« EdellinenJatka »
In the beginning of 1901, operations were commenced against a fanatical Somali leader, the Mullah Mohammed Abdullah, and a native levy with British officers penetrated into the Nogal valley. The Mullah was defeated at Somala and Ferdiddin, and was driven into Italian territory.
The dervishes afterwards gathered together again, and a similar expedition, strengthened by the 2nd King's African Rifles (Yaos), was despatched in the summer of 1902, and again drove the Mullah into Italian territory with heavy loss, but met with a severe check in Italian territory at Erigo, on October 6th. The Mullah, however, retired as the result of this action still further into Italian territory, to Galadi.
Five months later, a third expedition, comprising British and Boer M.I., Indian and African troops, with the main base at Obbia in Italian Somaliland, proceeded to Mudug, thence detaching a force to Galadi, which place was up till then the headquarters of the enemy. A force of 200 Yaos and Sikhs, was overwhelmed at Gumburru in April, 1903, after a fight of the fiercest description. A column of 200 men was at the same time attacked at Daratoleh, whence it retired fighting to Bohotleh. In June the expedition fell back on the Berbera-Bohotleh lines of communication, and Lieut.-General Sir C. C. Egerton, K.C.B., was placed in command.
Reinforcements, increasing the force to 7,000 rifles, were despatched and placed in the field, and in January, 1904, 3,250 troops defeated 5,000 dervishes at Jidballi.
In March, 1905, an agreement was concluded between the Italian Government and the Mullah whereby peace was declared between the der vishes and the neighbouring tribes, both those subject to the Government of Italy and those under the protection of the British Government. The Mullah was given a port on the east coast, and was assigned certain territories within the Italian sphere of interest, beyond which he and his dervishes undertook not to encroach.
In the latter part of 1908, some unrest was caused by the unfriendly attitude of the Mullah, and during 1909 reinforcements were brought into the Protectorate from East Africa, Uganda, Nyasaland, and India.
Subsequently arrangements were made to arm the friendly tribes to enable them to defend themselves against attack, and in March, 1910, all troops were withdrawn from the interior; the 6th Battalion King's African Rifles was disbanded, and a policy of strict coastal concentration was adopted. This policy having disappointed expectations, a Camel Constabulary, 150 strong, was raised at the end of 1912 to check inter-tribal fighting, which by this time had assumed serious proportions. A measure of peace among the friendly tribes was quickly restored, but in August, 1913, the Constabulary, at a strength of 109 rank and file, encountered at Dulmadoba a raiding party of dervishes estimated at 2,000 rifles, and in the action which ensued, though heavy losses were inflicted on the enemy, the Constabulary sustained casualties amounting to 50 % killed, including the Commandant. The force thereupon fell back on Sheikh, and reinforcements of Indian infantry were moved up from the coast. His Majesty's Government later decided to increase the forces of the Protectorate in order to preserve the necessary grazing grounds of the friendlies from dervish attack, and to maintain peace among the tribes living in the west.
In November, 1914, military headquarters were established at Burao, 90 miles from the coast. At this time the dervishes were in (c)
occupation of the Ain valley, which is one of the principal grazing grounds of the friendlies. Strong forts had been constructed by the Mullah at Jidali and Shimber Berris and these were used as forward bases for raids against our tribes. The position at Shimber Berris was accordingly attacked by the local troops, and after a stubborn resistance all the forts were finally captured and blown up. In 1914, the dervishes made serious raids and their aggressions went on during the war, but, early in 1920, operations against them were carried out by air attacks followed up by mounted forces with infantry supports. These operations were completely successful; the power of the dervishes was destroyed, and the Mullah became a fugitive in Ethiopian territory. He died there in 1921. Since 1923 the condition of the country has been peaceful, and as a result the stock wealth of the native population has largely increased, while in the western areas the development of agriculture has made great progress. A geological survey of the Protectorate has been made.
From June, 1932, to May, 1935, the officer appointed to administer the Government was designated Commissioner and Commander-in-Chief.
Trade and Customs.
Exports consist of skins and hides, sheep and cattle, gums, ghee, and salt.
Imports consist of rice, dates, sugar, cotton piece goods and shirtings, iron and hardware.
