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is naturally wet, yet the industrious Inhabitants do so drain it by vast Multitudes of artificial Canals, that the Ground is made very fit for excellent Pafturage and Tillage. They employ the greatest Part of their Land in grazing of vast Herds of Kine. The natural Products of Holland are, chiefy, Butter and Cheese.
GOVERNMENT.] The United Provinces are a Confederacy of many independent States; for not only every Province is sovereign, and independent of any other Power, but there are, in every Province, several Republics, independent of each other, and which are not bound by the Decrees, or Acts, of the States of the Province, till luch Decrees are ratify'd by each particular City, or Republic, which sends Deputies, or Representatives, to the Provincial Assembly. But all these, join'd together, make up one Republic, the most considerable in the World; which Republic is govern'd by the Assembly of the States General, consisting of Seven Voices, each Province having One. As these States General can neither make War or Peace, enter into new Alliances, or raise Money, without the Consent of every Province; lo neither can the States Provincial determine these Things without the Consent of every Republic, or City, which, by the Constitution of the Province, hath a Voice in the Assembly: Which shews, that these Provinces and Cities are not united by so strong a Tye, as those who are govern'd by one Sovereign, except so far as Necessity obliges them to keep together. This Commonwealth grew to that Grandeur in the Space of Fifty Years, as to rival the most formidable Powers in Europe; and to dispute the Dominion of the Sea even with Britain, which rais'd them from Obscurity.
Trabe.] There is not a Nation under the Sun, where .. the People apply themselves with more Diligence to all manner of mechanic Arts, than the Inhabitants of this Country. The Manufactures formerly peculiar to other Countries are here almost brought to Perfection; not so much by the Ingenuity of the Dutch, but, in Imitation of ancient Rome, this once distress’d People invited all others, in the like shatter'd Condition, to join them, and set up the same Employments as they carried on in their respective Countries. ' In Harlem they make the finest Linen, and give it so pure a White, that they bring it from all the rest of the Provinces, and even from Germany, and other foreign countries, to bleach it here: At this place are also manufactured Fine Silks, Gauzes, Coarse Flower'd Velvers, Gold and Silver Brocades, and other rich Stuffs. Their Woollen Manufactures flourish most at Leyden, where they make Broad and Narrow Cloths, Serges
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and Camblets; but still inferior to those of Britain, or they would not purchase our Woollen Manufactures to export to other Nations. Their Wool they have froin Spain, Germany, and Turkey : Nor are the Silk Manufactures of Holland la good as those of France or Italy; but being cheaper, they go off better. As to the Navigation of this mighty State, it is frequently said, that the Number of large Ships, and Veffels of Burden, is nearly equal to that of England; for, to the Baltic, it is computed, the Dutch employ a Thousand more Ships than the English; but this is balanc'd by the Number of Ships we send to our Plantations in America, where the Hollandets have little or no Trade; but, however, in every other Country almost, whither the Englifo and Dutch trade, more of our Ships are found than of the United Provinces : And, upon a late Computation, the Quantity of Shipping belonging to the English, amounts to 930,000 Tons; and to the Dutch, goo,coo Tons. The Trade of the United Provinces with the British Ines is very great: From England, particucularly, they import Broad-cloth, Druggets, Long-ells, Stuffs of many Sorts, Leather, Corn, Coals, and something of almost every thing that this Kingdom produces; besides all Sorts of India and Turkey re-exported Goods, Sugars, Tobacco, Rice, Ginger, Pitch and Tår, and sundry other Commodities of the Produce of our American Plantations. England takes from Holland great Quantitics of Fine Hollands, Linen, Threads, Tapes, Incles, Whale-fins, Brass Battery, Madder, Argol, Lint-seed, &c. 'The Trade is faid to be considerably to the Advantage of the Subjects of England. The Dutch manage a prodigious Trade in most of the known Parts of the World; and to industrious are they, and so numerous, that Holland may very properly be compard to a large Bee-hive; the Multitude of Ships, daily going out and in, livelily représent the Swarm of Bees, and the Hive is justly reckon’d the Warehouse of the richest and belt Commodities of all Nations.
REVENUES.] The Subjects of the United Provinces are liable to a great. Variety of Charges and Impositions. The Council of State draw up, every Winter, an Estimate of the Expences of the ensuing Year, which usually amount to near 3,000,000 Sterling in Time of Peace. This Sum is rais'd by an almost general Excise, and Customs, the chief of which are, 1. A Duty upon Salt; 2. upon Beer; 3. upon Victuallers; 4. upon
Candles; 5. upon Turf for Firing, and Coals from England; .6. upon English Cloth, the Third Part of the Value; 7. upon Wheat, Rye and Barley; 8. upon al Çattle, Sheep and Hogs
that are kill'd, a Seventh Part of the Price; 9. for every horned Beast, above three Years old, Three-pence per Month; 10. upon all Farms and Lands, One Pound in Sixteen; 11. upon Soap, Eleven Shillings the Barrel; 12. upon Houses, the Eighth-part of the Rent. In short, there is not that Thing scarce in the whole Country but some Duty or other is laid upon it. Their extraordinary Taxes, in Time of War, are, i. Poll-money, which is usually I'wenty-pence per Head: 2. Chimney-money, Twenty-pence every Hearth : Or, 3. Land-tax, being Ten Shillings for every Hundred Pounds per Ann. The constant Charges, or Taxes laid upon them, to defend their Country against the Seas and Floods, amount to Sixty Pounds Sterling for every Rod of Sea-dyke; and, against the Rivers also, the Charge of maintaining the Banks is very great: But the greatest Charge of all is the Draining the Country, when it is overflowed, and their Dykes broken through, as they frequently are. · Forces.] 'The Land Forces consist of 25,000 Men, 'compos’d of Switzers, Scots, and other Foreigners, as well as national Troops. To the Standing Forces we may add the Troops thcy are obliged to keep in the Barrier Towns of the Auftrian Netherlands. I shall not pretend to guess what Forces the United Provinces are able to maintain ; but, from their extensive Commerce, Richęs, and Number of People, we may, I presume, conclude, that there are not many Kingdoms in Europe able to equip out larger Fleets, or more numerous Armies, than the States General.
