« EdellinenJatka »
nearer the coast, the country passes from bush into orchard bush and grass. Wild oil palms and raphia palms provide some of the principal exports in the shape of palm kernels, palm oil and piassava, while the semi-cultivated kola tree provides an important kola export to West African territories.
The agriculture of the country is still primitivo, "shifting cultivation " being universally practised. Of recent years the utilisation of swamps for swamp rice has been advocated and steady propaganda has resulted in a remarkable spread in the growth of swamp rice all over the Protectorate. Owing to heavy rainfall there are innumerable swamps and considerable areas available for this form of cultivation.
The chief cultivated crops are rice, cassava, sorghums, sweet potatoes, groundnuts, benniseed, peppers, coffee, ginger, and cocoa, the three last being cultivated chiefly for export. These (excepting the last three) are the food crops of the country, the most important being rice which forms the staple food of the inhabitants of the Protectorate. In the Colony Peninsula, cassava products (chiefly foo-foo), displace rice to some extent as a food.
(ozs. troy) (ozs. troy)
Gold is mined from alluvial deposits in the Protectorate. An occurrence of lode gold is under active prospecting in the Pujehun area, Southern Province. Platinum is won in the Colony peninsula from stream gravels. Diamonds were first discovered in 1929 in the Nimi Koro chiefdom of Kono district. Diamondiferous alluvial deposits are very widespread. They are worked by a diamond mining company on a profit-sharing basis with Government. Iron ore is being mined at Marampa whence the ore is conveyed by a mineral railway some fifty miles to Pepel for shipment. Exploitation commenced in 1933. Government has lent more than £400,000 to the Marampa company, secured by first mortgage debentures on the property present and future and the uncalled capital of the company. Large iron ore deposits of good grade have been found in the Tonkolili area. These are to be exploited by the Marampa company under an agreement by which a sliding scale royalty will be paid to Government. Other minerals which are being prospected or are known to exist are chromite, molybdenite, ilmenite, bauxite, lignite, corundum and garnet.
Currency and Banking.
Besides English currency, West Africa silver coins (28., 18., 6d. and 3d.) were put into circulation in 1913, and alloy coins of similar denominations in 1920. Silver coinage is gradually being withdrawn. Currency Notes of the value of 208. and 10s. were introduced in 1916 and of 2s. in 1917, and 18. in 1919, but the last two denominations are not now current. The Bank of British West Africa has two branches in the Colony and some agencies in the Protectorate. Barclays Bank (Dominion, Colonial & Overseas) Ltd. also is established in Freetown. A Government Savings Bank was established in 1882.
Throughout the 19th century facilities for education were provided in the Colony by religious bodies; financial assistance was given by Government. At present primary instruction is given in Amalgamated Mission Schools and in private schools. In the former of teachers, and provides equipment. There are one Government receives the school fees, pays the salaries Government Secondary School for boys and several assisted and unassisted Secondary Schools for boys and for girls. One Male and one Female Training College train teachers for Primary Schools. Fourah Bay College (of which the Church Missionary Society are Proprietors) is affiliated to Durham University and prepares students for degrees in Arts and Theology and for Teaching Diplomas. In the Protectorate educational development has been slow. There are two Government Boarding and one Government Day School of primary standard. In the Southern Province there are a number of 10-42 Missionary primary schools, many of which receive Government assistance through Capitation grant 2.97 In the Northern Province there are only a few schools, whether assisted or unassisted. Theres
Governors since 1900.
1900 Sir R. B. Llewelyn, K. C.M.G. 1906 Sir Ralph Williams, K.C.M.G.
1909 Sir James Hayes Sadler, K.C.M.G., C.B. 1914 Sir George B. Haddon-Smith, K.C.M.G. 1923 Sir Frederick S. James, K.C.M.G., K.B.E. 1930 Sir Thomas A. V. Best. K.C.M.G., K.B.E. 1935 Sir Selwyn M. Grier, K. C. M.G. 1937 Sir Henry B. Popham, K.C.M.G., M.B.E.
