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PART II.-- C.
ACCOUNT, WITH PUBLIC ESTABLISHMENTS, OF THE COLONIES AND OTHER TERRITORIES WITH WHICH THE COLONIAL OFFICE IS CONCERNED.
The peninsula of Aden is situated in lat. 12° 47' N. and long. 45° 10' E., about 100 miles east of the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb, on the Arabian coast. The colony of Aden (the total area of which, exclusive of Perim, is 75 square miles) consists of two old craters forming rocky peninsulas: -Aden proper (area 21 square miles: population 34,471), on the south, and Little Aden (area 15 square miles) on the west-and a flat strip of coast, about three miles broad (area 39 square miles; population, including Sheikh Othman, Imad, and Hiswa, 12,167). The peninsulas form the horns of a bay called Aden Back Bay, which is about eight miles broad from east to west and about four miles deep. Its entrance is about three miles across. The native town of Aden is situated on the east of the Aden peninsula, opposite a gap in the crater walls. On the west side of the peninsula, some five miles from the town, is Steamer Point, off which the large steamers lie. The highest point of the peninsula is 1,725 feet above sea level. The average annual rainfall is about 3 inches, and the maximum is about 8 inches. The climate is very hot and damp, especially during the summer months.
Aden, after being a trade centre under its native kings, became subject in succession to the Abyssinians, the Persians and the early Caliphs. In 1539 it was captured by the Turks, who lost it some years later, but captured it again in 1551 and held it until they evacuated the Yemen in 1630. The Aden peninsula was occupied by the
British in 1839, and in 1868 Little Aden was obtained by purchase. The coastal strip between the two peninsulas was secured by purchases in 1882 and 1888.
Aden is an important oil fuel and bunkering station, and also an entrepôt for the trade with Arabia and other adjacent territories. The exports consist of coffee, gums, skins and hides, cotton goods, dyes, feathers, spices, etc.
Aden is a free port and there is no customs tariff. Excise duty is, however, levied on spirits, wines and beer, perfumed spirits, intoxicating and dangerous drugs on a specific duty basis.
ADMINISTRATION OF THE COLONY.
Under the provision of the Government of India Act, 1935, the administrative control of the Aden Settlement was transferred from the Government of India to that of the Colonial Office with effect from 1st April, 1937, from which date Aden assumed the status of a Crown Colony.
The administration of the Colony is vested in the Governor and Commander-in-Chief, who is assisted by an Executive Council.
In spite of the transfer in control it is intended that there should be as great a degree of continuity as possible in the machinery and methods of Government. This will involve the retention of the spirit and in many cases of the letter of existing laws and regulations, the preservation in judicial cases of the right of appeal to the High Court of Bombay, the
continued use of Indian currency and the maintenance of the port as a free port.
The management of the port is under the control of the Board of Trustees formed in 1888. Of recent years the harbour has been deepened so as to permit vessels of up to 33 feet draft to enter and leave at all states of the tide.
The police force consists of land, harbour, and armed police.
The Executive Committee of the Aden Settlement performs all municipal functions in Aden.
PERIM, a bare rocky island, five square miles in area, with a population of 1,700, lies in the Straits of Beb-el-Mandeb, about 1 miles from the south-west corner of Arabia. It possesses a good harbour on the south-west side, with an entrance 860 yards in breadth. It was occupied by the British in 1799, but subsequently abandoned, and was only re-occupied in 1857, when the overland route to India made the position important. The Island of Perim was administered by the Agent of the Perim Coal Company at Perim, who was styled Government Agent, Perim, up to 10th November, 1936, from which date the Perim Coal Company closed their business on the Island. The administration is now in charge of the Commissioner of Police, Aden, who visits the island once a month by air. The harbour has been closed for shipping. The Sub-Treasury and Post Office have also been closed.
The Island forms part of the Colony of Aden.
The Kuria Muria Islands, five in number, off the Dhufar Coast of Oman, also form part of the Colony. They were ceded in 1854 by the Imam of Muscat. Only Hallaniya, the largest island, is inhabited. The people are Mahris.
ADEN PROTECTORATE. Boundaries.
The Aden Protectorate, which has an area of approximately 112,000 square miles, is bounded on of the Sultan of Muscat and Oman, and on the the East by Dhufar, which is part of the dominions North and West by the Great Desert and the Kingdom of Yemen, whose southern boundary was temporarily fixed by Article III of the Treaty of San'a (February, 1934) by which His Majesty's Government and the Yemen Government agreed to maintain the status quo frontier as it was on the date of the signature of the treaty. The coastline of the Aden Protectorate starts in the West from Husn Murad, opposite the Island of Perim, and it runs eastwards to Ras Dharbat 'Ali, where it meets the Sultanate of Muscat and Oman.
