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Paddle.

| Side wheels River paddle steamer .... | 13-15

Inclined

I feathering
River paddle steamer . . . 15-17
River paddle steamer . . . . 18-22
River paddle steamer .... 18-22
Sea paddle steamer, heavier
{ paddle wheels required . .)

18-22
Cargo.
Ordinary freight, 300 to 450 . . | 8-11 Single screw Inverted
Ordinary freight, 300 to 450 . . | 11-13
Ordinary freight, 300 to 450 . . |11-13 Twin screw
Ordinary freight, 300 to 450 . . | 11-13

Cargo and Passenger.
Intermediate steamships, 450-600 13-16 Single screw Inverted
( Very large intermediate, cargo ! | 14-16 Twin screw
and passenger, 600 and over. I

530 530 600 600

700 750

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Level lines as shown at 12, 14, lo, etc., are now drawn from the point of intersection of frame with diagonals 1 and 2, and the half-breadths taken off at these levels and finally faired-up on half-breadth, when it will be found that the resulting horizontal ribband line, besides acting as a check on the fairness of the diagonals, will show the "wind” of the shell plating wrapping into oxter and body post and insuring a natural * snye" without any chance of “ gather” or unfairness.

The oxter underneath the ship's counter may be faired in a similar manner.

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CHAPTER III.

THE PREPARATION OF SPECIFICATIONS.

Too much care cannot be expended in the drafting of the bull specification. Clearness and conciseness should be aimed at consistent with an embodiment of all details of hull, fittings, and outfits supposed to be supplied, and all repetition or ambiguity of phraseology carefully avoided. Hampering restrictions should be left out. Know your requirements and state them distinctly. As in all other ship construction work, it will pay to have a definite routive or system in which to draft the specification. Of course, it is obviously impossible to have a standard specification which shall apply to all ships, as vessels are so diverse in their types, design, construction, and equipment as to make this an impossibility. But by keeping a routine list of headings of paragraphs before one, and taking these in rotation when drafting the clauses, the liability to omit important requirements is reduced to a minimum, besides the saving in time and distraction of thoughts through having to recollect what comes next. For this purpose the following headings have been selected which will apply to ordinary vessels. Of course, for special types these will require modifications and additions which will suggest themselves.

Specification Headings. Title giving type of vessel.

character of erections, 1. Dimensions, moulded

number of masts. Numlength, breadth and

ber of passengers, dedepth, depth of hold, load

scription of housing of draft and deadweight.

passengers, officers, and 2. Classification. The Govern

crew. Nature of cargo ment laws to which the

and handling appliances. vessel and her equipment

Location of machinery, are to conform, also full

and any special features particulars of the class

of the vessel. she is to take at the 4. Material of hull and rivets. Classification Society 5. Keel, and centre girder in concerned.

double bottom ships. 3. General Description. Type 6. Bilge or side fenders and

of stem and stern, mouldings, docking keels.
number of decks, laid or 7. Stein.
otherwise, length and 8. Stern frame.

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