« EdellinenJatka »
nearer the coast, the country passes from bush into orchard bush and grass. Wild oil palms and raphia palms provide some of the principal exports in the shape of palm kernels, palm oil and piassava, while the semi-cultivated kola tree provides an important kola export to West African territories.
The agriculture of the country is still primitive, "shifting cultivation" being universally practised. Of recent years the utilisation of swamps for swamp rice has been advocated and steady propaganda has resulted in a remarkable spread in the growth of swamp rice all over the Protectorate. Owing to heavy rainfall there are innumerable swamps and considerable areas available for this form of cultiva tion.
Gold is mined from alluvial deposits in the Protectorate. An occurrence of lode gold is under active prospecting in the Pujehun area, Southern Province. Platinum is won in the Colony peninsula from stream gravels. Diamonds were first discovered in 1929 in the Nimi Koro chiefdom of Kono district. Diamondiferous alluvial deposits are very widespread. They are worked by a diamond mining company on a profit-sharing basis with Government. Iron ore is being mined at Marampa whence the ore is conveyed by a mineral railway some fifty miles to Pepel for shipment. Exploitation commenced in 1933. Government has lent more than £400,000 to the Marampa company, secured by first mortgage debentures on the property present and future and the uncalled capital of the company. Large iron ore deposits of good grade have been found in the Tonkolili area. These are to be exploited by the Marampa company under an agreement by which a sliding scale royalty will be paid to Government. Other minerals which are being prospected or are known to exist are chromite, molybdenite, ilmenite, bauxite, lignite, corundum and garnet.
The import duties, which make provision for preferential treatment to British goods, are mainly specific-a preference of 100 per cent. as a general rule being accorded to the British article. There are also export duties on palm kernels (20s. a ton), and kola nuts (d. a lb.).
Percentage of trade with United Kingdom
The agricultural exports for 1937 were as follows:-
All minerals are vested in the Crown and rights to prospect for minerals and titles to mine minerals are issued through the Mines Department, Freetown. The mineral industry owes its inception to the discoveries made by the Government Geological Survey. The minerals mined at present are gold, platinum, diamonds and iron. The following is a comparative statement of the annual mineral production and its value :
616,200 ! 566,595
Currency and Banking.
Besides English currency, West Africa silver coins (28., 18., 6d. and 3d.) were put into circulation in 1913, and alloy coins of similar denominations in 1920. Silver coinage is gradually being withdrawn. Currency Notes of the value of 20s. and 10s. were introduced in 1916 and of 28. in 1917, and 18. in 1919, but the last two denominations are not now current. The Bank of British West Africa has two branches in the Colony and some agencies in the Protectorate. Barclays Bank (Dominion, Colonial & Overseas) Ltd. also is established in Freetown. A Government Savings Bank was established in 1882.
Throughout the 19th century facilities for education were provided in the Colony by religious bodies; financial assistance was given by Government. At present primary instruction is given in Amalgamated Mission Schools and in private schools. In the former Government receives the school fees, pays the salaries of teachers, and provides equipment. There are one Government Secondary School for boys and several assisted and unassisted Secondary Schools for boys and for girls. One Male and one Female Training College train teachers for Primary Schools. Fourah Bay College (of which the Church Missionary Society are Proprietors) is affiliated to Durham University and prepares students for degrees in Arts and Theology and for Teaching Diplomas. In the Protectorate educational development has been slow. There are two Government Boarding and one Government Day School of primary standard. In the Southern Province there are a number of 10-42 Missionary primary schools, many of which receive Government assistance through Capitation grant. In the Northern Province there are only a few schools, whether assisted or unassisted. There is
The Great Scarcies river, the Little Scarcies river, the Port Loko Creek, the Ribbi river, Bumpeh river, Cockboro river, Yaltukka river, Bagru river and Jong river are all navigable by small craft up to about 7 feet draft for from 20 to 30 miles from their entrances.