The Customs Tariff is mainly on an "ad valorem" basis of 20% and 25 %, but specific duties are imposed upon rice, dates, cloth (long cloth and grey sheeting in the piece), matches and alcoholic liquors.
Goods of British or Empire origin to the extent of 50% of their content enjoy preferential rates of duty both specific and ad valorem." The margin of preference is 10%.
In 1937, the percentages of Domestic Imports from the countries of origin were as follows:United Kingdom 25% British Empire 47 0 Foreign 28
1919, Oct. G. F. Archer, C.M.G. (later Sir G. F. Archer, K.C.M.G.).
Director, Commissioner of Police.
Director of Public Works A. T. R. Grimson, 8002. Assistant Director, A. F. P. Ross, 450l. by 251. to 5501. by 30l. to 7001.
Somaliland Camel Corps, King's African Rifles. Officer Commanding, Somaliland Camel Corps, K.A.R., Lieut.-Col. A. R. Chater, D.S.O., O.B.E., 1,000l. Second-in-Command, Major R. R. Michell, 7751. Adjutant (vacant), 500l. and allowance, 501.
Pay and Quartermaster, Captain W. R. Haymes, M.B.E., 7201.
Company Commanders, Captains B. G. Pulliblank, M. Thorold, P. St. Clair-Ford, H. French, 7007.
1922, Aug. Lt. Col. G. H. Summers, C.M.G. (later Company Officers, Captain A. A. B. Harris-Rivett,
Colonel Sir G. H. Summers, K.C.M.G.)
1926, H. B. Kittermaster, C.M.G., O.B.E. (now Sir H. B. Kittermaster, K.C.M.G., K.B.E.).
Commissioner since 1932.
1932. Major A. S. Lawrance, C.M.G., D.S.O. (now Major Sir A. S. Lawrance, K.C.M.G., K.B.E., D.S.O.).
Governor since 1935.
1935. Major Sir A. S. Lawrance, K.C.M.G., K.B.E., D.S.O.
Governor and Commander-in-Chief, Major Sir A. S. Lawrance, K.C.M.G., K.B.E., D.S.O., 1,600l. and duty allowance, 2001.
Secretary to the Govt., C. H. F. Plowman, C.M.G., O.B.E., 1,0501.
Legal Secretary, R. A. Haig, 8001. by 30l. to 9201.
District Officers, Major B. H. Horsley, D.S.O., O.B.E.,
Auditor, H. W. Skinner*, 8501.
Senior Medical Officer, P. S. Dell, 9201., plus 1007. duty allowance.
Medical Officers, P. P. Murphy, J. Tillman, J. H. C. Clarke, A. R. C. Young, each 6001. by 30l. to 8401. by 40l. to 9201.
Commissioner of Police, J. Beattie, O.B.E., M.C., 8001. by 40l. to 9201. Deputy Commissioner, A P. Oakes, M.B.E., M.M., 4501. by 251. to 5501. by 301. to 7001. by 401. to 8001.
Superintendents, A. J. B. Temple, E. H. Halse, C. N. A. B. Mumby, 450l. by 25l. to 550l. by 30l. to 7001. Pay and Quartermaster, H. O. Cain, M.B.E., 450l. by 251. to 5501. by 30l. to 7001.
Posts and Telegraphs.
Director of Posts and Telegraphs, C. V. Magill, O.B.E., 8001. by 401. to 9201. Assistant Director of Posts and Telegraphs, G. Hill, 4501. by 251. to 5501. by 30l. to 7001.
Is also Auditor of Aden.
The Tanganyika Territory consists of that portion of the former Colony of German East Africa which, under Article 23, Part I, of the Allied and Associated Powers agreed should be Treaty of Peace with Germany, the Principal administered under a mandate by His Britannic Majesty. The remaining portions of the Colony, namely the districts of Ruanda and Urundi in the North-West, and the Kionga Area, South of the Rovuma River, were similarly entrusted to the administration of Belgium and of Portugal respectively.
