises from his seat;

Had been in act possess’d, in three descents; Doth with such pow'r of words his cause support, Confirm'd by all the nobles of renown 2, As seems all others' causes to defeat.

The people's suffrages, oaths, parli'ments; “ And sure, who works his greatness in that sort,

So many acts of state, both of our own, Must have more pow'rs than those that are born great. And of all other foreign governments: Such revolutions are not wrought, but when “ That wrong, by order, may grow right by this; Those spirits do work, which must be more than men." Sith right th’ observer but of order is. He argues first his right, so long withheld By th' usurpation of the Lancasters;

“ And then consid'ring first how Bolingbroke, “ The right of a direct line, always held

Landing in Yorkshire but with threescore men, The sacred course of blood; our ancestors,

By the consent of all the kingdom, took Qur laws, our rev'rent customs have upheld

The crown upon him, held for lawful then: With holy hands. Whence when disorder errs,

His uncle York, and all the peers betook What horrours, what confusion do we see ;

Themselves to him, as to their soy'reign; when Until it be reduc'd where it should be ?

King Richard's wrongs, and his propinquity,

Did seem to make no distance in their eye. “ And how it prospers with this wretched land, Witness the universal misery,

“ Nor was without example in those days; Wherein (as if accurs’d) the realm doth stand; Wherein (as in all ages) states do take Depriv'd of state, wealth, honour, dignity: The side of public peace, to counterpaise The church, and commons, underneath the hand The weight of wrong, which time may rightful make Of violence, extortion, robbery.

No elderhood Rufus and Henry” stays No face of order, no respect of laws :

Th’imperial crown of England t' undertake: And thus complains of what himself is cause; And John before his nephew Arthur speeds; “ Accusing others' insolence, that they

Whom, though depriv'd, Henry his sou succeede. Exhausted the revenues of the crown; So that the king was forc'd only to prey

“ Edward the Third made sov'reign of the state Upon his subjects, poor and wretched grown:

Upon his father's deprivation was. And that they now sought Ireland to betray,

All which, though seeming wrongs, yet fairly sat And Calais to the French; which he had known In their succeeders, and for right did pass." By th' intercepted notes of their own hand, And if they could so work, t' accommodate Who were the only traitors of the land ;

And calm the peers, and please the populace ;

They wish'd the crown might where it stood remain, “ And yet procur’d th' attainders most unjust Succeeding inconvenience to restrain. Of others' guiltless and unspotted blood, Who evermore had labour'd in their trust,

Thus th' ancient fathers of the law advise, And faithful service for their country's good;

Grave baron Thorpe, and learned Fortescue; And who with extreme violence were thrust

Who though they could not fashion otherwise Quite out of all, spoild of their liveliboud,

Those strong-bent humours, which aversive gree; Expos’d to all the miseries of life;

Yet seem'd to qualify th' extremities, Which they endur'd, to put off blood and strife,

And some respect more to their sov'reign drew; “But since," saith he, " their malice hath no end, That, during life, it was by all agreed But t end us all, and to undo the land;

He should be king, and York should him succeed. (For which the hateful French gladly attend, And at this instant have their swords in hand) And that the God of Heay'n doth seem to bend

22 Non confirmatur tracta temporis, quod de Unto our cause, whereto the best me stand;

jure ab initio non subsistit. And that this blood of mine so long time sought, 29 William Rufus and Hesry I. preferred before Reserved seems for something to be wrought : their elder brother,

Which presently enacted, was (beside)

But in the rise of his out-springing lust,
Proclaim'd throughout with all solemnities, Now in the last of hope receiv'd this fall;
And intermutually there ratify'd

Now that his working pow'rs so far bad thrust,
With protestations, vows, and oaths likewise ; That his desires had bat this step to all.
Built up with all the strength of form, t abide When, so near home, he seem'd past all distrust,
Whatever oppositions could arise ;

This unexpected wreck doth him befall:
And might have seem'd sure and authentical, This successor th' inberitor foregoes;
Had all this body of the state been all.

The play-game made of fortune, and his foes.
But Trent, thou kept'st a part ; Thames had not all: Whose young son, Rutland, (made the sacrifice
The north divided honour with the south; For others' sins, ere he knew how to sin)
And like pow'r held like greatness several : Brought only but to see this exercise
Where other right spake with another mouth; Of blood and wounds, ends ere he did begin :
Another heir another prince they call,

Whose tears, whose moan, whose lamentable cries,
Whom natural succession follow doth;

Could neither mercy nor compassion win.
The branch of kings, the true son of the crown; The branch of such a tree, though tender now,
To whom no father can but leave his own. Was not thought fit should any longer grow.