Civil Establishment. Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Windward Islands, Sir Henry B. Popham, K.C.M.G., M.B.E., 2,500l., and travelling allowance up to a maximum of 5001.
Aide-de-Camp and Private Secretary Lt.-Comdr.
Situation, Area, &c.
Grenada, the most southerly of the Windward group, is situated between the parallels of 12° 30' and 11° 58′ N. lat., and 61° 20′ and 61° 35' W. long.; is about 21 miles in length, 12 miles in its greatest breadth, and contains about 133 square miles (about half the size of Middlesex). It lies 68 miles S.S.W. of St. Vincent, and about 90 miles north of Trinidad, and between it and the former island are certain small islands called the Grenadines, attached partly to the government of St. Vincent, and partly to that of Grenada; the largest of the latter is Carriacou, which has an area of 8.467 acres, and a population (at 24th April, 1921) of 7,104.
Grenada is mountainous and very picturesque, its ridges of hills being covered with trees and brushwood. The mountains are chiefly volcanic, and have several lofty peaks, the highest of which is Mount St. Catherine, 2,749 feet, running off in spurs from the centre of the island, giving it an appearance of romantic beauty when viewed from the sea.
healthiness, and great natural advantages, including a plentiful supply of water of the purest quality, offers exceptional inducements as a port of call for steamers. The town had a population of 4,629 by census of 24th April, 1921.
The island abounds in streams, and in mineral and other springs. The Grand Etang, a lake on the summit of a mountain ridge 1,740 feet above the level of the sea, and 7 miles from the town of St. George, and Lake Antoine, both old craters, are among the most remarkable natural curiosities; near the former a sanatorium is established. The roads of the colony are in excellent condition, and are kept in a state of thorough repair. The surface of the main roads and some of the more important byeways is oiled. About 146 miles of main roads, and a network of byeways (275 miles), provide good inland communication. The island is divided into six districts or parishesSt. George, St. David, St. Andrew, St. Patrick, St. Mark, and St. John-while the dependencies of Carriacou, Petit Martinique and other adjacent islets form a separate district, administered by a Commissioner. St. George's, the principal town, is a port of registry for shipping and had on 31st December, 1937, 147 vessels registered, of a total tonnage of 2,765 tons: its fine harbour owing to its situation,
The other towns in the colony are Gouyave (or Charlotte Town), Victoria (or Grand Pauve), Sauteurs; Grenville (or La Baye); and Hillsborough, in Carriacou. English is universally spoken, but the peasantry speak among themselves a French patois. About two per cent. are of European blood, the remainder being of the Negro race, except the East Indian population, which was 2,692 in number according to the census of 1921.
The climate is good and during the months from December to the end of April, when the trade winds prevail, it is delightful. From July to October there is greater humidity and higher temperature with little variation between night and day. The climate may be regarded as hot during this period but it is not unhealthy at any time during the year. There is an astonishing variation of rainfall. In the mountainous centre it reached 187 inches in 1937 and in the lowlands to the south of the Islands it was as low as 61 inches. The highest shade temperature recorded in 1936 was 90-0 and the lowest 70-0.
Industry, Trade and Customs.
The prosperity of the island, like that of its the neighbours, depends almost entirely upon planting industry. The chief produce of Grenada is cocoa, of which a total value of 160,030l. was shipped in 1937. The modern sugar factory which was erected in 1936 in the southern part of the island manufactures sufficient sugar to meet local demands. No sugar is exported as yet. Attention has been turned with some success to the cultivation of other economic plants, such, for instance, as limes, coffee, kola nut, cloves, vanilla, pepper, cardamoms, Nutmeg cultivation occupies a coconuts, etc. prominent position. The value of spices exported in 1937 was 167,1591. Considerable attention is being given also to the production of the Gros Michel banana. In Carriacou cotton is the staple product, its cultivation having never been wholly abandoned there; the value exported in 1937 was, with cotton seed, 4,9821. The cultivation of limes has now been successfully established in Carriacou, the exports of lime products in 1937 amounting to 6,4941. Tropical fruits of almost every description and of the finest quality are fairly plentiful, and are shipped to the Barbados and Trinidad markets. The principal food resources are yams, sweet potatoes, tanias, kush-kush, pigeon-peas, plantains, bananas, Indian corn, cassava, Fresh meat is always obtainable, bread fruit, etc. and the animals slaughtered for the purpose are reared in the island. An excellent oyster is obtained in Carriacou, and turtles and fresh fish are plentiful. The commercial value of the forests is now being Rum is manufactured for local conexplored. sumption, the total number of proof gallons in 1937 being 51,329.