The Territory extends from the Umba River on the North to the Rovuma River
on the South, the coast line being about 500 miles in length, and includes the adjacent islands. The Northern Boundary runs in a north-westerly direction to Lake Victoria at the intersection of the first parallel of latitude with the eastern shore of the lake (Mohuru Point), and thence along the first parallel of latitude until it strikes the Kagera River about 70 miles west of Lake Victoria. From this point the western boundary follows the Kagera River to approximately latitude 2.25', and thence along the eastern boundary of Urundi to the Mlagarassi River which it follows to Lake Tanganyika. The boundary then follows a line due west until it reaches the centre line of Lake Tanganyika which it follows to Kasanga (formerly Bismarckburg). at the southern end of the lake. Thence it follows the boundary of Rhodesia to the northern end of Lake Nyasa and continues along the centre line of Lake Nyasa For map see under Kenya.
to a point due west of the Rovuma River whence, the boundary runs east and joins the Rovuma River, whose course it follows to the sea. The total area of the Territory is about 360,000 square miles, which includes about 20,000 square miles of
The Island of Mafia was transferred in 1922 from Zanzibar to the Territory.
Along the coast lies a plain, varying in width from 10 to 40 miles, behind which the country rises gradually to a plateau constituting the greater part of the hinterland. This plateau falls sharply from a general level of 4,000 feet to the level of the lakes (Tanganyika, 2,590 feet, Nyasa, 1,60 feet), which mark the great Rift valley extending northwards to Lake Naivasha.
The seat of government is Dar-es-Salaam (population 30,000) which lies along the northern and north-western shores in an almost land-locked harbour, about 3 miles long. The chief buildings are solid and roomy. The second town in importance is Tanga, 136 miles north of Dar-es-Salaam and 80 miles distant from Mombasa. Other sea
ports are Pangani, Bagamoyo, Kilwa, Lindi, and Mikindani. The most important inland town is Tabora, which has a population of 10,000*, and is situated at the junction of the main caravan routes from the coast of Tanganyika and from Victoria Nyanza to Nyasa. Other inland towns are, in the north, Moshi and Arusha; in the central area, Morogoro, Kilosa, and Dodoma; and in the south, Iringa, Mahenge, and Songea. On the great lakes the chief towns are Mwanza and Bukoba, on Victoria Nyanza; Kigoma, the ter minus of the Central Railway; Ujiji, on Tanganyika; and Mwaya, on Nyasa.
The highest points in the Territory are in the north-east, where are the extinct volcanoes, Kilima Njaro, which rises to 19,720 feet, and is snow-capped, and Mount Meru (14,960 feet). In the south-west are the Livingstone Mountains, where the highest peak is over 9,000 feet.
Portions of the great lakes of Central Africa are included in the Territory, viz. the southern portion of Lake Victoria, the eastern shores of the lower part of Lake Tanganyika, and the northern
and north-eastern shores of Lake Nyasa. are smaller lakes and numerous rivers.
The climate of the Territory varies greatly according to the height above sea-level of the several districts. Roughly, four climatic zones can be distinguished, though even among these there are considerable local variations: (i) The warm and rather damp coast region with its adjoining hinterland. Here, conditions are tropical, though not unpleasant except just before and during the rainy seasons, when the heat is trying and the atmosphere humid. The average yearly temperature is 78 degrees. (ii) The hot and moderately dry zone between the coast and the central plateau (300 feet-2,000 feet). This zone is characterised by low humidity of atmos phere, less rain, and a temperature rather lower but with greater daily and yearly variations. (iii) The hot and dry zone of the central plateau between 2,000 feet and 4,000 feet in height.-The climate of this zone differs greatly in parts, but its prevailing characteristics are low humidity, little rainfall (at Tabora an annual average of 32 inches), a fairly high mean temperature, with Decrease due to alteration of Township Boundaries.
great daily and yearly variations, sometimes exceeding 36 degrees Fahrenheit daily. The heat is dry, but not so trying to the European as the moist and steamy warmth of the coast, while the nights are invariably cold. (iv) The semitemperate regions around the slopes of Kilimanjaro and Meru, of the Usambara Highlands, the Ufipa Plateau, and the mountainous areas of the southwestern area (5,000 feet-10,000 feet).-Frosts occur at the higher altitudes, and the nights are cold. These districts enjoy a bracing climate, and alone can be considered healthy for Europeans, but prolonged residence in these altitudes is apt to produce nervous strain, even though physical fituess is maintained. There are two well-defined rainy seasons annually. Generally speaking, the long rains begin in February or March, and last for two or three months, while the short rainy season extends from October to November, but the rainfall is low for a tropical country, and droughts are not infrequent.