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The king, as husband to the crown, doth by
The wife's infe'ffment hold; and only here
Enjoys the same for life by courtesy ;
Without pow'r to dispose it otherwhere,
After his death, but as th' authority,
Order, and custom of succession bear:
And therefore Henry's act cannot undo
The right of him whom it belongs unto.

Which turning chance ťa long ungraced side,
Brings back their almost quelled hopes again;
And thrust them on to use the present tide
And flow of this occasion, to regain
Th’enthralled monarch, and to undecide
The late concluded act they held for vain;
And moves their armies, new refresh'd with spoil,
For more confusion, and for more turmoil:

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And this unnatural intrusion here

Victoriously proceeding unwithstood,
Of that attainted blood, out of all course,

Till at St. Alban's Warwick's forc'd t' a stand ".
Effected with confusion and with fear,

Whereas (to make his own undoing good)
Must be reduc'd to other terms of force.

The king is brought against himself to baud :
These insolencies justice cannot bear:

His pow'r and crown is set against his blood;
The sword (whereto they only had recourse) Forc'd on the side not of himself to stand.
Must cut this knot so intricately tyd,

Divided king! in what a case thou art,
Whose vain contrived ends are plain descry'd. To have thy hand thus bent against thy heart!
Thus they give out-and out the sword in hand And here this famous fatal place again
Is drawn for blood, to justify the same;

Is made the stage of blood-again these streets,
And by a side with many a worthy mann'd: Embru'd with slaughter, cover'd with the slain,
Great Somerset, Exeter, Buckingham,

Witness what desp'rate wrath with rancour meetse
With Clifford, Courtney, and Northumberland, But Fortune now is in another vein,
(Lords of as mighty courage, as of name) Another side her turning favour greets ;
Which all against York's forced courses bend; The king here lately lost, is now here won ;
Who having done, yet had not made an end : Still sure t' undo the side that he was on.
But to another work is forc'd to go,

Warwick "), with other genius than bis own,
The last turmoil lab'ring ambition had;

Had here to do, which made him see the face
Where pride and over-weening led him so, Of sad misfortune in the self-same town,
(For fortunes past) as made the issue sad. Where prosp'rous winning lately gave him grace:
For whether safer counsel would or no,

And Marg'ret here, this martial Amazon,
His yet unfurnish'd troops he desp’rate led Was with the spirit of her self in place;
From Sandall-Castle unto Wakefield Green, Whose labours fortune ev'n to pity stir,
Against far mightier forces of the queen.

And b'ing a woman, could but give it her.
Where round enclos'd by ambushments fore-laid ", The reputation and encouragement
Hard-working for his life, (but all in vain) Of Wakefield glory waken'd them to this:
With number and confusion over-laid,

And this seems now the full accomplishment
Himself and valiant Salsbury are slain ;

Of all their travail, all their combrances. With whom the most, and dearest blood decay'd For what can more disturb this government, of his courageous and advent'rous train:

When York, extinct, and Warwick conquerd ist
So short a life had those long hopes of his, Directing Sal'sb’ry left without a head,
Born not to wear the crown he wrought for thus; What rests there now that all's not finished ?

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30 The battle of Wakefield, where the duke of 31 The second battle at St. Albans. York is slain; the earl of Salisbury taken, and 33 The king is again recovered by the queen. beheaded at York; Edmund earl of Rutland, 33 The earl of Warwick, with the duke of Nora youngest son to the duke of York, murthered after folk, put to flight; and sir John Grey slain on the the battle, by the lord Clifford.

king's side.

Thus for the sick preserving Nature strives A reconcilement: which well entertain'd,
Against corruption and the loathsome grave, Was fairly now grown on, and nearly gain'd:
When out of Death's cold hand she back reprieves
Th' almost confounded spir'ts she fain would save; When with a thousand tongues swift-wing'd Fane
And them cheers up, illightens, and revives, And tells of March's gallant victories ; (comes,
Making faint sickness words of health to have, Who what withstands subdues; all overcomes;
With looks of life, as if the worst were past; Making his way through fiercest enemies :
When straight comes dissolution, and his last. As having now to cast in greater sums

The reck’ning of his hopes, that mainly rise. So fares it with this late revived queen;

His father's death gives more life unto wratb; Whose victories thus fortunately won,

And vexed valour greater courage bath.
Have but as only lightning motions been
Before th ruin that ensu'd thereon.