Up to the 18th century, the Aden Protectorate used to be in the hands of the Imam of San'a (capital of the Yemen of to-day) and several of the rulers of the tribal districts such as the 'Abdali, Haushabi, Amiri, Yafa'i and 'Aulaqi Sultans, were the Imam's "wakils or Governors until his power declined and they declared their independence. This occurred in 1728 in the case of the 'Abdali and 1758 in the case of the Yafa'i.
After the occupation of Aden by the British in 1839, most of the neighbouring Chiefs entered into
'Aqrabi, Sheikh Muhammad Fadhl Ba 'Abdullah, Capital Bir Ahmed.
'Audhali, Sultan Salih bin Husein, Capital Lodar.
Beihan, Sharif Salih bin Husein, Capital An Nuqub. Subeihi, Sheikh Muhammad bin 'Ali, the Barhimi
Sheikh. Sheikhs Muhammad 'Ali Ba Salih and Hawwash bin Sa'id, the 'Atifi Sheikhs.
The Eastern area comprises the Hadhramaut (consisting of the Qu'aiti State of Shihr and Mukalla and the Kathiri State of Seiyun), the Mahri Sultanate of Qishn and Socotra, the Wahidi Sultanates of Bir 'Ali (Sultan Nasir bin Thalab) and Bālihāf (Sultan 'Ali bin Muhsin), and the Sheikdoms of Irqa and Haura, all of which have been for many years in protective treaty relations with His Majesty's Government. His Highness Sultan Sir Salih bin Ghalib al Qu'aiti, K.Č.M.G., Sultan of Shihr and Mukalla, is the premier chief in the Eastern Aden Protectorate, and the Hadhramaut is the most important and best organised of these areas. It is bounded on the west by the Wahidi Sultanates and on the east by the Mahri Sultanate.
The Mahri Sultanate of Qishn and Socotra is the most easterly area in the Aden Protectorate, being bounded on the east by the Sultanate of Muscat and Oman. The Sultan of Qishn and Socotra resides on the island of Socotra (area 1,400 square miles), which lies 150 miles from Cape Guardafui. The island was occupied by the East India Company in 1834, and it came under British protection, together
with the neighbouring Abdal Kuri and Brothers Islands, in 1886, when the treaty with the Mahri Sultan was concluded. Socotra produces aloes, dragons' blood and ghee. The population is probably about 5,000; the island is rather less than 100 miles from east to west and about 30 miles broad. Its interior is mountainous and the Fidahan Hajr rises to nearly 5,000 feet. The capital is Hadibu, known on European maps as Tamrida.
The population of the whole Protectorate is roughly estimated to be about 600,000. The people are chiefly Muslims, nearly all being of the Shafa'i persuasion, but there are also a few Jews. The Western Aden Protectorate is divided into tribal confederations and Sultanates, and the inhabitants are, for the most part, settled or agricultural, though a few are nomadic. The indigenous type of Arab is chiefly confined to the littoral and to the maritime ranges. Further North and East in the Protectorate chiefly in Yafa'i and 'Aulaqi territory, there is a taller and more semitic type who came originally from the Yemen, especially from Jauf.
The climate is not unhealthy, and the nights are usually cool. The cultivated oases and river beds such as the Lahej delta, Abyan, and the Tiban and Bana valleys are malarious.
heat is fierce, but dry, by day. In the maritime hills and intramontaine plains the On the highland day time and in the summer, whilst the nights are plateaux it never gets unbearably hot even in the always cool. In the winter one often seeks the sun for choice, while, at night, the cold is severe, though frost is rare. The air in the highlands is invigorating and the climate delightful.
There is little rainfall in the littoral and maritime hills and intramontaine plains, and cultivation is chiefly dependent on irrigation from the water
On the highland plateaux water is obtained near the surface and irrigation is chiefly from wells which are numerous. There is more rainfall, while, in the summer, thunderstorms are frequent towards the evening and hail occasionally falls. The region is also liable to dense white mists which provide considerable moisture and are beneficial to agriculture.
On the southern fringes of the Great Desert rainfall is scarce, and the heat very fierce, contrasting with cool, and in the winter cold, nights.