History and Constitution.
Plentiful evidence exists of Arab traders having visited the Territory for several centuries and of their opening up the great slave route from Bagamoyo on the Indian Ocean to Ujiji on Lake Tanganyika. The British explorer, Burton, first entered the Territory in 1856, and was soon followed by Speke, Livingstone, and Stanley.
The territory was visited in 1884 by Dr. Karl Peters, who made twelve treaties with native chiefs, and in the following year the German Government established a protectorate. arrangement was recognised by the British Government in 1886. quelled, and the first German steamer launched on In 1889 an Arab rising was Lake Nyasa. A serious native rising took place in 1905. It is estimated that some 120,000 natives died during the struggle or from its immediate results.
Early in 1916 Lieut.-General J. C. Smuts foot of Kilima Njaro and occupied Moshi on attacked and defeated the German forces at the March 13th of that year. By the end of 1916 all the country north of the Central Railway was effectively occupied by His Majesty's Forces or by Belgian troops, and a provisional civil administration was established in that area on January 1st, 1917. In November, 1917, the Germans were driven across the Rovuma River into Portuguese East Africa, and in March, 1918, the jurisdiction of the Administrator was extended to include the greater part of German East Africa. After the surrender of Major-General von Lettow-Vorbeck, in accordance with the terms of the armistice, the military forces were withdrawn, leaving only a garrison of the King's African Rifles; and a Royal Commission was issued in 1919 appointing an Administrator, The Tanganyika Order-in-Council, 1920, which was read and proclaimed in Dar-es-Salaam on September 25th, 1920, constituted the office of Governor and Commander-in-Chief. The Governor is assisted by an Executive Council. In 1921 the district of Ujiji and portions of the districts of Bukoba and Ufipa, which had formerly been administered by the Belgians, were taken over.
In 1920 draft mandates for "German East Africa" were submitted to the Council of the League of Nations in favour of Great Britain and Belgium, and these were approved by the League of Nations in 1922. The mandate for the part to be assigned to Great Britain lays down conditions directed against slavery, forced labour (except for essential public works and services), abuses in connection with the arms traffic and the trade in spirits, the R 2
recruiting of labour, transfer of native lands (except between natives) without the consent of the authorities, and usury. It is provided that nationals of States members of the League of Nations are to have complete commercial equality. An annual report is to be made to the Council of the League. By an Order in Council dated the 19th of March, 1926, provision was made for the constitution of a Legislative Council consisting of the Governor as President, thirteen official members, and not more than ten unofficial members, which came into operation on the 1st July, 1926.
For the East African Governors Conference, see under Kenya.
The number of Europeans in Tanganyika Territory is approximately 9,128. There are also over 33,019 Asiatics, chiefly Indians, Arabs and Goans. The natives are estimated at 5,182,289. The majority of the natives are Bantu, but considerable areas in the north are occupied by the Masai and other Hamitic races, and in the south by tribes of Zulu extraction. The most important language is Swahili, which is a hybrid between Arabic and Persian and all sorts of African tongues. It is more or less spoken as a Lingua
Franca from Aden in the north to Durban in the south and from the Indian Ocean to the waters of the Nile and the Congo.
Most of the natives are pagans, but the majority of the coastal tribes and a few in the hinterland profess Mohammedanism.
The territory is divided into 8 Provinces as follows:
European Education.-Two schools are maintained by Government for the education of European children, one at Dar-es-Salaam and the other at Arusha. A Correspondence Course for children in the more remote districts conducted from Dar-esSalaam. Assistance is given to two English schools, three Dutch schools, five German schools, two Greek schools, one European and Goan school and two Kindergarten schools. The total enrolment is 823.
