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the work for my degree during the summer of 1947 but illness in the family prevents this.

My salary has gradually increased over the past few years. In 1943-44 my salary was $747.81; in 1944-45, it was $850.50; in 194546, it was $980; and this year it is $1,110.40. The lowest salary in the county this year is $790.40.

I have taught 14 years in the Green County schools. Seven of the fourteen years I have spent in the one-room schools. I would not exchange the 7 years' experience in the one-room school for any type of teaching experience. A teacher in a one-room school has so many opportunities to really learn how to face problems. I think the teacher who has possibilities is very likely to bring them to light in the one-room school.

The Summersville School is the only three-teacher school in the county. I have taught in this school for the past 4 years. I have had the first and second grades. During the first 2 years in Summersville I was a classroom teacher, but for the past 2 years I have been head teacher in addition to my classroom duties. I have had no increase in salary because of the added head-teacher responsibility. The enrollment in this school is usually about 90 pupils. We try to keep the number so divided that each of the three teachers will have a pupil load of around 30. This year I had to add the third grade to my room to keep the teacher load balanced.

My school is housed in a brick building containing three classrooms, one assembly room, an office, coat rooms, and corridors. No money is allotted for janitor service. The teachers must do the work of the janitor or pay for janitor services out of their salaries. Building and maintaining fires during the winter months, and keeping the building clean during the entire school term is a job for a full time person. The building is heated by wood stoves. They are made of sheet iron. If the weather is extremely cold the fires must be started by 7 o'clock each morning so the rooms will be comfortable when the children arrive. The board of education allots only enough funds to buy six cords of wood per room. This means that the supply must be managed carefully. If the fuel supply runs out, the teacher or community must supply the amount needed. This is a time which tries the teacher's soul.

Most people think a teacher's day is from 8 to 3:30. As a matter of fact, my hours are from 7 to 4:30. I arrive an hour early to build fires. I remain an hour after school to clean the building and get it ready for the next day. Isn't it strange that I still love to teach?

The county levies a 10-mill tax for school purposes. Approximately 80 percent of all funds coming from State aid and county taxes goes into teachers' salaries. This leaves only about $20,000-$22,000 to pay for administration, operation of 74 school plants, maintenance of 74 school plants, fixed charges, transportation, and replacing buildings. Only the bare necessities can be provided by the county board of education. Other needs must be met by the community under the leadership of the teachers and pupils. The board makes major repairs but the smaller items are paid for by teachers and patrons of the school.

Our school gives entertainments and charges admission. About October 1 every year we have a fall festival. The community contributes cakes for the cakewalk, vegetables and fruits for the country

store, and the like. There is a show put on by the pupils, a box supper by the young girls, and there is generally a beauty contest. Any way to make money the school needs is undertaken. At our first festival in 1943-44, we made $62; the next year the amount was $97; the third year, $164; and this year we made $150. With the money we have bought playground equipment; we built an outdoor basketball court, volleyball court, a baseball diamond, and purchased the equipment needed for these games. The playground and playground equipment are used by the community as well as the school.

Part of our money was used to take the children on field trips. This year we took them to see Mammoth Cave. We have bought furniture for the building, such as dressing table, day bed, bookshelves, tables, chairs. This year we were lucky enough to find a fountain cooler for drinking. You who have used the drinking-cup technique in distributing drinking water to 90 children can know how much the fountain helps.

We spend much of the money raised by entertainment to buy art materials, as well as other learning materials.

This year we paid $45 out of our funds for drapes for the four rooms. These would have cost us $5 per room more if we had paid a seamstress what she asked to make them. We have three sewing machines in our school, so we stayed afternoons and night and made them.

We do not have the floors sanded and waxed. This means we have to oil the floors. This is a most dreaded task but it is the next best thing.

The Homemakers Club and the 4-H Club are stand-bys and are helpful.

I have not traveled much. A trip or two into some of our neighboring States about tells the story of my travels. This is my first trip to Washington. It is wonderful. I have had some wonderful experiences in Kentucky. I have participated in the Kentucky program of community school development sponsored by the State department of education and have represented our teachers association as its president in interstate conferences.

Whether my salary can be increased to any great degree by Green County is questionable. Whatever happens I shall continue to teach. I like teaching and the people whom teaching lets me meet.

Senator AIKEN. Are there any questions of Miss Gumm?

Senator HILL. Were you born in Kentucky, near where you now teach?

Miss GUMM. Yes; I have lived there all my life.

Senator HILL. Where did you go to college?

Miss GUMM. Western State Teachers College, Bowling Green, Ky. Senator COOPER. I believe, Miss Gumm, that Green County, from the point of settlement, is one of the oldest in Kentucky, is that right?

Miss GUMM. That is right.

Senator COOPER. In size and the character of its activities and tax resources, is it typical of the agricultural counties in Kentucky? Miss GUMM. That is right.

Senator COOPER. Do you know how many of your fellow teachers have left the teaching professional during these last few years? Miss GUMM. I could not give you an exact figure on that. Senator COOPER. I mean in your own county.

60144-47-pt. 1-7

Miss GUMM. At the present time we do have 38 emergency teachers; but I really would not know how many teachers have left the profession.

Senator COOPER. Do you know whether any have left for more remunerative positions?

Miss GUMM. Yes; definitely they have left the profession, but I could not give you the exact number.

