Sivut kuvina

nearer the coast, the country passes from bush into orchard bush and grass. Wild oil palms and raphia palms provide some of the principal exports in the shape of palm kernels, palm oil and piassava, while the semi-cultivated kola tree provides an important kola export to West African territories.

The agriculture of the country is still primitive, "shifting cultivation" being universally practised. Of recent years the utilisation of swamps for swamp rice has been advocated and steady propaganda has resulted in a remarkable spread in the growth of swamp rice all over the Protectorate. Owing to heavy rainfall there are innumerable swamps and considerable areas available for this form of cultiva


The chief cultivated crops are rice, cassava, sorghums, sweet potatoes, groundnuts, benniseed, peppers, coffee, ginger, and cocoa, the three last being cultivated chiefly for export. These (excepting the last three) are the food crops of the country, the most important being rice which forms the staple food of the inhabitants of the Protectorate. In the Colony Peninsula, cassava products (chiefly foo-foo) displace rice to some extent as a food.

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Gold: Crude and unrefined


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(ozs. troy) (ozs. troy)

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252 6,113








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Gold is mined from alluvial deposits in the Protectorate. An occurrence of lode gold is under active prospecting in the Pujehun area, Southern Province. Platinum is won in the Colony peninsula from stream gravels. Diamonds were first discovered in 1929 in the Nimi Koro chiefdom of Kono district. Diamondiferous alluvial deposits are very widespread. They are worked by a diamond mining company on a profit-sharing basis with Government. Iron ore is being mined at Marampa whence the ore is conveyed by a mineral railway some fifty miles to Pepel for shipment. Exploitation commenced in 1933. Government has lent more than £400,000 to the Marampa company, secured by first mortgage debentures on the property present and future and the uncalled capital of the company. Large iron! ore deposits of good grade have been found in the Tonkolili area. These are to be exploited by the Marampa company under an agreement by which a sliding scale royalty will be paid to Government. Other minerals which are being prospected or are known to exist are chromite, molybdenite, ilmenite, bauxite, lignite, corundum and garnet.

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Besides English currency, West Africa silver coins (28., 18., 6d. and 3d.) were put into circulation in 1913, and alloy coins of similar denominations in 1920. Silver coinage is gradually being withdrawn. Currency Notes of the value of 208. and 10s. were introduced in 1916 and of 28. in 1917, and 1s. in 1919, but the last two denominations are not now current. The Bank of British West Africa has two branches in the Colony and some agencies in the Protectorate. Barclays Bank (Dominion, Colonial & Overseas) Ltd also is established in Freetown. A Government Savings Bank was established in 1882.


Throughout the 19th century facilities for education were provided in the Colony by religious bodies; financial assistance was given by Government. At present primary instruction is given in Amalgamated Mission Schools and in private schools. In the former of teachers, and provides equipment. There are one Government receives the school fees, pays the salaries Government Secondary School for boys and several assisted and unassisted Secondary Schools for boys and for girls. One Male and one Female Training College train teachers for Primary Schools. Fourah Bay College (of which the Church Missionary Society are Proprietors) is affiliated to Durham University and prepares students for degrees in Arts and Theology and for Teaching Diplomas. In the Protectorate educational development has been slow. There are two Government Boarding and one Government Day School of primary standard. In the Southern Province there are a number of Missionary primary schools, many of which receive Government assistance through Capitation grant In the Northern Province there are only a few schools, whether assisted or unassisted. There is

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The Great Scarcies river, the Little Scarcies river, the Port Loko Creek, the Ribbi river, Bumpeh river, Cockboro river, Yaltukka river, Bagru river and Jong river are all navigable by small craft up to about 7 feet draft for from 20 to 30 miles from their entrances.

The Kittam River is navigable for launches to Mopalma (about 80 miles) all the year and for six months to Pujehun. Much of the produce from the Pujehun District is thus transported to Bonthe.

There are 66 post offices and postal agencies. The estimated number of letters, &c., handled in 1937 was 2,271,900 of parcels 39,098, of which the Inland Post dealt with 1,398,800 and 13,336 respectively.