Indian Education.-There are 60 Indian schools with a total enrolment of 4,191. Grants-in-aid are paid in respect of staff and buildings. 46 schools are on the grant earning list. Instruction in the lower standards is conducted in Gujerati or Urdu, and in English in the higher standards. At the Government school in Dar-es-Salaam and at three other schools the curriculum is designed to take pupils to the Cambridge Senior Certificate Examination.
African Education.-99 schools are maintained by Government, including six Boys' Primary Schools, one Junior Secondary school and eight Girls' Schools. The total enrolment is 9,574. Swahili is the medium of instruction in primary schools for the first four
standards after which there is a bifurcation, some schools continuing instruction in Swahili while at the larger schools classes are then started in English. Stress is placed on the teaching of agriculture and nearly every school has its garden. Industrial sections teach carpentry, masonry, smithing and tailoring. A printing press is attached to the Primary School, Dar-es-Salaam. A post-primary Clerical Course extending over two years is undertaken at Tabora Primary School in which boys designed for the Local Civil Service are taught office routine, typewriting and accountancy. Assistance is given from Public Funds to 227 Mission schools with a total enrolment of 21,576.
The total estimated expenditure on Education in 1938 was 99,7171.
The Government publishes a monthly journal printed in Swahili to disseminate news and useful information among the vernacular speaking population.
Staff.-The European Staff of the Education Department consists of a Director, Assistant Director, Superintendents of Education, Senior Industrial Instructors, Industrial and Clerical Instructors, Headmistresses, Office Superintendent and Clerk. The Indian Staff consists of a Headmaster, Senior
Assistant Masters, Inspector, Assistant Masters and
The African Staff consists of Teachers, Industrial Instructors and Clerks.
Forests and Minerals.
The total area under close forests is approximately 4,661 square miles, of which 87 per cent. is in Government Forest Reserves, 7 per cent. awaits reservation, and 6 per cent. is valuable forest in private ownership of non-natives and native communities. The forests are most numerous in the north, on the shores and islands of Lake Victoria, in the North-east on Kilimanjaro and Meru Mountains; in the East along the Pare and Usambara ranges and in the Uluguru and Nguu Mountains; and at the coast in the districts of Rufiji, Kilwa, and Lindi. Further considerable areas of close forest are situated in the highlands of Iringa Province, most of which have now been explored and demarcated for reservation and have been gazetted as Forest Reserves. The number of timber producing species is large and includes among many others the following:-Pencil Cedar (Juniperus procera), Podocarpus, Chlorophora excelsa (resembling Burma Teak), Ocotea Usambarensis, Pterocarpus angolensis, Parinarium Holstii, Pygeum africanum, Afzelia quanzensis, Khaya nyasica, and Cassipourea elliottii. In addition, valuable species of hardwoods occur as single trees or in groups widely scattered throughout large areas of dry savannah forest. Mangroves of excellent quality cover large areas of the littoral. Ebony and gum copal are plentiful near the coast. Bamboo and baobab are found and may prove suitable for the manufacture of paper pulp. Acacias yielding gum arabic of good quality are abundant in the dry savannahs.
The following have been mined for export or local use:-Gold, tin, wolfram, diamonds, salt, mica, phosphates and red ochre. Other minerals known to exist include :-Coal, graphite, soda, magnesite, gem garnet, corundum and manganese, iron, lead, and nickel ores. Extensive areas remain to be prospected. The total mineral production for 1937 was valued at 652,4421.
Further information with regard to trade and cognate matters in Tanganyika Territory can be obtained from the Chairman, Tanganyika Trade and Information Local Advisory Committee, c/o the Comptroller of Customs, Dar-es-Salaam.
The Territory is served by two railways of metre gauge.
1. The Central Railway from Dar-es-Salaam to Kigoma on Lake Tanganyika (774 miles), with a branch line from Manyoni (365 miles) to Kinyangiri (94 miles) via Singida, and a branch line from Tabora (524 miles) to Mwanza (236 miles) on Lake Victoria.
2. The Tanga or Northern Railway from Tanga via Moshi (219 miles) to Arusha (272 miles). From Kahe Junction (206 miles) a line links up with the Kenya and Uganda Railway at Voi. The Voi-Kahe line is run under the management of the Kenya and Uganda Railway.
