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During 1927 a whole time European Agriculturist was appointed for the instruction of natives in agriculture. By 1937 the European staff had been increased by an Assistant Agriculturist, 2 Soil Survey Officers and a Soil Conservation Officer.
Considerable progress has been made in the agricultural demonstration work on Native Reserves and during 1937 there were 4 trained Native Agricultural Supervisors, €3 Agricultural, 12 Community Demonstrators, 1 Irrigation Supervisor, 5 Irrigation Demonstrators, and 4 Erosion Control Demonstrators serving in the various demonstration centres. There is an increasing tendency among the natives to adopt co-operatively methods of European farming.
In December, 1937, the number of public and aided European schools, including 1 vocational school, a primary teachers' training centre, a reformatory and Correspondence classes conducting primary work, was 120 with 10,750 pupils. The public expenditure on education during the year 1937 was 335,4041., and educational revenue amounted to 77,5791.
At the beginning of 1928 a Native Education Department, now known as the Native Development Department, was formed which is entirely separate from the European Education Department. Facilities are now available for stricter supervision and correlation of curricula which are necessary if progress is to be made. All of the Native Schools are run by Missionary Societies with the exception of two Government Schools. All schools receive Government
grants on a capitation basis. The number of grantearning Native Schools at the beginning of 1937 was 1,291, and the number of pupils was 104,483. The total expenditure of the Government on Native Development amounted to 128,032 in 1937-38, including Grants-in-aid estimated at 60,7241.
the Victoria Falls on the River Zambesi, and the production of chrome iron ore and asbestos is of importance in the markets of the world. The following shows the mineral output from Southern Rhodesia during 1937 :
GOLD.-That gold was obtained from Rhodesia in very early times is evidenced from the innumerable ancient workings," the ruins of temples and forts supposed to date from the time of the Himyarites and Phoenicians, and the discovery of gold beads, gold plates, fine chains, wire, nails, etc. From the occupation of the country in 1890 by the British South Africa Company when the European population amounted to about 500 persons, consisting of the pioneers and a few officials, up to September, 1898, the gold produced only amounted to 6,470 ounces.
Since that date the mining industry has been greatly developed, numerous mines are producing gold, and in 1937 the output was valued at 5,656,6931. Large beds of coal of excellent quality are worked at Wankie, about 212 miles from Bulawayo, and 70 miles from
Owing to the munificent bequests of the late Cecil
Rhodes and Alfred Beit and to the abolition of tuition
fees in all schools early in 1935, largely increased educational facilities are now afforded. Scholarships and Bursaries are granted to pupils in the country itself, and to matriculated Rhodesian students who continue their education at the various institutions of university standing in South Africa. In addition, there are nine "Rhodes Scholarships" (three per annum), which enable Rhodesian boys to take a three years' course at the University of Oxford.
There were also open at the end of 1937, 10 public Average number employed ..
and aided schools for Coloured and Asiatic children.
Chrome ore, tons
Tungsten concentrates, tons
804,219 57,014 1,134,656* 303,817 275
In addition to the above, iron pyrites, silver, tin concentrates, mica, ochre, lead, antimony, diamonds, nickel ore, corundum and tantalum were produced in small quantities in 1937.
The total value of the mineral production from the commencement to 31st December, 1937, amounted 139,429,6731., of which gold accounted for 106,235,8541.
Mortality and Labour on Mines (Native Labourers),
The daily average numbers of Natives employed and the mortality rates from Disease, Accident and All Causes in 1937 are shown below:
Death Rate per annum-
Number and Causes of Death.
839 168 1,007
Agriculture and Lands. Livestock.-Southern Rhodesia as a whole is a well watered country, suitable in most parts for mixed farming. In the southern section, where the rainfall is lower, the conditions are favourable for ranching. European breeds of cattle do well under most conditions, but it is generally considered desirable to maintain a proportion of the indigenous blood in the female breeding stock in areas where supplementary feed in the dry season is difficult to produce in sufficient quantities.
There is a good local market for beef cattle and a regular export trade in chilled and frozen beef and beef products has been in progress since 1931. This export trade has established a definite outlet capable of great expansion for Rhodesian products in the United Kingdom.