And now, as for his last, his lab'ring worth
For now another springing pow'r is seen,

Works on the coast which on fair Severu lies; Whereto (as to the new-arising Sun)

Whereto his father (passing to the north) All turn their faces, leaving those low rays Sent him to levy other fresh supplies : Of setting fortune, which no climber weighs. But hearing now what Wakefield had brought forth,

Imploring aid against these injuries, Now is young March more than a duke of York: Obtains from Gloc'ster, Worc'ster, Shrewsbury, For youth, love, grace,and courage, make him more; Important pow'rs to work his remedy. All which for Fortune's favour now do work, Who graceth freshest actors evermore;

Which he against Pembroke and Ormond 4 bends; Making the first attempt the chiefest work Whom Marg'ret (now upon her victory) Of any man's designs that strives therefore. With all speed possible from Wakefield sends, “ The after-seasons are not so well bless'd ; With hope to bave surpris'd him suddenly. For those first spir'ts make their first actions best." Wherein though she all means, all wit extends,

To th' utmost reach of wary policy; Now as the Lybian lion, when with pain

Yet nothing her avails—no plots succeed, The weary hunter hath pursu'd his prey

Tavert those mischiefs which the Heav'ns decreed From rocks to brakes, from thickets to the plain, And at the point thereon his hands to lay

For near the Cross 35 ally'd unto bis name, Hard by his hopes, his eye upon his gain,

He cross'd those mighty forces of bis foes, Out-rushing from his den, rapts all away; And with a spirit ordain'd for deeds of fame So comes young March their ends to disappoint, Their eager-fighting army overthrows; Who now were grown so near unto the point. Making all clear behind from whence he came,

Bearing down wholly what before him rose, The love of these important southern parts,

Like to an all-confounding torrent seems; Of Essex, Surrey, Middlesex, and Kent,

And was made more by Warwick's mighty streams. The queen had wholly lost ; as they whose hearts Grew ill affected to her government,

With th' inundation of which greatness, he * Upon th’ uncivil and presumptuous parts,

(Having no bounds of pow'r to keep him back) Play'd by the northern troops grown insolent;

March'd to the city: at whose entrance free, Whom though she could not govern otberwise,

No signs of joy, nor no applaudiog lack. Yet th' ill that's wrought for her, upon her lies.

Whose near approach when this sad queen did see,

(T avoid these rocks of her near threat'ning wreck) " So wretched is this execrable war,

With her griev'd troops northward she hence deThis civil sword—wherein though all we see

parts,

And leaves to youth and fortune these south parts Be foul, and all things miserable are, Yet most distressfull is the victory ; Which is not only th' extreme ruiner Of others, but her own calamity:

** Jasper earl of Pembroke, and James Balle, Where who obtains, what he would cannot do: earl of Ormond and Wiltshire. Their pow'r hath part, who help him thereunto."

36 The battle of Mortimer's Cross, where Oses

Tudor, father to the earl of Pembroke, who had The city 33, whose good-will they most desire, married king Henry's mother, was taken and be (Yet thereunto durst not commit their state) headed. Sends them not those provisions they require ; 36 The earl of Warwick, after his overthrow at Which seem'd restrained by the people's hate :

St. Alban's, retires with all the forces he could Yet March's help far off, and near this fire

make, and joins with the young duke of York; (To win them time) forc'd them to mediate

who coming to London, and received with all joy, a great council was presently called of the lords

spiritual and temporal; where king Henry was 13 The queen, after the battle of St. Alban's, sent adjudged insufficient for the government of the to the mayor of London for certain provisions: realm, and to be deprived of all regal authority; who, willing to furnish her therewithal, the com- and the duke of York elected for king, and after mons of the city stayed the same, and would not proclaimed by the name of Edward IV. March 4, permit the carts to pass. Whereupon the lord 1460), at the age of eighteen. And so Henry VI. mayor sent to excuse himself, and to appease the after he had reigned thirty-eight years, eight displeasure of the queen.“

months, was deposed.