Senator AIKEN. Thank you again, Miss Gumm. The Chair is satisfied that whoever arranged the witnesses to appear before us this morning did not select the poorer teachers from that community. Maybe they made a mistake, if they are really after Federal aid.

The hearing will now recess until 10 o'clock tomorrow morning when several witnesses will be heard.

(Thereupon, at 12:20 p. m. the hearing was recessed.)

(The following table was presented in connection with the testimony of Miss Gumm:)

TABLE I. Decrease in supply of qualified teachers in public-school classrooms in Kentucky over a 7-year period

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1 This number includes 200 emergency certificates being issued at present to fill recent vacancies. Source: Department of Education, Frankfort, Ky., Apr. 16, 1947.

FEDERAL AID TO EDUCATION

TUESDAY, APRIL 22, 1947

UNITED STATES SENATE,

SUBCOMMITTEE ON EDUCATION OF THE

COMMITTEE ON LABOR AND PUBLIC WELFARE,

Washington, D. C.

The subcommittee met, pursuant to adjournment, at 10 a. m., in room 357, Senate Office Building, Senator George D. Aiken presiding. Present: Senators Aiken (presiding), Ellender, and Hill. Senator Aiken. The committee will come to order. Our first witness this morning is the Reverend Thomas B. Keehn of New York. Mr. Keehn, will you identify yourself, tell us whom you represent and then proceed with your testimony?

STATEMENT OF THOMAS B. KEEHN, LEGISLATIVE SECRETARY, COUNCIL FOR SOCIAL ACTION, CONGREGATIONAL CHRISTIAN CHURCHES, NEW YORK, N. Y.

Mr. KEEHN. Mr. Chairman and Senators, I am the legislative representative of the Council for Social Action of the Congregational Christian Churches.

We appreciate the opportunity to appear here this morning in relation to this bill on Federal aid to education. Our testimony is directed particularly to Senate bill 472, and to certain sections of that bill.

The church organization which I represent has had a long record of interest in education, public and private. A string of colleges reaching from coast to coast, Harvard, Yale, Williams, Amherst, Mount Holyoke, Oberlin, Knox, Grinnell, Carleton, and on to the west coast, Pomona, Scripps, Whitman, testify to this interest. All of them were founded by congregational ministers and laymen, and none of them today is subject to any kind of church control.

The same could be said of more than 600 schools for Negro people, beginning with Howard University, and likewise for more than a century we have encouraged, worked for, and believed in public education, and using the wealth of the State to educate all of the citizens, as the indispensable foundation for a democratic society. Today, our church believes that the public welfare can and must be furthered by social legislation in the field of education. This means Federal financial aid to the States. May I quote from the general council of our denomination meeting in June 1946:

We recommend that it be established as a national policy that all children are entitled to the best possible education that is or may be organized, administered, and financed by the several States, and that Federal funds be allocated to the several States on the basis of need, and further, without discrimination as to race; that any such funds shall not be used to promote private or secondary educational methods or institutions. To this end we support in principle any Federal legislation to achieve this objective.

We say this, that we believe in Federal financial aid to education dogmatically, because we believe the facts prove that it can and must be done without endangering the system of public education. In fact, we believe that failure to act, failure to provide Federal financial aid may jeopardize the system we seek to save.

Educational deficiencies, population mobility, variations and economic resources, and most of all the deplorably inadequate salaries of teachers, supplies and equipment, which characterize many of our public schools, all of these facts prove the need, as evidenced by the study of such experts as Dr. Norton, whom you heard yesterday.

May I say briefly that Senate 472 generally seems to us to provide the framework for a sound program. Perhaps some sections need to be modified, in view of changed conditions altering the formula somewhat as to some of the provisions made. Representative McCowen's bill, H. R. 2953, may be better, but nevertheless, the general plan we earnestly support, and urge a favorable report to the Senate.

We are concerned about only one point and wish to emphasize this in the remainder of our time. Federal financial aid can be provided to the States for educational purposes without control. It must be so. We recognize that this is the motive behind section 6 (b) of S. 472, to avoid Federal control. It says that if the several States use their own funds for aid to aid private schools they may use Federal funds in the 'same manner. We submit that this is a complex and not a simple problem, for any use of public funds to aid private schools is, in a sense, or in part, an abridgement of the first amendment to the Constitution, which prohibits the establishment of religion in the United States.

The problem can be stated in this way: S. 472, section 6 (b), does not itself create any new violation of the constitutional provision requiring separation of church and state. It does acknowledge and sanction certain violations which have developed in some States and very indirectly encourages these violations in others. It does this for the purpose of avoiding Federal control. The question is, is it worth the price? Is it necessary? Is it right, in view of our constitutional limitations?

As we have said, this is a complex social and legal problem. It has been discussed recently and at great length in the courts and in public groups. Public funds have been used to aid private schools under the so-called child benefit theory, which theory uses often the slogan: "The tax money where it is must be used to educate children where they are.'

I think that has been upheld in some State courts and denied as unconstitutional in others. Some said programs for health, safety, transportation, certain nonreligious books and supplies, have been approved under the general welfare clause of our Constitution. The courts generally distinguish between direct aid to building—that is, to teachers' salaries, buildings, and so on-and indirect aid for transportation, supplies, and the like. The New Jersey school bus case, which was recently decided by the Supreme Court, in the way of illustration, approved only the latter, that is, indirect aid, and it should be noted that it approved this indirect_aid only to certain kinds of private schools, and even this and here I quote the Supreme Court decision-"verged upon the limits of the State's constitutional

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