The Dairy Industry has shown much progress in have now reached a high standard. Pigs do exceprecent years and the better dairy herds in the Colony tionally well and an export trade in frozen pigs, porkers and baconers to the United Kingdom has With proper care sheep do well in most parts of the been started which appears to hold out much promise.
† Value of amount sold and estimated value of coal used for coke.
Colony. Woolled sheep have so far done best on the Eastern Border, but small flocks of Blackhead Persian and Native sheep are common throughout the Colony. There is room for considerable expansion in this industry. The poultry industry is making progress and has not yet been exploited to the limits of its possibilities.
Chilled and Frozen Meat.-Under agreement with the Government, Liebigs (Rhodesia) Limited have opened Meat Extract works at West Nicholson, capable of handling 25,000 to 45,000 head of cattle annually, and the Cold Storage Commission of Southern Rhodesia, financed by the Government of this Colony, has now taken over the export works for chilled and frozen meat in Bulawayo. This plant has a capacity at present of 1,200-1,500 tons of chilled and frozen meat monthly besides the usual by-products.
Cereals, etc.-Maize is the staple grain crop, and the Colony has specialised in the production of the flat whites used overseas chiefly for manufacturing purposes. The quality of Rhodesian maize is second to none, and in the season 1936-37 some 2,039,341 bags (203 lbs. weig t) of this grain were grown by the European farmers.
The climate of the greater part of the Colony is sub-tropical, and while maize remains the principal grain crop, European cereals are also grown together with potatoes, beans, buckwheat, linseed, and oil yielding crops such as ground nuts and sunflower, the two latter being sold to the local mills for oil extraction and the manufacture of oil seed cake, any surplus being exported.
Tobacco. The set-back experienced by the tobacco industry during the seasons 1927-28 and 1928-29 caused a serious reduction in the area planted to tobacco, but a period of recovery has now definitely set in and the production of tobacco, largely under the influence of the preference on the British Market is again increasing, and for 1936-37 the farm crop totalled 22,048,804 lbs.
Southern Rhodesia is eminently capable of producing a high-grade type of leaf, the lighter soils producing a particularly bright Virginian variety, usually flue-cured.
Attention is now being directed to the establishing of oversea markets on which the future development of this crop depends and two tobacco auction floors have been established in Salisbury.
Cotton.-There are indications that parts of Southern Rhodesia will eventually become cotton producing areas. The country is equipped with first-class facilities for ginning the cotton crop, and turning out high-density bales suitable for export to Liverpool and the Continent. The question of the most suitable variety of cotton has been receiving the attention of the Government, who have established
cotton breeding and Experiment Station at Gatooma. The Empire Cotton Growing Corporation are collaborating with the Government of Southern Rhodesia in their endeavour to establish the industry on a sound basis, and an Act was passed during the 1936 Session of Parliament providing for the establishment of a Board to supervise research work on cotton and to assist the development of the cotton industry.
The cotton crop for 1936-37 totalled 672,239 lbs. of seed cotton.
Fruit. The major fruit crop of the Colony is the Citrus; 162,352 boxes of fruit were exported in 1937. Part of the crop is converted into fruit juices and essential oils which find a ready sale in overseas markets.
The principal particulars relating to the agricul tural, livestock and allied industries are as follows:
1,000 lbs. 1,000 lbs.
TOTAL PIGS.. D.-Animal Products, Made and Sold. Commodity. Unit.
2,039,341 672,239 22,048,804
Land Settlement.-Southern Rhodesia offers many advantages to those seeking an opportunity for the investment of capital, to those looking for a country in which to settle and make homes and also to the tourist and big game hunter. Full information for prospective settlers can be obtained from the Department of Lands, Salisbury. On the arrival of settlers in the country, this Department will also render assistance and advice towards their acquiring the necessary knowledge of local farming conditions, for obtaining training with well known and successful farmers and eventually, if desired, for the purchasing of land. No charge is made for these services, nor for similar assistance obtainable from the staff of the Department of Agriculture amongst whose members there are specialists dealing with each of the more important branches of the agricultural industry. Special efforts are made to safeguard the interests of new settlers in the matter of the purchase of land.