Light motor traffic is now possible over 18,454 miles of roads during the dry season.
The Ports of Lake Victoria are served by the steamers of the Kenya and Uganda Marine; those of Lake Nyasa by the Nyasaland Government steamers, and on the Lake Tanganyika, the steamers of the Grands Lacs Company operate between the Belgian Congo, Urundi and Kigoma, while the Tanganyika Railway steamer "Liemba" operates from Kigoma to the southern ports of Lake Tanganyika including Mpulungu in Northern Rhodesia.
69 Sub Post Offices and Postal Agencies perform restricted classes of postal work. Savings Bank business is also performed at 20 District Offices of the Administration.
The principal places in the Territory are connected by telegraph, and the system forms a land line communication link between Kenya and Uganda to the North, and Nyasaland, Northern and Southern Rhodesia, and the Union of South Africa tc the south. Communication with the Belgian Congo is obtained through a wireless station at Kigoma.
Dar-es-Salaam is connected by cable with Zanzibar, whence communication with all parts of the world may be established. In addition the Kenya Radio Service provides a channel of communication with Great Britain.
There are 46 telephone exchanges comprising 260 route miles and 2,521 miles of wire.
The main telephone trunk service is between Dares-Salaam, Tanga and Mombasa, and thence to Nairobi in Kenya Colony. Telephonic communication is available to most places in the Tanga and Northern Provinces. There are also trunk lines between Dar-es-Salaam, Morogoro and Kilosa, and between Tabora and Mwanza.
Commercial radio-telegraph stations are situated at Dar-es-Salaam and Musoma and there are aeronautical stations at Dar-es-Salaam, Mbeya, Dodoma,
The following are the steamship lines serving the Moshi and Lindi. coast of Tanganyika :—
To and from Europe and Cape Ports:
Union Castle Mail Steamship Co., Ltd.
To and from India and Cape Ports :
British India Steam Navigation Co., Ltd. Bank Line.
To and from Europe and Beira :
British India Steam Navigation Co., Ltd.
Letter mails are received and despatched by the twice-weekly flying boat mail service from and to all places on the Imperial Airways London-Durban and London-Far East routes. The time taken between Dar-es-Salaam and London is 4 days.
Mails containing second class matter from Great Britain are despatched from London weekly via Marseilles, whence they are conveyed direct by vessels of the Messageries Maritimes, and by the P. & O. line via Aden, the average time in transit being 21 days. Similar mails are despatched to Great Britain from Dar-es-Salaam and Tanga by all availsteamers.
To and from Europe and Mauritius via Madagascar:-able
Parcel mails are despatched weekly by steamers To and from Japan (to South America via Cape- of the P. & O. Line from London by the all-sea route town) :
The telegraph system comprises 3,799 miles of pole route with 8,298 miles of wire, and the number of telegraph offices, including railway telegraph offices, open for public business, is 137. The principal offices are Dar-es-Salaam, Tanga and Lindi on the coast, Bukoba and Mwanza on Lake Victoria, Kigoma on Lake Tanganyika, Morogoro, Kilosa, Dodoma and Tabora on the Central Railway Line, Moshi and Arusha in the Northern Area, and Iringa, Mbeya, Chunya and Tukuyu in the South Western Area.
All classes of business, including Money Order, Postal Order and Savings Bank are conducted at 66 Departmental Post Offices, in addition to which
to Aden, whence they are conveyed by any steamer proceeding to Mombasa or beyond. The AdenMombasa-Dar-es-Salaam service is irregular, and the average time of transit of parcel mails from London to Dar-es-Salaam is 30 days.
Fortnightly services conveying second class mails are maintained with India, and mails are despatched by all available steamers to South Africa. There is a frequent exchange of mails by sea with Kenya Colony and Zanzibar.
Internal first class mails are conveyed by air as opportunity offers and many places have a regular service partly or wholly by air two or three times weekly. First and second class mails are also exchanged between offices on the Railway as frequently as the regular train service permits (minimum twice weekly), while places off the railway normally have a weekly service by Lake steamer, motor or runner. Revenue and Expenditure. Revenue.* £