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From 1st January, 1933, a package tax is levied under Ord. No. 34 of 1932, on certain goods imported into the Colony.
The percentage of trade in 1937 was as follows
The Governor, President
The Treasurer and Collector of
F. L. Squibbs.
Other parts of British Empire.. 40
W. F. Stephens, C.B.E.
Clerk, O. Ward-Horner.
Governor and Commander-in-Chief, Sir Arthur F.
There are lighthouses on Denis Island 53 miles north of Mahé, on Mamelles Island 9 miles north of Victoria, and in Victoria Harbour, on Dennis Island and Mamelles Island (9 miles north-east of Mahé in long. 55° 32′ 20′′ E., and lat. 4° 29′ S. and in Victoria Harbour. The light installed on Capucin Point, discontinued on the 31st July, 1922, was re-exhibited on the 4th December, 1931. The quarantine station is placed on Long Clerk to Governor and Clerk to Councils, O. WardIsland opposite to Victoria.
Senior Medical Officer, E. M. Lanier, M.D., M.R.C.S.,
Assistant Medical Officer, South Mahé District,
Assistant Medical Officer, Praslin District, P. M. Joseph, M.B., B.S. (Madras), Rs. 4,000 (with quarters and private practice).
Director of Education, C. B. Smith, M.A., Rs. 8,000.
Postmaster, S. Mathiot, Rs. 3,600.
Department of Agriculture.
Director of Agriculture, F. L. Squibbs, Rs 7,000.
Public Works Department.
Superintendent of Public Works and Surveys, H. Tonnet, Rs. 5,500 (with Rs. 500 for quarters).
Victoria Town Board.
Chairman, Armand Sauvage.
Netherlands, P. V. Hunt (Honorary Vice-Consul).
France, H. de Caila (Consular Agent).
Situation and Area.
The territory known as the Colony and Protectorate of Sierra Leone is an area of some 27,925 square miles, roughly circular in shape, lying between 6° 55′′ and 10 of N. lat., and 10° 16" and 13° 18" of W. long. The sea coast, 210 miles in length, extends from Kiragba at 9° 2" on the border of French Guinea, to the Mano River at lat. 6° 55" N. on the border of the Republic of Liberia.
The Colony portion of this area, i.e. the territories acquired by the Crown by Treaty of Cession or otherwise consists of the following the Sierra Leone Peninsula in which is situated Freetown (the seat of Government), Sherbro Island, the Tasso, Banana, Turtle, Plantain and York Islands and other small islets, the Bake Loke, Mafoki and part of the Bure Chiefdoms in the Northern Province, and the Bumpe, KagboroBagru, Mano Bagru, Timdel, Bendu, Cha, Nonkoba Bullom, Messi Krim, and part of the Mano Sa Krim Chiefdoms in the Southern Province. The Crown has also acquired a strip of land, varying in depth from a quarter of a mile to one mile throughout the whole coast line not included in the areas specified above. Of these areas the Peninsula of Sierra Leone, Tasso Island, Banana Islands, York Island, and the township of Bonthe in Sherbro Island, only, are administered as strictly Colony; the other areas are admin istered as part of the Protectorate.
The Colony of Sierra Leone originated in the sale and cession of a portion of land by "King' Nembana and his subordinate chiefs to Captain John Taylor, of His Britannic Majesty's brig "Miro," on behalf of the "free community of settlers, their heirs, and successors, lately arrived from England, and under the protection of the British Government." This portion of land was described in the treaty as extending from the bay commonly called Frenchman's Bay, but of which the name was changed to St. George's Bay, coastwise up the River Sierra Leone to Gambia Island, and southerly or inland from the riverside 20 miles. The treaty is dated 22nd August, 1788.