Protectorate, Primary



The rates of postage are as follows:

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Total Protectorate

Total Sierra Leone

Educational administration is governed by the Education Ordinance of 1938 and the Rules made thereunder. The Vernacular is used as the medium of instruction for one or two years in numerous schools in the Protectorate. Local Teachers' Certificates of Primary Grace are granted by the Education Department on the result of examinations held annually. Instruction in Domestic Science has received considerable attention in the girls' schools of Freetown and certificates of various grades are granted for proficiency.

Means of Communication.

Mail steamers leave Liverpool for Freetown and Freetown for Plymouth and Liverpool every fortnight. The passage takes about 10 days.

An air mail service was started by Elders Colonial Airways in 1938 to connect Sierra Leone with the Gambia.

Telegraphic communication with Europe was established in 1886, there being now three cables, to Bathurst, Conakry, and Accra respectively. A wireless telegraphic station was opened in 1913.

To U.K. British 2d. per oz.
Dominions and (14d.each
Colonies additional oz.)
To Other Coun-



(14d. each additional oz.)


Parcels maximum weight 22 lbs. for places inland and to certain countries which accept heavy parcels; 11 lbs. other countries.

Inland, 6d. for 2 lbs. ; 3d. each additional lb. Gt. Britain, N. Ireland-Up to 3 lbs.. 2s. 3d.; 7 lbs., 3s. 6d.; 11 lbs., 4s. 9d. ; 22 lbs., 7s.; British W. A. Colonies, 28., 3s., 4s., and 78. respectively.

Parcels for other countries except U.S.A. and Liberia are forwarded through the U.K.

British Imperial Postal Orders are issued and paid in the Colony; there is also an Inland and Foreign Money Order Service.

At the close of 1937 the Post Office Savings Bank, beld 80,5631. to the credit of 13,289 depositors.

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The main line of the Sierra Leone Government Year. Revenue. Railway, which was the first Railway to be constructed in British West Africa, runs from the Freetown terminus to Pendembu in the Railway District, a distance of 227 miles. The number of stations and flag stations is 53. From Bauya Junction, 64 miles from Freetown, a branch line runs to Makeni, a distance of 82 miles. The gauge of the Railway is 2 ft. 6 in. The Marampa railway running from the iron ore deposits at Marampa to Pepel, the port of shipment, is 57 miles long. The railway is open only for the transport of iron ore.

The total railway receipts for 1937 were 207,6761. ; the working expenses for the same year were 129,9087. There are 1,948 miles of combined telegraph and telephone lines in operation.

There are 832 miles of first-class roads in the Protectorate constructed and maintained by the Public Works Department, about 164 miles of Chiefs' roads of an inferior standard of construction and about 81 miles of roads constructed and maintained by private companies.

Excluding Railway figures.

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*Governors of Sierra Leone since 1911.

1911. Sir E. M. Merewether, K. C. V.O., C. M.G. R. J. Wilkinson, C.M.G.

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450,423 60,626



370,356 55,150


923,613 932,773

434,700 52,515


Sir A. R. Slater, K.C.M.G., C.B.E.
Brigadier General Sir J. A. Byrne,
K.C.M.G., K.B.E., C.B.

Sir Arnold W. Hodson, K.C.M.G.

Sir H. Monck-Mason Moore, K.C.M.G. 1937. Sir Douglas Jardine, K.C.M.G., O.B.E. Executive Council.

783,943 The Governor, President.

301,222 1,011,875 456,089 1,583,834 731,842 2,376,965

1933 1934 679,163 31,490 1935 1,078,923 48,822 1936 1,469,276 175,847 1937 1,964,006 61,358 818,176 2,843,540 Customs Revenue, 1935, 441,9667.; 1936, 491,6947.; 1937, 531,5561.

The Colonial Secretary.
The Attorney-General.
The Colonial Treasurer.

The Director of Medical Services.
The Commissioner, Northern Province.

The Colonial Secretary acts as Governor during the absence of the latter.