The prevailing diseases are malaria, internal disorders and rheumatism. Bilharzia is common in the Tiban and Hardaba valleys, and guinea-worm is also met with. Consumptive cases are above the normal. Ophthalmia and cataract are fairly common, and the diseases of the eye are particularly common in the northern and coastal 'Aulaqi districts, perhaps on account of the frequent sand storms blowing
The only industries are weaving, dyeing, and charcoal burning, though some silver work is made by the Jewish community. Potash is manufactured in the 'Abdali and Fadhli districts. Sheep and goats are imported from Somaliland, while oxen, fodder, vegetables and fuel come in by caravan from the neighbouring districts.
there. Perhaps the most common complaint is the "Yemen" ulcer. This ulcer is not harmful if treated in its early stage, but, if neglected, as is often the case in the interior, where few opportunities for cure exist, it develops into a septic, spreading sore, often resulting in the loss of a leg. In some of the bigger towns where sanitation does not exist and flies abound, dysentery is common.
There are no railways or metalled roads in the Western Aden Protectorate. There are several natural roads which have been improved to take motor traffic. The chief of these are:
1. Sheikh Othman to Lahej.
2. Lahej to Museimir.
3. Lahej to the Yemen frontier towards Ta'iz. Lahej to the Yemen frontier towards Mafalis. 5. Lahej to Dhala'.
6. Khor Maksar to Abyan and Shuqra.
A rough road is under construction for motor traffic between Shuqra and the foot of the 'Audhali plateau. Recently, successful attempts have been made to take passengers by motor traffic to the 'Aulaqi district as far as the foot of the main 'Aulaqi range of mountains, the route being via Ahwar on the coast. Passengers have also been taken by taxi to the port of 'Irqa. In the absence of roads suitable for motor traffic, communication is chiefly by camel, though in the mountainous districts of Upper Yafa' mules or donkeys are more suitable.
The Royal Air Force maintain a number of landing, grounds in the Protectorate.
There is no civil aircraft service in the Western Aden Protectorate, but the firm of Messrs. A. Besse recently ran a service between Aden, Mukalla and the Hadhramaut which has been temporarily suspended.
Honey is largely exported from Yeshbum, and to a less extent from the 'Audhali, Yāf'a and Dhala' districts.
Trade in the Western Aden Protectorate is chiefly transit trade from the Yemen, from which coffee, skins and " qat" are exported, the latter being a plant cultivated in the Yemen, the leaves of which are chewed. Most of the coffee, however, is exported by sea. In return, kerosene oil, piece goods and food stuff are imported. All the main trade routes from the Yemen pass through Lahej, a town 15 miles north of Sheikh Othman, and the Sultan of Lahej's chief source of revenue is derived from transit dues, which make him the richest and most important chief in the Western Aden Protectorate.
His Majesty's Government does not directly administer the Aden Protectorate. In the Eastern Aden Protectorate there is a Resident Adviser to the Qu'aiti and Kathiri Sultans with a small staff, while the interests of the Western Aden Protectorate are looked after by a small cadre of Political Officers. At headquarters in Aden is the Political Secretary for the Protectorate, who is responsible to the Governor for Protectorate affairs. The Political Secretary has an assistant to help in Secretariat work.
The tribes nominate their own Chiefs, who have subsequently to be recognised by the Aden Government. The majority of the Chiefs have only limited control over their subjects, an outstanding exception being the Sultan of Lahej (or 'Abdali Sultan), whose wealth and trained military forces assist him.
There are no Government regular troops in the Aden Protectorate. In the Western Aden Protectorate the only Chiefs with trained troops are the Sultan of Lahej and, in a minor degree, the Amir of Dhala'. The Amir of Dhala' has, in addition, a small force of tribal guards. Other Chiefs with tribal guards are the Fadhli and Haushabi Sultans, and the Sharif of Beihan.
Latterly the Aden Government has raised a small force named "Government Guards" for police duties in the Protectorate. These, with the "tribal guards," are jointly known as Protectorate Guards." They were raised and trained by a Political Officer in whose charge they are, but whereas the Government Guards are paid and controlled entirely by His Majesty's Government, the Tribal Guards are under the direct control of the Tribal Chief concerned, who also contributes to their upkeep.
Towns, Ports and Water Courses.
The chief towns in the Western Aden Protectorate are Lahej, Dhala', Shuqra, Lodar, Ahwar, Yeshbum, Nisab and Beihan al Qasab. Upper Yaf'a has several large settlements, the largest being Beni Bak.
The chief ports are Shuqra, Masani' (Ahwar), 'Irqa and Haura. The chiefs of the two latter have Protective Treaties with His Majesty's Government.