153 16,721 Internal
Educational administration is governed by the Education Ordinance of 1938 and the Rules made thereunder. The Vernacular is used as the medium of instruction for one or two years in numerous schools in the Protectorate. Local Teachers' Certificates of Primary Grace are granted by the Education Department on the result of examinations held annually. Instruction in Domestic Science has received considerable attention in the girls' schools of Freetown and certificates of various grades are granted for proficiency.
Means of Communication.
Mail steamers leave Liverpool for Freetown and Freetown for Plymouth and Liverpool every fortnight. The passage takes about 10 days.
An air mail service was started by Elders Colonial Airways in 1938 to connect Sierra Leone with the Gambia.
The Kittam River is navigable for launches to Mopalma (about 80 miles) all the year and for six months to Pujehun. Much of the produce from the Pujehun District is thus transported to Bonthe.
There are 66 post offices and postal agencies. The estimated number of letters, &c., handled in 1937 was 2,271,900 of parcels 39,098, of which the Inland Post dealt with 1,398,800 and 13,336 respectively.
The rates of postage are as follows:
To U.K. British
To Other Coun-
2d. per oz. 1 (11⁄2d.each additional oz.) 3 (14d. each additional oz.) Parcels maximum weight 22 lbs. for places inland and to certain countries which accept heavy parcels; 11 lbs. other countries.
Inland, 6d. for 2 lbs. ; 3d. each additional lb. Gt. Britain, N. Ireland-Up to 3 lbs.. 2s. 3d.; 7 lbs., 3s. 6d.; 11 lbs., 48. 9d. ; 22 lbs., 7s. ; British W. A. Colonies, 28., 3s., 4s., and 78. respectively.
Parcels for other countries except U.S.A. and Liberia are forwarded through the U.K.
Telegraphic communication with Europe was established in 1886, there being now three cables, to Bathurst, Conakry, and Accra respectively. A wireless telegraphic station was opened in 1913.
• Excluding Railway figures.
The total railway receipts for 1937 were 207,6761. ; the working expenses for the same year were 129,9087. There are 1,948 miles of combined telegraph and telephone lines in operation.
There are 832 miles of first-class roads in the Protectorate constructed and maintained by the Public Works Department, about 164 miles of Chiefs' roads of an inferior standard of construction and about 81 miles of roads constructed and maintained by private companies.
In the Colony peninsula there are about 83 miles of first-class roads including 21 miles with tarred surfaces mainly in Freetown and its vicinity.
The Sherbro river is navigable by ocean-going vessels as far as York Island, about 45 miles from the entrance, and the Sierra Leone river as far as Pepel, some 15 miles above Freetown.
British Imperial Postal Orders are issued and paid in the Colony; there is also an Inland and Foreign Money Order Service.
At the close of 1937 the Post Office Savings Bank, held 80,5631. to the credit of 13,289 depositors.
SHIPPING ENTERED AND
Newspapers, Books, etc., per 2 ozs.,
From other From
2,513,375 4,269,310 2,864,987 4,794,868
1931 450,423 60,626
434,700 296,578 783,943 The Governor, President. 1934 679,163 31,490 301,222 1,011,875 The Colonial Secretary. 1935 1,078,923 '48,822 456,089 1,583,834 The Attorney-General. 1936 1,469,276 175,847 731,842 2,376,965 The Colonial Treasurer. 1937 1,964,006 61,358 818,176 2,843,540 Customs Revenue, 1935, 441,9667.; 1936, 491,6947.; 1937, 531,5561.
The Governor, President.
Population of Sierra Leone according to the Census of 1931.
*Governors of Sierra Leone since 1911.
1911. Sir E. M. Merewether, K. C. V.O., C.M.G.
Sir A. R. Slater, K.C.M.G., C.B.E.
Sir Arnold W. Hodson, K.C.M.G.
The Director of Medical Services.
The Commissioner, Northern Province.
The Director of Medical Services.
The Comptroller of Customs.
The Director of Public Works.
The Director of Education.
The General Manager of the Railway.
First Urban Elected Member (Dr. H. C. Bankole.
African Member (C. E. Wright,
Protectorate Member (Para. Chief Fomba Kutubu).
Protectorate Member (Para. Chief Alikali Mela).