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1,765 1,500 37,040 16,786 20,254

61,783 36,914 24,869 1,667,790 793,877 873,913 1,729,573 830,791 898,782

For further particulars of Sierra Leone, see "The Handbook of Sierra Leone," by T. N. Goddard, M.B.E. published for the Sierra Leone Government by Messrs. Grant Richards Ltd., London, W.C. 2 See also H. C. Luke's "Bibliography of Sierra Leone," 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, 1925.

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Scale A is as follows:--For those appointed before 1st October, 1923; 4501. for three years, then 510. by 301. to 7201. by 40l. to 9201., with seniority allowance of 721. from 7201.

For those appointed between 1st October, 1923, and 31 July, 1935; 400l., 4157., 430., 450, by 301. to 7201. by 40l. to 920l., with seniority allowance of 721. from 7201.

Scale B is as follows:-For those appointed before 1st October, 1923; 500l. for three years, then 5701. by 301. to 7201. by 40l. to 960., with seniority allowance of 721. from 7201.

For those appointed between 1st October, 1923 and 31 July, 1935; 4501. for three years, then 510l. by 30l. to 7201. by 40l. to 960l., with seniority allowance of 721. from 7201.

For those appointed on or after 1st August, 1935; 400l., 400l., 4501.; 500l. by 251. to 600l.; 630., 6901. by 301. to 8401. by 40l. to 1,000l. Scale C is as follows:-For those appointed before 1st October, 1923; 4801. by 30l. to 7201, by 401. to 9207., with seniority allowance of 721. from 7201.

For those appointed between 1st October, 1923 and 31st July, 1935; 480l. for three years, then 5101. by 30l. to 7201. by 401. to 9201., with seniority allowance of 721. from 7201.

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District Commissioners, E. F. Sayers, S. M. Despicht,
L. W. Wilson, J. de B. Shaw, E. Harnetty, A. C. C.
Swayne, A. Burns, C. G. Hancock, G. P. Taylor,
N. A. C. Weir, A. M. Sim, N. M. McRobert, E. B.
Beetham, D. Cox, J. E. H. Towndrow, C. G.
Simpson, C. H. Newland, L. E. B. Dunkerley,
G. E. Mercer, I. S. Fairley. Scale B.
Assistant District Commissioners, F. G. O'Dwyer,
C. J. Mabey, P. Wilkins, A. M. Grier, H. W.
Davidson, C. E. Wool-Lewis, E. A. Waldock, E.
W. M. Watt, A. W. Gaminara, V. Ff. Smith, J. M.
Malcolm. Scale B. 4001, 4001, 4501.

Office Assistant, W. J. Johnson-Cole, 310l. to 4501.

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Commissioner of Police, Capt. P. T. Brodie, D.S.O.,
M.C., 9201., and 921. duty allowance.
Senior Assistant Supt. of Police, Capt. R. J. Craig,
M.C., G. Tuach, Scale A, maximum 7201.
Assistant Supts. of Police, D. A. Boyd, P. E. Turnbull,
400l., 4007., 4501. by 251. to 600l., 6601. by 301.
to 8101.

Superintendent of Prisons, R. H. Dolan, 5501. by 251. to 6001. by 30l. to 7201.

Asst. Superintendent of Prisons, A. Simmonds, 4001. by 121. to 4841. by 161. to 500l. African Asst. Keeper of Prisons, S. T. Johnson, 3101. by 20l. to 450l.

Survey and Lands Department.

Director of Surveys and Lands, P. A. Godwin, O).B.E.,

M.S.M., 1,050%.

Lands Officer and Surveyor, R. C. Burgess, F.S.I. 8801. by 40l. to 1,000l.

Survey Probationer, S. C. Collins, 450l., 450l., 475l. by 251. to 600!., 630l., 690l. by 30l. to 8401.

Medical Department.

Director of Medical Services, W. P. H. Lightbody, 1.6001.

Senior Specialist, Q. Stewart, 1,4001., and 2801. duty allowance.