RELIGION.] The Calvinists are the establish'd Church; but no Country in Europe can boaft of more Religions than this State ; for here all Sects and Parties, in the open Profession of their respective Tenets, are tolerated for Trading fake; and yet ’tis said that no Part of Christendom is less jeligious.
ČUSTOMS.] Their usual Way of Travelling is in Trecht(chutes, or cover’d Boats, drawn by a Horse, at the Rate of Three Miles an Hour, for which the Fare does not exceed a Penny a Mile, and you have the Conveniency of carrying a Portmanteau or Provisions, so that you need not be at any Expence at a Public House by the Way. A Person is not in the least expos'd to the Weather in these Vessels, and can scarce feel any Motion ; and a Passenger may read, or divert himself, upon his Journey as he thinks proper; and there is scarce a Town to which one may not go this Way every Day, and, if it be a considerable Place, almost every Hour, at the Ringing of a Bell; but they will not stay a Minute afterwards for a
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Passenger, tho' they see him coming. The Natives are very dex. trous at Skating ; and, when the Rivers and Dykes are frozen up, both Men and Women skate from Place to Place, upon their Business : It is incredible how swift some of them move in their Skates ; no running Horse, it is said, can keep Pace with them. When the Snow is upon the Ground, and frozen over, young Gentlemen and Ladies appear abroad in the moft magnificent Sledges; each Sledge is drawn by a Horse, decked with rich and glittering Harness; in these they run Races upon the frozen Snow: Great Numbers of these being seen in the Streets together, especially at Amsterdam, make a very beautiful Shew.
of DENMAR K. THERE are a great Number of Illands on the coast of Nora
way, and others belonging to that Kingdom, at a Distance from it; the most considerable of which is Iceland, the Northern Part of which lies under the Arctic Circle. Its Mountains are always covered with Snow.
CLIMATE.] The North Part of Denmark is Denmark. said to be very cold, and not very wholsome, espe
cially near Copenhagen, which is supposed to proceed from its low Situation and frequent Fogs. There is scarce any Medium between extreme Cold and Heat; for the Spring and Autumn are of a very short Duration, and the Productions of the Earth are accordingly very speedy in their Growth. The Air, in the Southern Part, in general, is allowed to be good, and the Country pleasant enough. Denmark produces good Corn, and several Parts abound in Cattle, Hogs, and Horses. The longest Day, in the Northmoft Part, is about 18 Hours, and, in the Southmost about 17 : Therefore this Country lies
in the roth, pith and 12th Northern Climates, Norrvay and The Air of Norway and Lapland is so extremely
modo cold, especially towards the North, that it is but thinly inhabited. The Face of the Country is very much incumbered with Mountains, and formidable Rocks, which produce scarce any Food for Man or Beast, and are almost continually covered with Snow.
Government.] Tho' the King of Denmark is an absolute Prince, he is pleased, however, to act by Laws and Rules of his own and his Ancestors framing, which he takes the Liberty of repealing and altcring, as he thinks fit.
Revenues.] The whole Revenues of the King of Denmark amount to about 500,cool. Sterling upon the best Cal
culations; which, in that part of the World, will go near as far as three times that Sum with us, considering the Cheapness of Provifions and Labour in these Countries.
RELIGION.] Lutheranism is the established Religion in Denmark, and no other Denomination of Christians are tolerated. The established Religion in Norway is the fame as in Denmark, only that, on the Borders in Norway. of Lapland, they differ but very little from mere Heathens. The Inhabitants of Iceland, who own in Iceland, Allegiance to the Danish Crown, are generally the fame in Religion with the Danes; but the uncivilized Natives, who commonly abscond in Dens and Caves, still adhere to their ancient Idolatry. Also in Wardhuys, or Norwegian Lapland, the Natives are generally In Lapland. Pagans ftill, tho they are usually denominated Christians; and, by the Innocence of their Lives, perhaps deserve to be ranked in the first Class, but seem to have very confused Notions of its Doctrines.
CUSTOMs.] The Danes in their Funerals are exceeding magnificent; and it is not uncommon Of tbe Danes, to deposit a Corpse in a Vault, in or near the Church, many Months together, in order to make Preparations to solemnize the Burial with the greater Pomp. The poor People, indeed, are buried with less Ceremony; but even they are attended to their Graves by a Set of Mourners, hired by every Parish for that Purpose. 'Holidays are observed as strictly as Sundays; and, in the time of Divine Service, the Gates of Copenhagen are shut. It is customary with the Danes to be .contracted several Months and Years, and live in the most intimate Familiarity, before the Marriage is solemnized at Church, but then these Contracts are very solemn, before Friends.
A Laplander, when he intends to marry, looks of the Lap. out for a Maid well stock'd with Rain-deer ; for landers, it is the Custom in Lapland, for Parents to give their Children, as soon as they are born, fome Rain-deer, which, for ever after, with all their Increase, belong to the Children. The more Rain-deer a Maid has, the sooner the may expect a Husband; for Laplanders do not regard Beauty, or such Qualifications as are valuable to others. It is natural for such as live in barren Countries, to he most solicitous for their Subsistence, which because the Rain-deer chiefly afford them, they look upon them as their greatest Riches, which may best secure them against Wants. The poorer Sort are content to marry a Man's Daughter, who lives in a conve