Crown Land in Southern Rhodesia may be acquired from the Department of Lands of the Government, subject to reasonable occupation and development conditions. Crown Land is alienated usually under Agreement of lease or Agreement of purchase terms. The rental under the former is based on 4% of the total purchase price. Under an agreement purchase, the purchase price of the land is repayable in 20 equal annual instalments, without interest except on overdue instalments, the first being payable as at date of Grant, and, if the land is unimproved, and the Grantee holds no other land, a free period of three years is granted, before the 2nd instalment becomes due, at the discretion of the Government. Should there be improvements on the land, 1-20th is payable as at date of grant, and the balance, bearing interest at 4%. is repayable together with the instalments on the land. Should an agreement of purchase be issued on expiration of a lease, the rental paid on the land is credited to the purchase price. Should land be sold for cash, occupation and development for a period of five years are usually insisted upon. On com. pletion of an agreement of purchase, Title is issued subject to payment of Land Grant Stamp and Title Registration fee. A Title Deed gives the holder the freehold of the land.
During 1938, with the object of encouraging immigration of British subjects from the United Kingdom into Southern Rhodesia, a scheme financed by the two Governments, was introduced, whereby grants towards the cost of steamship and rail fares up to a maximum of 351. are made to immigrants selected by the Selection Committee of the 1820 Settlers' Association in London in co-operation with the Southern Rhodesian Government Immigration Committee. The address of the latter organisation is-The Secretary, Southern Rhodesia Government Immigration Committee, P.O. Box 1242, Salisbury,
Customs duties were first imposed in this Colony in 1899, and agreements were then entered into with the Cape Government and the Bechuanaland Protectorate Administration for a payment of the share of the duties collected upon goods removed from one territory to the other. These arrangements terminated in 1901, and until 1903 this Government collected the whole of its own duties.
Excise duties were imposed in 1901.
In 1903 this Colony joined the South African Customs Union, which terminated in 1910, owing to the Union of the Southern Colonies, and was replaced by Customs agreements between this Colony and the Union, Northern Rhodesia, and the Territories of the South Africa High Commission.
As the result of a conference held early in 1930, a new Customs Agreement was entered into with the Union of South Africa, and in the same year further agreements were concluded with Northern Rhodesia and Bechuanaland Protectorate.
The 1930 Agreement with the Union of South Africa was terminated with effect from the 31st March, 1935, and was replaced by a Trade Agreement which commenced to operate on the 1st April. The new agreement differed in many important respects from its predecessor, among the foremost of its provisions being those contained in Articles III and VI wherein the imposition of Customs duties on imports into one territory of the domestic produce of the other territory was substituted for the previous system of inter-governmental credits and debits. The rates of duty leviable on such imports were those applicable to similar goods imported from the United Kingdom rebated by a basic percentage of 20 per cent. and by varying percentages in the case of specified articles. Imported merchandise reexported from one territory to the other also became liable to duty, the former arrangements regarding transference of the duty originally collected in the country of export being cancelled. Virginia and 400,000 lbs. Turkish leaf tobacco, which In place of the fixed amount of 2,000,000 lbs. under the 1930 Agreement secured free admission into the Union from Southern Rhodesia, the new Agreement provided for the regulation, after 30th June, 1936, of imports of Southern Rhodesian leaf tobacco by the Union Tobacco Control Board. Further limitations were also imposed on the trade with the Union in slaughter cattle.
The rates of Customs duties levied in Southern Rhodesia on food, drink, and tobacco are mainly specific, whereas those levied on other classes of commodities are mainly ad valorem.
There is, however, a large range of commodities, e.g., railway and mining material and many others, which are free of duty when imported from British countries, and these countries supply the bulk of the imports in these lines.
In the case of a large number of dutiable goods imported from the United Kingdom or reciprocating British Dominions it was provided under the "* Rhodes Clause" that the duties thereon should not exceed 9 per cent. ad valorem. The duty on most of these articles has now been raised to 10 per cent. ad valorem. The duties levied on the same classes of goods when imported from foreign countries mostly range from 15 per cent. to 25 per cent. ad valorem, with alternative specific rates in many cases which exceed the ad valorem rates mentioned.