The main purpose of the Colony in its inception was to secure a home on the African Continent for a number of natives of Africa, and some others, who from various circumstances had been separated from the countries of their origin, and were destitute in and about London. Subsequently the settlement was used for Africans rescued from slave-ships during the period when England was
putting forth her efforts for the suppression of the over-sea traffic in slaves. The territory received additions from time to time by various concessions from the native chiefs. Thus, on the 10th July, 1807, "King" Farina and "King' Tom ceded all the land they possessed in the peninsula of Sierra Leone lying to the westward of the settlement and on the 1st January, 1808, the whole settlement became a Crown Colony; in 1861 Bai Conteh, "King" of Kwaia, with his chiefs, ceded a portion of the Kwaia country abutting on the Colony of Sierra Leone, measur ing 10 miles in width and 16 miles in length from the River Sierra Leone to the River Ribbi, and particularly described as to its inland boundary in the Treaty of Cession. In 1825 the Governor of Sierra Leone made a treaty of cession with various Chiefs in, and in the neighbourhood of, Sherbro Island, for the purpose of adding these countries to the territories of the Colony. The treaty, not immediately ratified by the Crown, was revived by a new agreement made in 1882. Other Treaties of Cession were made from time to time.
On August 21st, 1896, a Proclamation was issued declaring a Protectorate over the Hinterland of Sierra Leone, and Ordinances were passed providing for the administration of this Protectorate, which, by Order-in-Council is divided into two Provinces as follows:
Northern Province-Districts.--Port Loko, Bombali, Karene, Koinadugu and Tonkolili. Southern Province Districts. - Moyamba, Kono, Kenema, Kailahun, Bo, Bonthe and Pujehun.
The peninsula of Sierra Leone is about 25 miles in length, and from 10 to 12 miles in breadth at its widest part. It is one of the few points on the African coast where there is high land near the sea. It is formed by a range of igneous mountains, running parallel to the sea from N.N.W. to S.S. E., the summits of which, in the Picket Hill, Sugar Loaf and Leicester Mountains, rise in conical form to a height of from 2,000 to 3,000 feet. The mountains are composed principally of norite, and are thickly wooded. They are intersected by ravines and small valleys, and there are considerable tracts of level ground, especially on the eastern side of the peninsula, where it sinks to the mainland.
The configuration of the Protectorate varies much in different localities. The constal strip is flat and low-lying and the river estuaries, below high tide mark, are bounded by extensive mangrove swamps. The western and southern part of the Protectorate consists of rolling wooded country, broken in places by ranges of hills rising to 1,000 ft. or more. The ground rises to the north and east to form an upland plateau having a general elevation of about 1,500 ft. The Sula and Kangari hills rise to nearly 3,000 ft., while to the east, near the French Guinea frontier, Bintumane Peak and the summits of the Tingi range rise to above 6,000 ft. Unlike many regions on the West Coast of Africa the country is well watered by rivers and streams. The principal rivers of Sierra Leone which empty themselves into the Atlantic Ocean are the Great and Little Scarcies, the Rokel or Seli (or Sierra Leone river), the Jong or Taia, the Ribbi, the Bum or Sewa, the Moa and the Mano, most of which are navigable by small craft for several
The capital, Freetown, lies about four miles up the Sierra Leone River, at the foot of a chain of hills rising 2,900 feet above the sea. In 1931 it contained 54,958 inhabitants. It possesses the best harbour in West Africa, and is an important coaling station and a port of registry.
The peninsula of Sierra Leone and the lands immediately adjoining have a population (including Freetown and its Districts) of 90,885. It yields only a small quantity of exportable commodities, but ginger and coffee thrive if well looked after. The extent of the territory is, however, small (256 square miles), and the generally rocky soil is not very well adapted for cultivation.
Considerable quantities of palm kernels, palm oil, piassava, with other articles of lesser importance are exported viâ Bonthe in the Southern Province.
Many districts in the Protectorate are fertile and well adapted to the growth of oil palms, coco. nuts, beniseed, kola nuts, gum-producing trees, ginger, cocoa, rice, and other tropical products. Alluvial platinum deposits occur near York, and are being worked on a small scale. Alluvial gold in the Protectorate has attracted both companies and individuals. Gold mining is now being actively pursued and is already of great value to the country.
Chromite has been discovered in several parts of the Protectorate and the most promising deposit occurs in the Kambui Hills near Hangha, Prospecting operations are being carried out.
