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which has been given to this problem by the problems and policies committee of the council. This committee, composed of eminent persons in the field of education, as I mentioned earlier in my testimony, joined with the educational policies commission of the National Education Association in issuing, in March 1945, a very thoughtful statement entitled "Federal-State Relations in Education." For the benefit of the members of your committee, I am taking the liberty of making copies of this statement available to you. At various places in this document, you will find the following statements:
Educational neglect brings in its train a series of social liabilities. Federal census listed 2,800,000 adults, both native and foreign-born, who had never attended school. More than 10,000,000 had completed less than the fifth grade. Some 2,000,000 children, aged 6 to 15, were listed as not in any type of school.
Selective service in the Second World War up until November 1944 had rejected more than 4,500,000 men because of educational, mental, and physical deficiencies, a large percent of which could have been prevented by effective education (p. 18). The national waste due to lack of adequate elementary instruction for millions living in some regions of the Nation is rivaled by that resulting from failure to develop a substantial part of our most promising human talent in all regions (p. 18).
One of the primary reasons why the Federal Government has so greatly expanded its activity in education during the past quarter of a century is the evident incapacity of State and local communities to do what must be done in education solely on their own resources. Even though the poorer States now generally make greater effort to support education, in terms of tax burden, than do the richer States, they are not able to raise adequate sums to finance a fair educational op⚫portunity for all (p. 20).
Children and youths are citizens of the Nation as well as of the States and localities. Mobility of population will take many of them far from their native States. But even if they never leave the communities of their birth, their action as citizens of the Nation will affect us all (p. 21).
The Nation as a whole as well as the States and localities has a stake in education, and the Federal Government should continue to exercise, within properly defined limits, educational functions demanded by changing national conditions and needs (p. 25).
In its relations to education in the States, the Federal Government should limit its action to two broad functions: financial assistance and leadership of a stimulating but noncoercive character (p. 26).
As a general policy, Federal financial grants for education in the States should be made for broad or general purposes rather than for specific or limited projects (p. 32).
General grants to the States for education permit the development of balanced educational programs with the needs of children and of society as a whole in mind and permit adaptations to varying conditions and to changing social needs. General Federal grants are consistent with State and local control of education (p. 33). The proportion of a Federal grant for education going to each State should be determined on the basis of objective factors, such as the number of children or youths attending school and its fiscal capacity. An objective basis of allocation is one that two competent persons can use independently and get the same result as to amount due each State (pp. 35, 36).
The granting of Federal funds for special educational purposes, accompanied with the requirement that similar sums be appropriated from State or local revenues, is undesirable. The two most serious objections to this device are: (a) the richest States or localities tend to receive the largest amounts of Federal money since they can most readily match Federal appropriations, and (b) subsidies so granted result in unbalanced educational programs in State and local school systems (p. 36).
However, if matching continues to be required in connection with other Federal subsidies such as those for roads and old-age security, it may be also necessary in the case of education if it is not to be put in an unfavorble position in connection with State budgeting (pp. 36, 37).
Federal funds granted to a State should be available for use in schools which the State itself recognizes as eligible to be supported from public funds (p. 38).
The National Government will be unable to put its own house in order in its relations to education until it also establishes an adequate Federal educational office.
The inadequacy of the present Office of Education results neither from lack of competence or effort on the part of its leadership and staff. Rather, it stems from its lack of status and financial support, and from the willingess of Congress to authorize or permit noneducatioal Federal agencies to develop their own elaborate expensive, and overlapping agencies at national, regional, State, and even local levels for dealing with education in the States, and even for the direct control and administration of major educational functions (pp. 41, 42).
During the past year, the American Council on Education held a special meeting of the representatives of the constituent organizations belonging to the council for the purpose, among other things, of discussing and voting on the major issues involved in the matter of Federal aid to education. Later the ballot used at this meeting was also circulated to the institutional members of the council and reactions secured from them. Since this procedure identified the very issues which are chiefly under discussion here, I will summarize a number of the more important The entire table with break-down of replies from colleges, universities, school systems, public and private, is being made available to the committee. The first question was phrased 'as follows:
"Do you believe that Federal aid to education is necessary and desirable? Representatives of organizations replied, "Yes," 82; "No," 4; representatives of higher institutions and school systems "Yes," 386; "no," 53; total, "yes," 46889 percent; "no," 57-11 percent.
