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Temper. The Tonquinise are of a niiddle Stature, and cleanlimb'd; their Nose and Lips are proportionable and well-made, but their Faces are a little flat- ģ
Nalives of tish, and of an oval Form. The People are courteous and obliging to Strangers, especialiy the trading Part of them, and mighty fair Dealers. However, the Magia ftrates are said to be proud and imperious; their Soldiery infolent; and their Poor, who are very numerous, given to thieving. They are reckon’d very ingenious and diligent; . patient in Adversity; universally addicted to Gaming from the highest to the lowest,' from which nothing can restrain them.
RELIGION.] The original Natives of India, who are by far the most numerous, are Idolaters : There are reckon'd three or fourscore several Tribes or Casts among these Pagans, but the chief are the Bramins, the Rajaputes or kajhboots, and the Banians or Chintres. The Bramins teach, that there is but one God infinitely perfect, and that their Images represent some Heroes, and virtuous Persons, who formerly dwelt on the Earth, and are now exalted to Heaven, where they apprehend them to be Mediators for them, which is the Reaion they give for paying their Devotion before these Images. They have some confuted Notion of the Creation, and Destruction of Mankind by a Flood : They believe a pre-existent State, and that the good and bad Fortune we meet with in this World, is either a Reward or Punishment for what we have done in a former ; and those who behave themselves well in this Life, shall be rewarded in another State.. The Siamese believe the Form of the The 3:am:cc. World only to be eternal ; all visible Objects they look upon as to many rational Beings, who have lived and existed in a former State, and muit die and revive again ; and that the Heavens, the Earth, Plants, and all Things else, have deir Period, and will be succeeded by new Heavens, and a new Earth, &c. They allow the Soul to be material, and yet will rint admit, that it is perishable; but that it animates ome other Creature, and knows Pain or Pleasure according di its deferving, till it enters a human Body again, whose Circu nstances will be suitable to the Behaviour of the Soul in its feveral Transmigrations.
CUSTÒMS.] The general Dress of the Indians is a white Veft of Calico, Silk, or Muslin, which folds over before, and is tied with Strings either on the Right or Left Side; the Sleeves are close to their Arms, Habit, and are so long, that they sit in Wrinkles about S 3
the Wrist; the upper Part is close to their Bodies, and shews their Shape ; from the Middle downwards it is gather'd, and sits full in Plaits, reaching a little below their Knees. The usual Compliment in India is the lifting the
Right-hand to the Head, and sometimes both; The usual and, if it be to a Person of Distinction, bowing Compliments, the Body a little. When the Mahometans meet,
the usual Compliment is, God give you Health, or, I wish you the Prayers of the Poor : The deep Compliment to a Prince, is bowing the Body low, putting the Hand down to the Ground, then to the Breast, and afterwards lifting it up to the Head, and this repeated three times. Upon a Visit, the Person visited does not move to meet his Guest, but intreats him to sit down by him on the Carpet : They are very reserv’d, seldom or never talking
fast or loud. Tumblers and Jugglers go from Diverfions, · Town to Town as in other Countries, and are
so dexterous in their Tricks, that some of our own Countrymen have imputed them to Magic, and the Power of the Devil. One of the Great Mogul's favourite Diversions is the Fighting of Elephants, and other wild Beasts; and the seeing Men engage with Lions and Tygers.
The Roads are generally a deep Sand, which is Way of so hot in the fair Season about Noon, that it Travelling.
would burn their Feet, if they were not as hard
as a Shoe-sole; and there is no such thing as walking in the Sand with Shoes on. When a Man of Substance travels, he usually hires ten or twelve Chairmen to carry his Palanquin, which is a well-contriv'd Couch with Pillows, and an arched Canopy over it: In these they fit or lie, as they think fit; and it is carried by four of the Men at a time, two before, and two behind, who lay the Pole upon their Shoulders, and run at the rate of four or five Miles an Hour, their Fellows relieving them at certain times without standing still. A little before they design to bait, some of the Men are fent to the Villages, where they. buy Provisions, and they dress it as they go along. Oxen are used to ride on, as well as for Burdens ; they will trot on at a pretty round rate, and sometimes they run Races with them. It is very troublesome travelling in the rainy Season, the flat Countries being overflowed, and innumerable Torrents falling from the Mountains ; but this does not hinder the common People from taking Journeys at this Time of the Year; for they will take Water without any Difficulty, and swim with incredible Strength
across across broad Rivers, which run very swiftly. As to the Marriages of the Indians, the Fathers make the Bargain before the young People come to the Use of Marriages. . their Reason; nor does either the Boy or the Girl, when they come of Age, ever imagine they have any Right to dispute the Matter, but look upon themselves as much obliged to obey their Parents in this particular, as in any other Command: However, the young Man, if he does not like the Girl his Father has provided him, may take another, and have as many Concubines as he pleases; but the Woman has no Remedy, and if the murmur at her Husband's Conduct, he may reduce her to the Condition of a' Slave. They constantly marry into their own Tribe or Cast; a Merchant must marry into a Merchant's Family, a Smith into a Smith's, a Carpenter into a Carpenter's, and so of every other Trade or Profession. The Wives never bring any other Fortune than their Clothes ; and among those who are wealthy, it is said, the Father of the Husband advances a considerable Sum to the Wife's Friends; and, 'tis thought, never eats with the Husband, but waits till he has done. The Indians never swaddle up their Children, but let them go perfectly naked, both Boys and Girls, till they are six or seven Years old, and 'tis not to be imagin'd how soon they will crawl about the Floor. The Moors and Mahometan Indians are allowed four Wives, and as many Concubines as they can keep. As to the Solemnization of a Wedding, nothing can be more splendid : The Bridegroom is carried by Night through the Streets, dressed with the richest Clothes and Jewels they can procure; the Streets are made as light as Day by a great Number of Torches, with Flags, Streamers, and Music, marching before them, and a Croud of their Friends and Acquaintance, who come to express their Joy on the happy Occasion: Being come to the Bride's House, where the Marriage is celebrated, he takes the Bride home with him ; and, from that time, she is seldom ever suffer'd to see her nearest Male Relations, but in the Presence of her Husband.