The Colonial Secretary acts as Governor during the absence of the latter.
96,422 52,552 43,870 1,672,058 796,392 875,666 1,768,480848,944 919,536
444 309 195 33,775 15,021 18,754 3,265 1,765 1,500 61,783 36,914 24,869 1,667,790 793,877 873,913 1,729,573 830,791 898,782
53 1,216 886 37,040 16,786 20,254
For further particulars of Sierra Leone, see "The Handbook of Sierra Leone," by T. N. Goddard, M.B.E. published for the Sierra Leone Government by Messrs. Grant Richards Ltd., London, W. C. 2 See also H. C. Luke's "Bibliography of Sierra Leone," 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, 1925.
†CIVIL ESTABLISHMENT. Governor's Office. Governor, Commander-in-Chief and Vice-Admiral, Sir Douglas Jardine, K.C.M.G., O.B.E., 3,000l. and 1,000l. duty allowance.
Private Secretary and Aide-de-Camp, T. G. Fitzgerald, 450.
t-In the following particulars of the Civil Establish
Scale A is as follows:--For those appointed before 1st October, 1923; 450l. for three years, then 5101. by 301. to 7201. by 40l. to 9201., with seniority allowance of 721. from 7201.
For those appointed between 1st October, 1923, and 31 July, 1935; 4007., 4157., 430, 450, by 301. to 7201. by 40l. to 920., with seniority allowance of 721. from 7201.
Scale B is as follows:-For those appointed before 1st October, 1923; 500l. for three years, then 5701. by 301. to 7201. by 40l. to 960., with seniority allowance of 721. from 7201.
For those appointed between 1st October, 1923 and 31 July, 1935; 4501. for three years, then 5101. by 30l. to 7201. by 40l. to 9601., with seniority allowance of 721. from 7201.
For those appointed on or after 1st August, 1935; 400l., 400l., 4501.; 500l. by 251. to 600l.; 6301., 6901. by 301. to 8401. by 40%. to 1,000l. Scale C is as follows:--For those appointed before 1st October, 1923; 4801. by 301. to 7201, by 401, to 9207., with seniority allowance of 721. from 7201.
For those appointed between 1st October, 1923 and 31st July, 1935; 4801. for three years, then 5107. by 301. to 7201. by 401. to 9207., with seniority allowance of 721. from 7201.
Colonial Secretary's Office.
Colonial Secretary, H. R. R. Blood, C.M.G., 1,6007.
Printing and Stationery Department. Government Printer, (vacant), 600l. to 7801. African Assistant Government Printer, G. B. Cassell. 2641. to 3721.
Provincial Administration. Provincial Commissioners, A. H. Stocks, C.M.G., 1,400l. ; one vacancy.
Senior District Commissioner, J. S. Fenton, O.B.E.,
District Commissioners, E. F. Sayers, S. M. Despicht,
W. M. Watt, A. W. Gaminara, V. Ff. Smith, J. M.
Malcolm. Scale B. 4001, 4001, 4501.
Senior Medical Officers (Col. Med. Service), W. N. Greer, O.B.E., C. B. Jennings, 1,000l. by 50l. to 1,150l. and 1007. seniority allowance each. Medical Officers (Col. Med. Service), A. W. Lewis, 1,000l. by 50l. to 1,150., H. R. F. Tweedy, H. Peaston, A. Johnson, W. J. Laird, W. M. Quin, W. R. Williams, 6601. by 30l. to 7201, by 407. to 960l., C. A. McComiskey, J. C. Busby, G. T. Allen, 6601. for three years, then 6901. by 30l. to 8401. by 40l. to 1,000l.
Health Branch. Assistant Director, Medical Services, C. R. Waller, 1,4007.
Port and Marine Department.
Chief Justice, A. H. Webb, 1,8007.
Director of Education, W. E. Nicholson, 1,1007.,
Senior Medical Officer (Health), J. S. Oliphant (one vacant). 1,050l. to 1,2001. by 50l., and 2101. duty allowance.
Medical Officer (Health), E. H. Taylor Cummings,
Senior Education Officer, H. E. T. Hodgson, 760l. to 9201. and 721. seniority all owance.