For financial reasons all items previously tariffed at 3 per cent. ad valorem when imported from foreign countries have since March, 1931, paid a duty of 5 per cent, ad valorem. Such goods when imported from British countries are usually free of duty.
Customs Houses are established at the following ports of entry, viz. :
Beira, Bulawayo, Gwelo, Plumtree, Salisbury, Umtali, and Beitbridge.
The net amount of Customs and Excise Revenue collected amounted to 782,768!. in 1934, 786,8061. in 1935, and 803,3361. in 1936.
The values of the principal commodities imported (exclusive of Government Stores) into the Colony during 1937 were as follows. The corresponding figures for 1936 are in brackets :-Cotton piece goods 528,2221. (356,0591.); motor cars 360,4741. (349,0651.); mining machinery 286,7051. (221,7191.); apparel, outer garments 279,3611. (242,2451.); industrial machinery, not included elsewhere 270,9147. (256,6801.); electrical machinery 247,1321. (127,4881.); motor spirit 246,0461. (286,6841.); motor trucks 210,1297. (175,7131.) rails, heavy 161,6721. (173,2411.); other railway material 172,1757. (124,0617.); bicycles, tricycles and parts 139,1367. (81,5897.); blasting compounds 131,0411. (122,6851.); blankets and rugs, cotton 125,1051. (71.7321.); electric cable and wire 122,9131. (49,1281.); sodium cyanide 112,620. (118,154/.) ; cotton underclothing 106,5831. (90,3511.); whisky 94,4791. (86,9651.); fertilisers 92,410l. (76,7791.); wooden furniture 88,8901. (66,9551.); motor car tyres 84,9521. (69,0531.); sugar 82,4861. (62,7481.); bags, jute for grain 78,3991. (70,2181.); gold bar 75,8801. (42,3127.); soft haberdashery 75,0517. (60,2971.); iron and steel pipes and pipings 72,850l. (47,5917.); motor trucks chassis 70,2851. (35,5271.); ploughs 66,6987. (44,2791.); iron and steel sheets, galvanised and corrugated 63,1987. (44,3721.); wheat in the grain 61,7411. (52,499.); woollen and other underclothing 61,570l. (42,810.).
The chief exports of domestic produce in 1937 were as follows, the corresponding figures for 1936 being shown in brackets:-Gold bar 5,614,091. (5,623,2031.); raw asbestos 1,230,1207. (959,2901.); unmanufactured tobacco 934,2047. (652,1547.); chrome ore 673,2581. (465,0301.); maize 506,3337. (313,1397.); coal 247,9107. (185,6467.); meats, fresh, frozen or chilled 225,6281. (157,7701.); cattle hides, wet 129.0431. (86,8201.); wooden railway sleepers 89,5901. (89,5671.); cattle hides, dry 83,4591. (57,8311.); preserved meat 68,6531. (71,9551.); cement 68,5021. (45,5981.); cigarettes 60,9951. (49,9781.); ale, beer and stout 54,8231. (38,570l.); coke and patent fuel 49,510l. (18,6907.); flour and meal wheaten 49,0491. (26,2851.).
During 1937 the value of gold bar was calculated at the price current on the day of export, and not, as hitherto, at the standard price of 4-247731. per fine oz. Export figures for the years 1935 and 1936 have been amended to include the value of the gold premium.
Other Foreign Countries
All imports are valued for Statistical purposes at the free-on-board price (free-on-rail for imports overland) to the importer. The retail or consumption value will be in excess of the above figures.
The principal destinations of exports of private merchandise in 1937 were as follows:
£1,000 1933 2,092 1934 2,400 1935 2,975
Exports are valued at the selling price free-on-rail at the place of despatch, including the cost of packing and packages.
Amount. Proportion of Total.
Trade with United Kingdom, 1933-37.
The value of goods Imported from and Exported to the United Kingdom for five years are given below:
Proportion of Total.
