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CHARACTER.] It is generally agreed, that a Majority of . the Chinese are squat, well-set Men; have broad Faces, black Hair, little dark Eyes, short Noses, and thin Beards. They were anciently reverenced throughout India, Tartary, and Persia, as Oracles; and the greatest Objection, we are told, that the Japonese made to the Christian Religion, was, that fo wise a Nation as the Chinese had not receiv'd it. Avarice, and Ambition, it seems have a large Stroke in all Affairs in China, notwithstanding their boafted Politeness, and the cquitable Rules they pretend to be govern'd by.
RELIGION.] The prevailing Religion in China, is Idolatry, or Paganism. There are three Sects of Idolaters at this Day, first, the Followers of Li Laokum, who liv'd, as they fay, above five hundred Years before Christ. He taught, that God was corporeal, and had many subordinate Deities under his Government. The second Sect is that of the Learned, who are the Disciples of the so much celebrated Gonfucius, who left many admirable Precepts of Morality, and instructed the People in Philosophy. He speaks of God as a most pure and perfect Principle, the Fountain and Essence of all Beings; and, tho' we are told he prohibited Idolatry, he has Temples and Images erected to him, and is worshipped with the profoundest Adoration. There is a third Sect, much more numerous than either of the former, who worship the Idol Fo, whom they ftyle the only God of the World.' This Idol was imported from India, about thirty-two Years after the Death of our Saviour. , CUSTOMÁ.] The Men wear no Hats, but a Cap, like a Bell, made of fine Mat, which does not come fo low as their Ears: They carry a Fan in their Hands, to screen them from the Heat of the Sun. They shave their Heads, except one Lock behind, which the better Sort make up in a little Roll. They wear a Vest, which reaches to the Ground, and folds over their Breafts; the Sleeves are wide at the Shoulder, but narrow towards the Wrift. The Veft is tied with a Silk Sash, which hangs down to their Knees. Over this Veft they wear a loofe Coat, or Gown, shorter than the rest, with short Sleeves. They have a kind of Silk • Boots, quilted with Cotton an Inch thick, and Slippers besides. The Women dress usually in their Hair, which is a part of
it made up in a Roll, and fasten'd with a Bodkin ; the rest is divided into two Locks, which fall
gracefully upon the Neck. They wear, as Men do, a long Vest of Sattin; they have over this a loose Gown, with wide Sleeves, so long, that they would reach the
Ground, if they were not held up. But what is most remarkable is, their little Feet, in which their principal Beauty is thought to lie: As foon as a Girl is born, her Feet are bound up so hard, that they cannot grow; which makes them walk a little awkwardly, the Foot of a grown Woman being no bigger than a Child's of three Years old. The Chinese are far from superstitious in their Diet; they do not only eat all Kinds of Flesh, Fish, and Fowl, as the Euro. peans do; but Horse-flesh is in great Esteem Diet. amongst them; nor are Dogs, Cats, Snakes, Frogs, or scarce any sort of Vermin refus'd: But Rice, Roots, Pulle, and Garden-stuff, are the Common Food. They use neither Cloth, Napkins, Knives, Spoons, or Forks; but two little round Sticks of Ebony, or other Wood, with which they take up their Meat very dexterously. They use high Chairs, and Tables, contrary to all the People of the Eaft besides, who sit cross-legg’d upon the Floor. Every Person, almost, at an Entertainment, has a little laquer'd Table to himself, on which is set his Treat and Rice, in little China Dishes, or Saucers; and sometimes Plate is used. Tea is their principal Liquor; Wine they have none, tho' the Country abounds in fine Grapes ; neither do they brew Beer of Barley, but have strong Liquors, which they make of Rice, or Wheat. People generally eat their Meat cold, Ceremony at tho' they drink their Liquors hot. At an Enter- an Entertain. tainment, whenever a Mouthful of Meat is taken meni. up, or a Cup of Liquor drank, it occasions a hundred Grimaces: The Master of the Feast gives the Sign, when they fit down, by taking up the two Sticks, and making a Flourish with them; after which, they strike them into the Difh. They are to take as much Care as possible, that their Mouths all move together, , that one may not have done before another; for either to be beforehand, or make the rest wait, is reckon'd a great Piece of Rudeness, and throws all into Confusion. When this is done, they flourish their little Sticks again ; and, having taken two or three Mouthfuls of a Dish, the Master of the House gives a Sign to lay down their Arms, which they do in the fame Order they found them, Then comes the Liquor, which is drank off with great Cerama
OF GREAT TARTARY. CLIMATE.] THE Air of this Country is very different, as
1 we may expect, in so vašt á Tract of Land. The Products of this Country are chiefly Skins of Foxes, Sables, Hyenas, Ermins, Lynxes, and other Furs; Mulks, Rhubarb, Flax, and some Cinnamon; .
GOVERNMENT.] For the Government of Muscovite Tartary, and Chinefi Tartary, fee the respective Heads.
RELIGION.] The Samcieds say, that they believe that there is a God, and that they are convinc'd nothing is greater and more powerful than God, and that all Things depend ơn him ; that we had one common Father, and that good Men will go to Paradise. But, notwithstanding this, they worship the Sun, Moon, and Planets, together with several Kinds of Beasts and Birds, from whom they hope to receive some Benefits. Images they also worship, in human Shape;' but so very ill carved and dress'd, that it would be difficult to discover what they represented. They have Priests among them, who pretend to the Magic Art, and to foretel future Events. As to the Religion of the Ostiacks, I do not find it differs much from that of the Samoieds.