Principal, Prince of Wales School, W. J. Davies, 540l. to 720l. to 9201.
Education Officer, C. P. Ellis, 480l. to 720l. to 9201. Education Officer, H. Earnshaw, 400l., 450l. by 251. to 6001. by 30l. to 6301.,; 6901. by 30l. to 8401. (one vacancy).
Lady Education Officer, Miss A. M. McMath, 5001. by 251. to 600l. by 30l. to 7201.
African Assistant Director of Education, S M. Broderick, 310l. to 4501.
Post Office. Postmaster General (vacant), 1,000l. Assistant Postmaster General and Accountant, V. K. Edwin, 3601. by 20l. to 500l. then by 251. to 6001. Staff Superintendent, E. S. B. Francis, 310l. to 450l.
Director of Agriculture, F. J. Martin, M.A., Ph.D., F.I.C., 1,050., duty allowance, 2101. Entomologist (vacant), 450l., 450l., 475l. by 251. to 600l., 6301.; 6901. by 30l. to 8401. Plant Pathologist, F. C. Deighton, 6001. by 30l. to 7201. by 40l. to 9201.
Senior Agricultural Officers, J. W. D. Fisher, R. R. Glanville, M.B.E., Scale C. Agricultural Officers, E. I. Nisbet, G. M. Roddan, E. S. Garner, A. F. MacKenzie, Scale C., H. Macluskie, J. D. Gillespie, M. J. Douglas, 450l., 450l., 475l. by 251. to 600l., 6301.; 6901. by 30!. to 8401.
Technical Assistant, J. Stevenson, 4751 to 8401.
Office Asst., A. F. G. Taylor, 310l. to 4501.
Assistant Engineers, A. Woodburn, A.M.I.C.E., and J. Ronaldson, Scale C. Telegraph Engineer, N. Robson, 475l., 475l., 5001. by 251. to 6001. by 30l. to 8401. Chief Mechanical Engineer, M.I.Loco. E., 1,000l.
H. E. Allwood,
Assistant Locomotive Superintendents, T. Delmore, Scale C; J. R. Best, 4801. by 30l. to 7201. Assistant Traffic Superintendents, V. Dunglinson, J. Hamilton, W. H. Salkield, Scale A, with maximum of 8001.
Chief Accountant, J. Hunter, A.M.Inst.T., 920, duty allowance 921.
Assistant Accountants, A. Hides, 600l. by 30l. to 720l. by 40l. to 800l., C. Innes, 400l., 400l., 450l. by 251. to 600l. by 30l. to 7201. Chief Storekeeper, A. C. Blanchfield, 8001., duty
African Asst. Chief Storekeeper, S. G. Thompson,
Chief Inspector of Mines, K. E. Heesom, 1,000l.
Sierra Leone Battalion, Royal West African Frontier Force. Lieut.-Colonel, Lt.-Col. H. U. Richards, 1,000l., and 10s. a day duty allowance per annum. Second-in-Command, Major L. H. Bean, 8507. Adjutant, Capt. E. J. O'B. Croker, 510l. to 6007., duty pay, 58. per diem. Quartermaster, Captain W. W. King, 6007. by 201. to 700l. per annum.
3 Captains, 700l. to 7507.
In 1884, a Protectorate was established over the tribes on the Somali Coast, extending from Lahadu (Loyi-ada), half-way between Ras Jibuti and Zeilah, to the 49th meridian E. long. The boundary has been settled by agreements with France, Italy, and King Menelik of Ethiopia. Until 1898 the Somaliland Protectorate was administered by the Resident at Aden, as a Dependency of the Government of India. In that year it was transferred to the charge of the Foreign Office, and in 1905 to that of the Colonial Office.
General Manager and Traffic Manager, A. Allan, reached.
1,4007. Office Assistant, W. A. FitzJohn, 310l. to 4501. Chief Engineer, G. S. Dick, 1,000l.
The Haud waterless plains constitute the principal pastures of the country. The chief source of wealth of the people lies in their live stock.
For Scales A to C, see footnote on page 478.