Imports of Exports of Private Merchandise. Private Merchandise.
Propor. tion of
Posts and Telegraphs.
All First Class Mail to and from the United
Kingdom and Southern Rhodesia is carried by the Empire Flying Boats of Imperial Airways between Southampton and Beira. From Beira the mail is conveyed to Northern and Southern Rhodesia by the Rhodesian and Nyasaland Airways. The time of the journey between England and Salisbury is five days and the postage rate 1d. a half ounce.
Other mails to and from the United Kingdom and Southern Rhodesia are conveyed by the mail steamers of the Union Castle Company between Southampton and Cape Town, and conveyed thence by rail to Bulawayo and Salisbury.
The rate for inland letters is 1d. per ounce. Letters to all countries in the British Empire are now carried by Air Mail, the rate being 1d. per half ounce. Letters to foreign countries are normally carried by ordinary mail at 3d. for the first ounce and 2d. for each additional ounce; if transported by Air Mail the rate is considerably higher and varies for the countries concerned.
On the 31st of December, 1937, 247 post and telegraph offices were open in Southern Rhodesia, at 51 of which Savings Bank business was transacted. Telegraph Money Orders are also exchanged with Northern Rhodesia, Mocambique, the Union of South Africa, the United Kingdom, and Nyasaland.
The Southern Rho desia Telegraph and Telephone system extends from Ramathlabama, on the northern border of the Cape Province, to Zinto in Portuguese East Africa. The magnitude of the combined Telegraph and Teleph one systems at the end of 1937 was as follows:--
Telegraphs and Telephones.-Length of line 8,103 miles; length of wire, 39,925 miles.
At the 31st December, 1937, there were 5,676 subscribers to the various telephone exchanges.
The Post Office Savings Bank was established in 1905. Up to the 31st December, 1937, the total amount deposited since 1905, including accrued interest, was 4,589,0661., and the amount withdrawn was 3,875,0491. 720,7641. was invested in Trustee Securities at 31st December, 1937.
The main avenues of expenditure (including loan expenditure) in 1937-38* were :-Service of Loans, 492,7651.; Agriculture and Lands, 367,2641.; Police Public Works, 301,3351.; Roads, 395,1601.; Posts, and Defence, 340,1571.; Education, 337,0881.; Health and Hospitals, 257,8941.; Native Affairs, Telegraphs and Telephones, 285,1021.; 173,8971.; Mines, 172,800l.; Pensions and Gratuities, 148,6811.; Native Development, 128,0321.
The accumulated Revenue surplus over Expenditure at 31st March, 1938, was 366,3021.
The Public Debt at 31st March, 1938, amounted to 12,367,2241.
The Budget for 1938-39.
For the financial year ended 31st March, 1939, the Finance Minister's estimate of ordinary Revenue was 3.320,000!. Tax Revenue was estimated to yield 2,384,750l. and non-Tax Revenue 935,2501.
Expenditure out of Revenue was put at 3,456,4071. and the estimated Expenditure to be defrayed from Loan Funds was put at 1,409,0647.
There are High Courts at Salisbury and Bulawayo, while the High Court Judges hold Circuit Courts as required at Umtali, Gwelo, Umvuma and Fort Victoria. In addition there are 8 Magistrates' Courts and 38 Assistant Magistrates' and Native Commissioners' Courts.
SOUTHERN RHODESIA GOVERNMENT.
Governor, Sir Herbert Stanley, G.C.M.G., 4,000., 1,000l. personal allowance and 1,000l. entertainment allowance.
Secretary, C. P. Forder.
Comptroller, Maj. L. Holbech, D.S.O., O.B.E., M.C. A.D.C., Capt. P. A. S. Robertson.
The Governor and Members of the Ministry. Clerk of Council, C. P. Forder.
Members of the Ministry.
Prime Minister and Minister of Native Affairs, Hon.
Minister of Mines and Public Works, Lt.-Col. Hon. E. Lucas Guest, O.B.E.
Unaudited figures. † Includes 192-11., expenditure from accumulated surpluses.
Minister of Internal Affairs, Hon. Sir P. D. L. Fynn. C.M.G.