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Glory with admiration ent’ring now,

Steals into England; is discovered ; Open'd that easy door to his intent,

Brought pris'ner to the Tow'r disgracefully. As that there needs not long time to allow

And Edward, whilst great Warwick doth assay
The right he had unto the government;

A match in France, marries the lady Grey.
Nor Henry's injuries to disavow,
Against his oath, and th' act of parliament.
“. For here the speedi'st way he takes t'accord
Diff'rence in law, that pleads it with the sword.” On yet, sad Verse—though those bright stars from

whence Gather'd to see his muster'd companies,

Thou had'st thy light, are set for evermore;
Stood all the flocking troops of London streets,

And that these times do not like grace dispense
When Falconbridge (with gentle feeling) tries To our endeavours, as those did before:
How strong the pulse of their affection beats; Yet on-since she, whose beams do re-incense
And reck’ning up the grievous miseries,

This sacred tire, seems as reserv'd in store
And desolation which the country threats, (king; To raise this work, and here to have my last,
Ask'd them, “ whom they would have to be their Who had the first of all my labours past.
To lead those troops, and state in form to bring ?"

On, with her blessed favour, and relate
Whereto, with such an universal shout,

With what new bloodshed this new-chosen lord
“ The earl of March," the multitude replies, Made his first entry to th' afflicted state;
As the rebounding echo straight throughout Pass'd his first act of public with the sword;
(From tow'r to tow'r reverberated) ties

Engor'd his new-worn crown; and how he gat
To th' ears of those great lords, who sat about Possession of affliction, and restor'd
The cousultation for this enterprise.

His right unto a royal misery,
Whose care is sav'd, which most they stood upon; Maintained with as bloody dignity.
For what they counsel how to do, is done.

Show how our great Pharsalian field was fought
And nothing now, but to confirm him king, At Towton' in the north; the greatest day
Remains (which must not long remain) to do: Of ruin that dissention ever brought
The present heat doth straight dispatch the thing, Unto this kingdom. Where two crowns did sway
With all those solemn rites that 'long thereto: The work of slaughter-two kings causes wrought
So that what York, with all his travailing,

Destruction to one people, by the way
Force and intrusion, could not get unto;

Of their affections, and their loyalties; Is now thus freely laid upon his son,

As if one for these ills could not suffice. Who must make fair what foully was begun.

Where Lancaster, and that courageous side, Whose end attain'd, had it here made an end (That noble constant part) came furnished Of foul destruction, and had stay'd the blood

With such a pow'r, as might have terrify'd Which Towton, Exham, Tewksbury did spend

And over-run the Earth ; had they been led With desprate hands, and deeper wounds withstood; The way of glory, where they might have try'd And that none other crown brought to contend

For th' empire of all Europe, as those did With that of his, had made his seem less good ;

The Macedonian led into the east; How had this long-afflicted land been bless'd!

Their number being double at the least. Our sighs had ended, and my Muse had rest.

And where brave York comes as completely mann'd

With courage, valour, and with equal might; Which now (but little past half her long way)

Prepar'd to try with a resolved hand Stands trembling at the horrours that succeed;

The metal of bis crown, and of his right: Weary with these embroilments, fain would stay

Attended with his fatal fire-brand Her further course, unwilling to proceed:

Of war, Warwick, that blazing star of fight! And fain to see that glorious holiday

The comet of destruction ! that portends
Of union which this discord re-agreed,

Confusion and distress, what way he tends.
Knows not as yet what to resolve upon,
Whether to leave off here, or else go on.

What rage, what madness, England, do we see?
That this brave people, in such multitude
Run to confound themselves! and all to be
Thus mad for lords, and for mere servitude!
What might have been, if (Roman like, and free)

These gallant spirits had nobler ends pursu'd,
HISTORY OF THE CIVIL WAR.

| Edward being proclaimed and ackuowledged
BOOK VIII.

for king, presently sets forward towards the north,
to encounter with king Henry VI. who, in York-
shire had assembled a puissant army of near sixty

thousand men; and at a place called Towton,
THE ARGUMENT.

about four miles from York, both their powers King Edward pow'r against king Henry led, met; where was fought the greatest hattle our And hath at Towton-field the victory:

stories mention in all these civil wars: where both From whence king Heary into Scotland fled, the armies consisted of above one hundred thousand Where he attempts his state's recovery:

men, and all of our own natiou.

THE

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