THE HADHRAMAUT STATES.
The Qu'aiti Rulers of Shihr and Mukalla entered into a Treaty with His Majesty's Government in 1882 in which they bound themselves not to cede any parts of their territories to any person or power other than the British Government without the consent of the British Government. In addition the Qu'aitis bound themselves to abide by the advice and conform to the wishes of the British Government in all matters relating to their dealings with neighbouring chiefs and foreign powers.
Prior to this treaty the Qu'aiti Jemadar of Shihr and the Kasadi Nakib of Mukalla had entered into agreements for the abolition of the slave trade in 1873, and an even earlier agreement (1863) had been made with the latter on the same subject. The treaty of 1882 was strengthened in 1888 by the conclusion of a Protectorate in the common form of the treaties with the Protectorate chiefs, and in 1918 the Kathiri Sultans of the Hadhramaut made an agreement with the Qu'aiti Sultan whereby the for mer acknowledged that this treaty was binding on them. This agreement provided for the conduct of relations between the Qu'aiti and Kathiri Sultanates and
acknowledged that the Province of Hadhramaut | BRITISH EMPIRE. should be one province, an appanage of the British Empire under the Sultan of Shihr and Mukalla.
Shihr and Mukalla.
Sultan, His Highness Sultan Sir Salih bin Ghalib al
The Qu'aiti State of Shihr and Mukalla on the Gulf of Aden is bounded on the West by the Wahidi and 'Aulaqi Sultanates and the Kingdom of Yemen, on the North by the Great Desert and on the East by the Mahri Sultanate. The Kathiri State forms an enclave on the North.
The country is large in extent but the greater part of its surface consists of barren mountains intersected by Wadis, some of which are fertile and cultivated. Of these the most important are the Wadis Meifa, Hajr, Du'an, Leisar, and part of the Wadi Hadhramaut. The principal crops are millet, sesame, beans and wheat. These are all consumed loca ly, but Hamumi tobacco is exported and so is Du'an honey. The other exports are principally fish products.
The Capital and the Residence of the Sultan is Mukalla (population about 16,000); Shihr is also an important port and both are visited by ocean-going ships. The country is divided into five provinces. There are several hundred miles of motorable tracks, including the Al Kaf Road, which is under separate administration and links Tarim with Shihr. Other tracks are under construction.
The population is estimated at about 200,000, and the revenue and expenditure are about 7 and 6 lakhs of rupees respectively.
The relations between the Qu'aiti State and His Majesty's Government are governed by the treaties referred to above and by a treaty of 1937 by which His Majesty's Government agreed to appoint a Resident Adviser.
Resident Adviser, W. H. Ingrams, C.M.G., O.B.E., 1,000l., 4007. personal, 2001. entertainment, and quarters.
Assistant, E. C. Figgis, 7007.-8001.
The Kathiri State of Seiyun is bounded on the North by the Great Desert and on all other sides by the Qu'aiti State. The Kathiri country was formerly of great extent: it still includes the most fertile portion of the Wadi Hadhramaut and its tributary Wadis such as Wadis Adim and Bin 'Ali. Its crops are mainly grain and dates, which are all consumed locally, but cotton grows well and this may develop into an export. The Capital and Residence of the Sultan is Seiyun (population about 18,000), but Tarim is also a large and important city which is joined with the port of Shihr by the Al Kaf Road, constructed by the Al Kaf Seiyids, who spend large sums on the advancement of the country. Kathiri towns and villages are mostly accessible by motor. The population is estimated at about 58,000 and contains a large number of extremely well-to-do people, who live mostly on remittances from the East Indies.
The relations between the Kathiri State and His Majesty's Government are governed by the Qu'aiti Treaty of 1886 and the Kathiri agreement of 1918. Resident Adviser, W. H. Ingrams, C.M.G., O.B.E.
TRADE AND FINANCE.
The percentages of sea-borne trade with the United Kingdom, other parts of the British Empire, and the principal foreign countries for the year 1937-38 are appended.
Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Colony and Protectorate of Aden, Lt.-Col. Sir Bernard Rawdon Reilly, K.C.M.G., C.I.E., O.B.E.
Private Secretary and A.D.C., Flying Officer M. N.
Air Officer Commanding British Forces in Aden,
Finance Officer, A. Muchmore.
Political Officers, Capt. B. W. Seager, Hon. R. A. B.
Auditor, H. W. Skinner (is also Auditor of
Director of Education, J. P. Attenborough.