The main imports are food-stuffs, textiles, timber for building purposes, and hardware.
The principal exports, besides those products already mentioned, are turtles and turtle-shell, hides and skins, fruit and poultry.
The tariff of Import duties is partly on an ad valorem and partly on a specific basis. The rates in the case of the former are mainly 15% on Empire goods and 22% on foreign goods. The preference on Empire goods is generally 33%.
Grenada was discovered by Columbus on 15th August, 1498, and was named by him Conception. It was at that time inhabited by Caribs. settlement was attempted in 1609 by a company of London merchants, but the colonists were so harassed by the Caribs that the attempt was abandoned. In 1650 Du Parquet, Governor of Martinique, purchased Grenada from a French Company, and established a settlement at St. George's. Finding the expense of maintaining an armed force to support his authority not compensated by the expectation of future profits, Du Parquet sold the island in 1657 to the Comte de Cerrillac for 30,000 crowns. The Governor appointed by the new proprietor ruled with so much tyranny that the most respectable settlers left the island; he was at length seized, tried, and executed by the colonists.
In 1674 the island was annexed to France, and the proprietors received compensation for their claims; and in 1762 it was surrendered to the British under Commodore Swanton, and was formally ceded to Great Britain by the Treaty of Paris on the 10th of February, 1763. In 1779 it was retaken by the French under the Count D'Estaing; and in 1783 it was restored to Great Britain by the Treaty of Versailles. In 1795-6 it was the scene of a rebellion against the British rule, instigated by the French Republic. The Lieut.-Governor and 47 other British subjects were massacred by the rebels, and the colony brought to the verge of ruin. In June, 1796, Sir Ralph Abercrombie suppressed the rising, and the ringleaders were executed.
In 1834 the apprenticeship system was established in regard to the African slaves, and this was followed in 1838 by their unconditional emancipation.
There was from 1766 a Legislative Council as well as a House of Assembly, the latter consisting of 21 elected members.
Under an Act of 1856, and limited in its duration to a term of three years, an Executive Council was formed, composed of members of both branches of the Legislature. The Act was allowed to expire, and the Legislative Council resumed its executive functions under the style of Her Majesty's Council.
This constitution was remodelled by an Act of the 7th of October, 1875, and a single Legislative Assembly established in lieu of the Council and Assembly. The Assembly consisted of 17 Members,
elected by the people, and 9 nominated by the Crown. The Act also appointed an Executive Committee of 5 members, 3 being nominated and the other 2 elected Members of Assembly. These Members received each a salary of 100l. a year, and were charged with the duty of advising the Lieut. -Governor on the conduct of affairs.
This Assembly at its first meeting on the 9th of February, 1876, addressed the Queen, informing Her Majesty that it had passed a Bill providing for its own extinction, and leaving "it entirely to your Majesty's wisdom and discretion to erect such form of Government as your Majesty may deem most desirable for the welfare of the Colony." The Imperial Act (39 and 40 Vict. c. 47) empowered Her Majesty to comply with this address, and Crown Colony Government was established in December, 1877.
On the 17th March, 1885, letters patent were passed constituting anew the office of Governor of the Windward Islands, and on 1st June, 1885, Grenada became the headquarters of the Government, which includes the colonies of St. Lucia and St. Vincent.