Senior Medical Officers (Col. Med. Service), W. N. Greer, O.B.E., C. B. Jennings, 1,000l. by 50l. to 1,150l. and 100l. seniority allowance each. Medical Officers (Col. Med. Service), A. W. Lewis, 1,000l. by 50l. to 1,150l., H. R. F. Tweedy, H. Peaston, A. Johnson, W. J. Laird, W. M. Quin, W. R. Williams, 6601. by 30l. to 7201. by 401. to 9607., C. A. McComiskey, J. C. Busby, G. T. Allen, 6601. for three years, then 6901. by 30l. to 8401. by 40%. to 1,0001.

Senior Medical Officer (Sierra Leone), E. J. Wright, M.B.E., 7401. by 251. to 7901. by 30l. to 8201. Pathologist (Sierra Leone), E. A. Renner, 7401. by 251. by 251. by 30l. to 8201.

Medical Officers (Sierra Leone), M. C. F. Easmon, W. B. Hughes, W. F. O. Taylor, M. A. S. Margai, and J. C. Massally, 500l. by 251. to 6001, by 30l. to 7201. each.

Senior Nursing Sisters, R. Baldock, and L. D. S. Nursing Sisters, N. M. Brown, A. Stewart. J. A. McPetrie, 500l. by 20l. to 600l. by 301. to 6301. each. Marwick, T. B. Juchau and C. E. Taylor, 350l., then 4001., then 4151. by 151. to 4301. by 20l. to 4801. each.

Health Branch.

Assistant Director, Medical Services, C. R. Waller, 1,400l.

Senior Medical Officer (Health), J. S. Oliphant (one vacant). 1,050l. to 1,2001. by 501., and 2101. duty allowance.

Medical Officer (Health), E. H. Taylor Cummings, 7201., Staff Pay 150l. p.a.

Chief Sanitary Superintendent, F. E. Levermore, 500l. to 600l. by 127. and 167.


Director of Education, W. E. Nicholson, 1,1007.,
and 2201. duty allowance.
Senior Education Officer, S. Milburn, 8401. to 920.

For Scales A to C, see footnote on page 478.

Senior Education Officer, H. E. T. Hodgson, 760l. to
9201. and 721. seniority all owance.
Principal, Prince of Wales School, W. J. Davies,
540l. to 720l. to 9201.

Education Officer, C. P. Ellis, 480l. to 720l. to 9201.
Education Officer, H. Earnshaw, 400l., 450l. by 251.
to 6001. by 30l. to 6301.,; 6901. by 30l. to 8401.
(one vacancy).

Lady Education Officer, Miss A. M. McMath, 5001. by
251. to 600l. by 30l. to 7201.

African Assistant Director of Education, S M.
Broderick, 310l. to 450l.

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Agricultural Department.

Director of Agriculture, F. J. Martin, M.A., Ph.D.,
F.I.C., 1,050., duty allowance, 2101.
Entomologist (vacant), 450l., 450l., 475l. by 251. to
600l., 6301.; 6901. by 30l. to 8401.
Plant Pathologist, F. C. Deighton, 600l. by 30l. to
7201. by 40l. to 9201.

Senior Agricultural Officers, J. W. D. Fisher, R. R.
Glanville, M.B.E., Scale C.

Agricultural Officers, E. I. Nisbet, G. M. Roddan,
E. S. Garner, A. F. MacKenzie, Scale C., H.
Macluskie, J. D. Gillespie, M. J. Douglas, 450,
450l., 475l. by 251. to 600l., 6301.; 6901. by 30%. to

Live Stock Officer, S. A. Roach, 450l. by 251. to 6001. by 30l. to 6907.

Inspector of Plants and Produce, F. W. B. Allinson, 4001. by 151. to 430l., 450l. by 30l. to 6901.