Diamonds are being mined in the Kono District and now form a very important industry in this country.
Two large deposits of iron ore occur and export on a large scale has commenced from Marampa. Preliminary work is now being undertaken in connection with the second, known as the Tonkolili deposits.
The native population of the Protectorate is estimated at 1,672,057 and is composed of the following tribes :
A Charter, issued on May 27th, 1863, created an Executive Council for the Colony composed of four members nominated by the Crown. The Legislative Council was to consist of the members of the Executive Council and nominated members.
A Charter, dated the 19th of February, 1866, established a Central Government of the settlements on the West Coast of Africa, with the seat of government at Sierra Leone.
A new Charter, dated the 24th of July, 1874, revoked so much of the Charter of the 19th of February, 1866, as provided for the government of the Gold Coast and Lagos under the Governorin-Chief of the West Africa Settlements, and those settlements were erected into a distinct:
government. A further Charter, dated 17th of December, 1874, erected a new government of the 'West Africa Settlements," consisting of Sierra Leone and the Gambia, and created a Legislative Council in each settlement, consisting of the officer administering the government, and not less than two other persons, to be designated by royal instructions or warrant. New letters patent dated 17th June, 1885, provided for the continuance of
the government on the same lines, with some minor differences. By letters patent of 28th Nov., 1888, the Gambia was again made a separate government. By letters patent, dated 3rd April, 1913, and Royal Instructions, dated 4th May, 1922, there were constituted an Executive Council composed of the Officer in command of the troops, the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney-General, the Colonial Treasurer and the Director of Medical and Sanitary Services, and a Legislative Council, composed of the members of the Executive Council and four unofficial members nominated by the Crown.
On March 7, 1913, an Imperial Order-inCouncil was issued providing for the administration of the Protectorate of Sierra Leone. The Order applies to the territories, not being portions of the Colony of Sierra Leone, lying between the sixth and tenth degrees of north latitude and the tenth and fourteenth degrees of west longitude, and beginning at the extreme southerly point of the Colony on the Anglo-Liberian boundary, as delimited under the provisions of the AngloLiberian Conventions, November 11, 1885, and January 21, 1911.
The Governor and Commander-in-Chief for the time being of the Colony of Sierra Leone is also the Governor of the Protectorate. Authority is given to the Governor by Ordinances passed in the Legislative Council to exercise and provide for giving effect to the powers and jurisdiction acquired by the Crown in Sierra Leone.
Letters Patent, dated the 28th January, 1924, revoked those issued on the 3rd April, 1913, and made fresh provision for the appointment of the Governor and Commander-in-Chief, and instructions issued under the Royal Sign Manual and Signet on the same date cancelled those of the 3rd April, 1913, and 4th May, 1922. An Order of the King in Council dated the 16th January, 1924, provided for a new and considerably enlarged Legislative Council, introducing an elective element and direct representation of Protectorate interests into the constitution of that Council for the first time in the history of Sierra Leone.
The seasons may be divided into wet and dry, the former commencing in May and lasting till October. The shade temperature varies during the year from about 62° to 97°. Tornadoes or violent thunderstorms occur at the commencement and by strong wind, but do not last long, and seldom do close of the rainy season. They are accompanied much damage. The atmosphere during the rainy season is excessively damp. The rainfall in Freetown for the year 1937 was 148.87 inches, but decreases inland to an average annual rainfall of about 93 inches at Kabala. Between the months of December and March the wind known as the "Harmattan is prevalent; it is very dry, and often brings with it a fine dust said to come from the Sahara. Its direction ranges from N.E. to S.E.
The climate of Sierra Leone, as elsewhere on the West Coast of Africa, is trying, but conditions have been greatly improved in recent years through the efforts of the Medical and Sanitary Services, and if ordinary precautions are taken the risk of contracting malarial fever can be much reduced.
Vegetation and Agriculture.
The greater part of the country is covered by bush growth, the height of the bush varying with the length of time since the area was last cultivated. In the north, where the rainfall is less than that