Until the 1st of December, 1924, the Legislative Council consisted of six official members besides the Governor, and seven unofficial members nominated by the Crown.
By an Order in Council dated 21st March, 1924, which came into operation on 1st December, 1924, a partly elective Legislative Council was constituted, consisting of the Governor, seven ex officio members, three nominated unofficial members and five elected members. The Island was divided into five electoral districts, each returning one elected member.
By an Order in Council dated 27th October, 1936, which came into operation on 18th December, 1936, the Legislative Council was reconstituted; and now consists of the Governor, three ex-officio members (the Colonial Secretary, Attorney-General and Treasurer), four nominated members and seven elected members (one for each of seven electoral districts). At the same time, the Governor is given reserve powers for ensuring the passage of legislation which he considers expedient in the interests of public faith or of good government.
The Government is assisted in the internal administration by six semi-elective District Boards.
There are 61 elementary schools, 11 Government and 50 aided. These schools are of five classes, Senior, Combined, Junior, Infant and Manual Training Centres. Head teachers of senior and combined schools are paid from 80l. to 1601., per annum, according to their certificates of proficiency, and to the class of school. Bonuses are given them for extra duties. Grants are also given by Government in aid of buildings, furniture and apparatus. The administration is entrusted to a Board of Education nominated by the Governor. In 1937 the average attendance was 9,110 children, the number on the rolls being 14,536. There is a Government secondary school for boys, and three for girls which receive grants-in-aid from the general revenue. The total expenditure incurred by Government on primary education for the year 1937 was 11,8981.
£ 144,391 1,004,339 1,145,603 147,786 1,179,108 1,337,712 168,088 1,191,142 1,528,156 141,739 195,183 1,225,636 1,477,418 201,480 155,343 1,279,132 1,538,190 141,264 143,498 151,190 1936 150,235 1937
1930 117,716 1931
98,949 83,851 105,970 90,615
Treasury, Customs, Inland Revenue, and
141,741 1,294,448 1,537,060 Treasurer, I. C. Beaubrun, O.B.E., 500l. to 650L
169,454 1,378,202 1,911,466!
The Colonial Secretary.
Customs Revenue, 1937-81,5437.
C. F. P. Renwick, O.B.E.
W. E. Julien, D.C.M.
J. E. Munro, O.B.E.
The Colonial Secretary.
C. F. R. Renwick, O.B.E.
T. E. N. Smith.
T. A. Marryshow.
H. F. Pantin.
G. A. Redhead.
J. B. Renwick.
Sir Joseph T. de la Mothe, O.B.E.
J. E. Munro, O.B.E.
F. B. Paterson.
£ 429,279 396,661
Dr. B. Spearman, O.B.E., Chief Medical and
269,618 Auditor for the Windward Islands, J. K. Buchanan, 259,743 500l. to 6001.
221,120 Audit Clerk, H. J. Guthrie, 250l. to 300l. by 151. 246,862
Colonial Secretary and Registrar-General, W. L.
Assistant Colonial Secretary, T. Comissiong, 3001.
Chief Clerk, J. E. N. Scoon, 2001. to 2501. by 101.
Chief Clerk, W. G. Donelan, 250l. to 3001. by 15l. Chief Revenue Officer, I. A. Preudhomme, 300l. to 350l. and 501. duty allowance.
Postmaster, G. W. Rapier, 300l. to 3501. by 20%. Chief Clerk, E. D. McBurnie, 2001. to 2501. by 102.
Medical Officer, No. 1 District,† W. S. Mitchell, 500l.
E. de J. McSween, 500l. to 600l. by 20%. each;
Resident Surgeon, Colony Hospital (vacant), 600l. and
Matron, Colony Hospital, J. Charles, 2001. and quarters.
Agricultural. Director-The Director of Agriculture, Trinidad, 751. Superintendent, W. O'Brien Donovan, 450l. to 5501. by 201. and 801. motor car allowance.