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Public Works Department.
Director of Public Works, Major F. L. V. Mills, M.C.,
A.M.I.Č.E., 1,2001.
Assistant Director of Public Works, O. G. Price, O.B.E.,
M.Inst.C.E.I., F.S.I., 9601., duty allowance 961.
Provincial Engineers, A. R. Smee, A.M.I.C.E., A. S.
Ellicott, B.Sc., 720l. by 40l. to 9201., allowance


L. Smith, B.Sc.,
Executive Engineers (3), E.
A.M.I.C.E., and K. H. B. Collier, A.M.I.C.E.,
4801. for 3 years, then 5101. by 30l. to 7201. by 401.
to 9201., J. H. Amos, B.Sc., A.M.Inst.C.E.,
A.M.C.T., and P. W. Loveday, A.M.I.C.E., 475l. to

Technical Assistant, J. Stevenson, 4751 to 8401.
Chief Accountant, L. P. John, 600l. by 30l. to 7201.
by 40l. to 8001., duty allowance 721.
Storekeeper, L. B. White, 400l. to 600l.
Assistant Acct. and Storekeeper (vacant), 400l. to 6001.
Inspector of Works, W. H. Brown, 5601, to 6001.
Electrical Engineer, Electricity Sub-Dept., T. Maloney
Assoc. I.E.E., 630l. to 8401.

African Asst. Storekeeper, A. J. Momoh, 310l. to


Office Asst., A. F. G. Taylor, 310l. to 450l.

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Assistant Engineers, A.

Woodburn, A.M.I.C.E.,

and J. Ronaldson, Scale C.
Telegraph Engineer, N. Robson, 475l., 475l., 500.
by 251. to 600l. by 30l. to 8401.
E. Allwood,
Chief Mechanical Engineer, H.
M.I.Loco.E., 1,000l.

Assistant Locomotive Superintendents, T. Delmore,
Scale C; J. R. Best, 4801. by 30l. to 7201.
Assistant Traffic Superintendents, V. Dunglinson,
J. Hamilton, W. H. Salkield, Scale A, with
maximum of 8001.

Chief Accountant, J. Hunter, A.M.Inst.T., 9201.,
duty allowance 921.

Assistant Accountants, A. Hides, 600l. by 30l. to 7201. by 40l. to 800l., C. Innes, 400l., 400l., 4501. by 251. to 6001. by 30l. to 7201.

Chief Storekeeper, A. C. Blanchfield, 8001., duty
allowance 721.

African Asst. Chief Storekeeper, S. G. Thompson,
310l. to 4501.
Geological Department.
Geologist, J. D. Pollett, 1,000l.

Mines Department.

Chief Inspector of Mines, K. E. Heesom, 1,000l.
Inspector of Mines, F. A. Cassidy, Scale C.
African Assistant Inspector of Mines, A. Akiwumi,
3001. by 151. to 450l.

Sierra Leone Battalion, Royal West African
Frontier Force.
Lieut.-Colonel, Lt. Col. H. U. Richards, 1,000%.,
and 10s. a day duty allowance per annum.
Second-in-Command, Major L. H. Bean, 8501.
Adjutant, Capt. E. J. O'B. Croker, 510l. to 6007.,
duty pay, 58. per diem.

Quartermaster, Captain W. W. King, 6001. by
201. to 700l. per annum.
3 Captains, 700l. to 750l.
8 Lieutenants, 510l. to 600l.


In 1884, a Protectorate was established over the tribes on the Somali Coast, extending from Lahadu (Loyi-ada), half-way between Ras Jibuti and Zeilah, to the 49th meridian E. long. The boundary has been settled by agreements with France, Italy, and King Menelik of Ethiopia. Until 1898 the Somaliland Protectorate was administered by the Resident at Aden, as a Dependency of the Government of India. In that year it was transferred to the charge of the Foreign Office, and in 1905 to that of the Colonial Office.

General Description and History. The chief ports are Berbera and Zeilah. about 68,000 square miles.


Although the camel remains one of the chief means of transport, the last few years have seen a large increase in the use of motor transport. The approximate mileage of road and cleared tracks suitable for general traffic and mechanical transport of medium weight is 2,000 miles. There are no railways in the Protectorate. There is a weekly

steamer service with Aden.

The climate at the coast is trying for Europeans, but it is comparatively healthy in the interior, where an elevation of from 4,500 feet to 6,800 feet is reached.

The Haud waterless plains constitute the principal pastures of the country. The chief source of wealth of the people lies in their live stock.

For Scales A to C, see footnote on page 478.

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