Customs.] The Samoieds eat the Flesh of Horses, Oxen, Deer, Sheep, and Fish, indifferently; but prefer the Entrails of Animals to any other Part of them. Their Houses are built with Poles, and the Branches of Trees, and cover'a with Bark : They are almost in the form of a Bee-hive, and have a Hole in the Top to let out the Smoke; for the whole House is but one Room, with a Hearth in the Middle, round which they fit or lie upon Rain-deer Skins, their only Furniture, except the Horse-Aeth, and other Carrion, which hangs round the Huts; for they feldom eat it while it is sweet, which makes their Habitation insupportable to any but themselves ; and 'tis said, the Fumes, that arise from their own unfavoury Hides, are almost as disagreeable as those which proceed from the Carrion their Diet. The Diversions of the Samoieds and Oftiacks are chiefly hunting the Elks and Rain-deer. They will venture over high Rocks of Ice, lying in the Isand of Waigats, or Nova Zembla, in Pursuit of their Game : These People are shod with wooden Scates, with which they run over Mountains, with incredible Swiftnefs, upon the Snow; and, having a kind of Shovel in their Hands, faften’d to a long Staff, with this they throw Snow at the wild Rain.
with Barkle Tn the Top to left a Hearth in
deer, to force them into the place where they have set their Nets. They carefully observe the Wind, which they guess at the Alteration of, by certain Signs; for, if the North Wind fets in, there is no enduring the open Country; if they cannot escape to some Cave, and shelter themselves, till it is over, they certainly perish ; from whence we may conclude, there are no constant Inhabitants about there, tho' some pretend to have seen them. The Diet of the Ofiacks
Dies of the is chiefly Fish, Venison, Wild Fowl, and Roots: 0 Bread they have none: Their Drink, for the most part, is fair Water, and sometimes the Blood of a Raindeer, or of any other Beast they take; and it is said, they can dispense with a Draught of Train Oil, Tobacco they are immoderately fond of; but, instead of blowing the Smoke out of their Mouths, they hold a little Water in their Mouths, with which they swallow the Smoke down ; which so intoxicates them, that they soon lose their Senses, and throw up the Phlegm; and this they will repeat several times a Day. In Winter, they set up their Huts in Woods and Forests, where there Houses. are the greatest Plenty of wild Beasts and Game; they dig deep in the Ground to secure themselves from the Cold, laying a Roof of Bark, or Rushes, over their Huts, which are cover'd with Snow in the hard Season. In the Summer, they build above Ground, on the Banks of Rivers, for the Conveniency of Fishing. The Offiacks, like the Samoieds, purchase their Wives of their Marriages. Relations, for three or four Rain-deer; and take as many as they please, returning them again to their Friends, if they do not like them, and their Loss is only the Rain-deer they gave for them. And, in some parts of the Country, they take the Liberty of selling their Wives for Slaves, when they are offended with them. They bury their Dead in the Clothes they wore when alive, Funerak. hanging by them, on the next Tree, their Bows, Quivers, Hatchets, and other Utensils. The
Tartars on the Tartars, who live along the River Irtis, South Iris. east of Tobolsky, are wealthy in Cattle, having vaft Flocks and Herds. These People live chief Dice. ly upon dried Fish, Venison, and Barley-meal : they drink Mares Milk, as most of the Tartars do, and some-' times Tea, but mix it with Flour and Butter. At great Entertainments, they usually dress a young Horse, which is their most delicious Food. Their drink they make of Oatmeal, and Spirits diffilled from Mares Milk, with which they often get
drunk, and behave themselves very brutishly. Dress Their Habit resembles that of the ancient
Rufians, and the Women wear Rings in their Noftrils. Beyond these People, in the great Defart of Barabinsky
Baraba, live certain Herds, or Tribes, callTartars,
ed Barabinsky Tartars: In the Winter, they
hunt in this Defart for Sables; but in Summer, they remove to the Banks of their Rivers, and are busied in
Fishing. The Defart affording no other Water, Diet. they drink melted Snow, and eat dried Fish,
and Barley-meal, like their Neighbours. For a little Tobacco, a Mán may purchase any thing they have;
but they scarce know the Use of Money. Their Dress. Cloaths, Caps, and Stockings, are made of Pieces
of Fur patched together. The Bratsky Tartars Bratsky
live chiefly on Venison, but Value Horse-flesh much more. Their Women wear long plaited
Gowns; and the Virgins distinguish themselves,
· by adorning their Hair with Brass, and glittering Toys. They also purchase their Wives, as in some other Parts of Siberia, with their Cattle; and often give a hundred Horses, or Oxen, for a Virgin they admire; and fifteen or
twenty Camels, besides Sheep. The Tartars
about Astracan, call’d Nagaian Tartars, are conTarlars,
ftantly moving from Place to Place, for the Convenience of Pasture: They cover their Tents with Cloth, made of Camels or Horses Hair: The Floor is laid with
fine Mats, or Carpets; their Furniture confifts The Circaffian of fine Cabinets, Trunks, and Boxes. The Tartar. Diet.
Circassians have Plenty of Wild Fowl, Venison,
Mutton, and Beef; but a Piece of a young Colt is preferred before any of these. Their usual Drink is Water, or Mares Milk, like the other Tartars: They all smoke Tobacco, Men and Women, Young and Old; they fit cross-legged, and have a Carpet, or a piece of Russian Leather, spread before them, and little wooden Tables, at
their Meals; but neither Linen, nor Plates, as far as I can find. The Calmucks also rove from
Place to Place, during the fair Season, not less than eight or ten thousand of them frequently in a Body,
who drive large Flocks and Herds before them. Manner of
They begin their March usually in the Spring,
when the Grass is come up; and, as they make but easy Journeys, leave scarce any Herbage behind them in the Country they have pass’d through. In the latter End of
Place to Place