Chief of Police, Major E. E. Turner, 450l. to 5001. by 201., 501, forage allowance, and quarters. Inspector, J. E. Otway, 2001. to 250%. and quarters.
Superintendent of Prisons, Major E. E. Turner (Is also Recorder of Meteorological Observations and receives 50%. as such).
+ Each District Medical Officer keeps a motor car for his duties and receives an allowance of 801. The Medical Officer stationed at Carriacou is allowed quarters.
Inspector of Schools, H. H. Pilgrim, B.A., 400l., 50l.
French West India Company, who in 1650 sold it for 1,600l. to MM. Honel and Du Parquet. After repeated attempts by the Caribs to expel the French, the latter concluded a Treaty of Peace with them in 1660.
In 1663, Thomas Warner, the natural son of the Governor of St. Christopher, made a descent on St. Lucia. The English continued in possession till the Peace of Breda in 1667, when the island was restored to the French. In 1674 it was re-annexed to the Crown of France, and made a dependency of Martinique.
Chief Justice, (vacant), 1,000l.
After the Peace of Utrecht, in 1713, the rival
Attorney-General, C. C. Ross, 7001., without private pretensions of England and France to the posses-
Registrar, R. E. Taylor, 350l. to 400l.
Chief Ministers of Religion.
Chapelle in 1748, when it was again declared
Wesleyan Church, Rev. U. Cooke, Superintendent.
St. Lucia continued in the peaceable possession of the French till 1778, when effective measures were taken by the British for its conquest. In the early part of 1782, Rodney took up his station in
United States of America, John M. Gilchrist, Con. Gros Islet Bay, in St. Lucia, with a fleet of 36
sail of the line, and it was from thence that he pursued Count de Grasse, when he gained the memorable battle of the 12th of April in that year. This event was followed by the Peace of Versailles, and St. Lucia was once more restored to France.
France, John Barclay, Con. Agent.
Situation and Area.
The island of St. Lucia was discovered by Columbus, during his fourth voyage, on the 15th June, 1502. It is situated in 13° 54' N. lat., and 60° 59′ W. long.; at a distance of 24 miles to the south of Martinique, and 21 to the northeast of St. Vincent. It is 27 miles in length, and 14 at its greatest breadth; its circum233 sq. ference is 150 miles, and its miles, rather less than Middlesex. Near its northern extremity lies Pigeon Island, formerly a military post of some importance.
Castries, the capital of the island, and the surrounding district contain an estimated population of 20,798. Next in importance is the town of Soufrière, containing with the surrounding district an estimated population of 7,309.
At the period of its discovery St. Lucia was inhabited by the Caribs, and continued in their possession till 1635, when it was granted by the King of France to MM. de L'Olive and Duplessis. In 1639 the English formed their first settlement, but in the following year the colonists were all murdered by the Caribs.
In 1642 the King of France, still claiming a right of sovereignty over the island, ceded it to the
In 1793, on the declaration of war against revolutionary France, the West Indies became the scene of a series of naval and military operations which resulted in the surrender of St. Lucia to the British arms on the 4th of April, 1794.
In 1796 the British Government despatched to the relief of their West Indian possessions a body of troops, 12,000 strong, under the command of Sir Ralph Abercrombie, supported by a squadron under Admiral Sir Hugh Christian. On the 26th April these forces appeared off St. Lucia, and after an obstinate and sanguinary contest, which lasted till the 26th May, the Republican party, which had been aided by insurgent slaves under Victor Hughes, laid down their arms, and surrendered as prisoners of war.
The British retained possession of St. Lucia till 1802, when it was restored to France by the Treaty of Amiens; but on the renewal of hostilities it surrendered by capitulation to General Grinfield on the 22nd June, 1803, since which period it has continued under British rule.
On its final acquisition by the English, the island had become much depopulated, partly by war, but chiefly by internecine struggles, the fruits of the French Revolution. The recovery from this state of things has been slow, having been retarded by the severe epidemics of cholera and small-pox which have at different times visited the West Indies.