throuves they eat Numbe before who come to
Of CHINA. CLIMATE.] Hina, like other countries, consists of
U Hills and Valleys ; but both the one and the other are made as level as possible, and laid out in Plots, like Gardens, by the Industry of the Natives. The Soil, in general, is very rich, abounding in Corn, and Wine, S4
and all kinds of Fruits and Provisions necessary to render Life agreeable. This Country is esteemed one of the finest and most fruitful in the whole World; and was a great Surprize to the Europeans, in the unexpected Discovery of fo fine a Nation, , and so polite a People, wrich were unknown to thcse Parts of the World till the Discovery of the EajIndies: It is exceeding populous, supposed to contain near 70,000,000 of People : Not only the stately Cities, but even the Towns and Villages are crouded with Inhabitants; and the Roads, as well as Streets, are continually full of Parsengers. The chief Products of this Country are, Quicksilver, Silks, Porcelane Dishes, Ginger, China Ware, Cottons, Rhubarb, Sugar, Camphire, Musk, Ginger, China Wood, Linen, Oil, Ebony, Sandal Wood, Canes, Tea, &c. Tea is a Plant peculiar to this Country : It usually grows at the Foot of some Mountain; the Root resembling that of a Peach-tree, and its Flower that of white wild Roses. The Tree is of all Sizes, from two Feet to an hundred in Height. The three Sorts of Tea, commonly brought to Europe, are of the same Plant; and only the Seasons of the Year when it is gather'd, and the Soil, make the Difference. Bohea is the very first Bud, gather'd in the Beginning of March, and dried in the Shade; the Imperial' or Bing Tea is the second Growth, in April; and the coinmon Green Tea, or Singlo, in May and Fune, which are both dried, in little Pans, over the Fire. 'The Chinese have Mines of Gold and Silver ; but those of Gold are never suffer'd to be open’d. The Gold, which they have in such Plenty, is wash'd down by Torrents from the Mountains in the rainy Seasons, and is said to need no refining. They have also Mines of Tin, Iron, Copper. and some Lead: Several of the Chinese Emperors have thought it worthy of their Royal Care, to promote and teach their Subjects Husbandry, the Invention of the Plough; and several Instruments, and Books of Husbandry, they ascribe to fome of their greatest Emperors. The longest Day, in the moft Southern Part of China, is about 13 Hours ; and, in the Northmoft Part, about 15 Hours ; therefore this Country lies in the 3d, 4th, 5th, and 6th Northern Climates.
GOVERNMENT.] The Histories of China begin within two or three hundred Years'after the Flood, and shew a Succession of Monarchs down to this Time. . · The Crown of China is said to be hereditary by some ; but
it is agreed by all, that the Emperor has a PowForm of Go.
er of altçring the Succession, and declaring any one of his Subjects his Succeffor, tho' he has no
Relation to the Royal Family ; but then this must be passed and ratified by the Great Council, which consists of the Princes of the Blood, and Ministers of State; and there have been Instances where the Emperor's Resolution has been opposed, and his Design of setting aside those who were look'd upon to be next Heirs defeated.
TRADE.] The Chinese hardly ever heard of any other Part of the World but isia, till the Europeans discovered the Passage thither by the Cape of Good Hope, tho’ we are affur'd they had the Loadstone, and the Use of the Compafs, long before us; and the Reason they never made long Voyages, is faid to be, that they looked upon the rest of Mankind' as little better than Brutes, and believ'd that they themselves possessed the greatest, as well as the best Part of the World. When the Europeans gave them to understand how very finall a Part of the World the Chinese enjoyed, in comparison of the whole inhabited. Earth, and that there were many Kingdoms, which surpass’d them in several Arts and Sciences, they stood amazed ; and the Surprize, on the Part of the Europeans, was very great, in discovering so fine a Country, and so polite a People. There is a fine Communication from one large City to another, for the Conveniency of Trade : For through every Province of China there is one grand Canal, which serves as a high Road; from this are cut several smaller, which are again branch'd out into Rivulets, that generally end at fome Town, or Village. Over the Canals are stately Bridges, of three, five, or seven Arches; the middle Arch so high, that Vessels may go through, without taking down their Malts. Nothing can afford a more agreeable Profpect, than so many fine Canals, adorn’d with noble Bridges, built chiefly with Marble; with a prodigious Number of Cities, Towns, and Villages, upon the Banks; and a Multitude of Vessels, failing different Ways upon them, through the most fruitful Vales. Europe, 'tiś faid, has nothing to boast of comparable to this : But, to return from this agreeable Digression, to their Trade. Silks, and other rich Merchandizc, are transported upon these Canals, from Province to Province; and exported to India, Japan, the Philippines, Java, and other Hands in the Indian Seas. Goods imported from China are Tea, Quicksilver, Vermilion, China Root, Rhubarb, Raw and Wrought Silks, Copper, Camphire, Sugarcandy, Fans, Pictures, Laquer'd Ware, Porcelane,, or China Ware, Soi, Borax, Lapis Lazuli, and several other Merchandizes. The chief Goods usually brought from Europe to China are Bullion, Cloth, Cloth-Rask, Perpetuana's, Camlets, and Lcad.