I should think that one might reasonably draw the conclusion from these figures that so far as the educators of this country are concerned the long debate as to the need for Federal aid is over. The overwhelming majority believe that Federal
aid is both necessary and desirable.
Equally positive were the representatives of both the organizations and the institutional members that if a Federal-aid bill were passed it should not be accompanied by Federal control of administration and instruction in the educational system. On this issue the total vote was 468 to 52.
On the question as to whether a law providing Federal aid should require that this aid be available to private as well as public schools there was an almost equal division of opinion. The representatives of the organizations voted, "yes," 42; "no," 40; the representatives of the institutions, "yes," 199; "no," 204; total, "yes," 241; "no," 244. I need not tell you that the attitude of the publicly controlled colleges and school systems (154) were in substantial disagreement with the privately controlled colleges and school systems (249) on this matter. The former voted almost unanimously (91.5 percent) against Federal aid for privately controlled education, while the latter (75 percent) were in favor of it.
Another issue has to do with the question as to whether Federal funds in aid of education should be available for all levels of education (instead of for elementary and secondary schools only). The overwhelming majority of representatives both from the organizations and the institutions voted "yes," 415; "no," 77. The results of another question made it equally clear that this matter should be I decided in the Federal legislation (341) and not left to the States to decide (126). The next issue raised the question as to whether Federal funds in aid of education should be made available on an equalization basis only to the approximately 30 States least able to support education or to all States. The representatives both of the organizations and the institutions voted heavily in favor of making it available to all the States, 385 to 96.
Four hundred and twenty-five representatives as against sixty-five voted in favor of requiring that Federal funds in aid of education be distributed equitably for the benefit of minority races in States where separate school systems are maintained.
Four hundred and twenty-three representatives as against seventy-six voted in favor of Federal funds for the construction of buildings for educational use.
Finally, with the present provisions of the GI bill evidently in mind, the representatives of the organizations and of the educational institutions, both public and private, voted heavily (452 to 65) in favor of a national system of scholarships available for students in all types of colleges and universities.
(The ballot material referred to by Dr. Zook is as follows:)
Please return to the
American Council on Education,
744 Jackson Place NW., Washington 6, D. C.
Before March 20, 1947
ISSUES WITH RESPECT TO
Before checking the following ballot, please study carefully all the questions. NOTE. "In voting at meetings of the council or on proposals which are submitted by letter from time to time, it is assumed that the representatives of constituent and institutional members of the council are expressing their individual opinions, and that such votes do not in any way commit or bind the organization or institution which they represent, unless it is so indicated" (Minutes, Executive Committee, American Council on Education, May 2, 1946).
1. Do you believe that Federal aid to education is necessary and
2. If the Congress passes a law providing Federal aid to education,
(b) Provide that this aid be available only to public
(c) Provide that this aid be available to nonprofit private
(d) Leave the matter as to whether Federal aid should be
(e) Provide that Federal funds may be used for trans-
(f) Provide that Federal aid shall be available only to
(g) Provide that Federal aid shall be available to all
(h) Leave the matter of the distribution of Federal funds
(2) Provide for the support of education in general, leav-
(j) Provide that supplementary Federal aid be available
(k) Include the formula for distributing Federal aid to
(1) Leave the formula for distributing Federal aid to the
Yes No☐ (Check one)
2. If the Congress passes a law providing Federal aid to education,
(m) Assuming that Federal aid should be distributed to
(1) the distribution of Federal funds to all the
(2) or only to approximately the 30 States least
(n) Provide that in order to qualify for receiving Federal
(0) Provide that the States shall maintain a certain mini-
(p) Provide that an equal per capita distribution of
(q) Provide Federal funds for the construction of buildings
(r) Provide funds for a national system of scholarships
(2) secondary schools?.
(In tabulating and reporting the results of this ballot, individuals and organizations will not be identified.)
Tabulation of votes on issued involved in Federal aid to education received from 451 institutional members and from representatives of 49 constituent members
Questions on issues
Publicly Privately Publicly Privately Publicly Privately education controlled controlled controlled controlled controlled controlled
Total, 176 Total, 275 publicly privately controlled controlled
from delegates of 49 constitu
Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
1 Figure includes 1 vote which represents the opinion of an entire faculty of an institution. 2 Figure includes 1 vote which represents the opinion of an administrative council of an institution. 3 Figure includes 2 votes which represent the opinions of entire faculties of the institutions involved,