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the Year, when there is a second Crop of Grass, they usually return the same way they came; and remain in a more subftantial kind of Houses, during the Winter Seasons, than they inhabited in the Summer ; but the People and the Cattle free quently lie in the fame Room. They eat indifferently of all kinds of Meat almost, except Hogs Diet. Flesh ; and, for their Drink, they have commonly Water; they have also Tea, and Spirits extracted from Mares Milk. In the Winter, they hunt Sables, Martens, Ermins, and other Beasts, which afford Furs.
CURIOSITIES.) For want of Curiosities, I shall present the Reader with the best Account I can meet with of that prodigious Wall, which separates Tartary from China, built by the Chinese, to hinder the frequent Incursions of the Tartars.' This Wall begins in the Province of Xenfi, which lies on the North-west of China, in about 38 Degrees of Latitude, and is carried on over Mountains and Valleys; first, towards the North-east to the Latitude 42, and then South-easterly to the Latitude 39; and terminates at the Kang-Sea, between the Provinces of Pekin and Leotung. The whole Course of it, with all the Windings, is about 1500 Miles : It is almost all built with Brick, and such well-temper'd Mortar, that it has now stood above 1800 Years : There are no Breaches in it, except in the Province of Pekin, North of the City Suven, where, instead of the Wall, are very high and inacceffable Mountains. By the Embassy that was sent from Muscovy to China, and Travellers who have lately seen it, we learn that it is about ten Yards high, and about five Yards thick. It is fortified all along by square Towers at a Mile Distance, say some; and others, at the Distance of two Bow-shots from one another, It was formerly guarded by a Million of Soldiers ; but now Guards are only placed at such Parts of it, as are easiest of Access.
Of the Afiatic ISLES. CLIMATE.] Rom the Situation of the Iands, belong.
r ing to the Kingdom of Japan, extending from the 30th to the 38th Deg. of North Lat. and some say to the 40th, it may be expected the Air should be moderateJy warm ; but to the North of the Mountains, which run thro' the midst of Japan, their Win- The place ters are very severe, and they have great Quantities of Snow. The Mountains of Formosa, it is Firm ja,
said, are full of Brimstone ; which makes this · Anian.
Isand subject to Earthquakes. Anian is a plen:
tiful Isand, and has Mines of Gold and Silver, Tbe Pbilip
and a Pearl Fishery. The Philippines are a great pinelands Number of Islands ; fome fav a thousand, extending from the 5th to the 19th Degree of North Latitude. Theie Islands are subject to great Earthquakes; and the burning Mountains have, 'tis observed, all those Effects which Pliny ascribes to the burning Mountains of Italy; namely, that they cast out their Flames, thake the Earth, driving from them the neighbouring Rivers and Seas, and fcattering their Alhes round the Country, rending the very Rocks, which sometimes gave a Report like a Cannon. From these fubterraneous Fires proceeds a great Variety of hot Baths; and some of the Rivers and Streams are so hot, that they immediately kill any Animal that falls into them. WithIsland of
Le in half a Mile of one of these hot Rivers, in Manila. : . Manila, there runs another, which is excessive
cold. No Country in the World can appear more beautiful; there is a perpetual Verdure; Buds, Blorsoms, and Fruit, are found upon the Trees all the Year
round, as well on the Mountains as Gardens. Prodirets of the This Country produces Pearls, Ambergrise, Cot
korppures. ton, and Civet, and is rich in Gold Mines, but seldom wrought"; they have vaft Quantities of Gold Duft, which are wash'd down from the Hills by the Rains, and
found mix'd with the Sand of their Rivers. The Cloues, Products of Amboina are Cloves, Oranges,
Lemons, Sugar-canes, Cocoes, and other Fruits; Moluccas,
they have allo Potatoes, and some Tobacco. In ebeir Produce. the Moluccas, they have neither Corn or Rice,
or hardly any Butchers Meat, but Goats Fleth. Here are also Almonds, Oranges, and Lemons, and other delicious Fruits ; but what is peculiar to these Islands, and, in Return for which, they were once furnish'd with the Pro
duce of every other Country, is their Cloves. The Banda Isles. Banda Ines are as famous for Nutinegs, as the
. Molucca's and Amboina are for Cloves. The Nutmeg-tree is like the Peach, only its Leaves are rounder, and something less : The fruit is inclos'd in a thick Rind,
·like a Walnut; under this a Leaf, which covers Mace.
the Shell, and is what we call Mace; and within
this lies the Nutmeg. It seems the Dutch have rooted up all the Cloves in the Moluccas, properly so called,
ton, andurity produces PMountains as to
because they lay expos’d to the Attempts of other Nations ; for this Reason they have encouraged the Planting of Cloves in Amboina only, which have increased to such a Degree, that this Inand alone is now sufficient to serve the whole World with Cloves. The Air in the Isand of Celebes is hot and moist, the whole Country ly- Celebes. ing under or very near the Line, and subject to great Rains. It is most healthful during the Northern Monfons ; if they fail of blowing their accustomed Time, which is very seldom, the Island grows fickly, and great Numbers of People are swept away. They have Mines of Copper, Tin, and Gold; but I do not find they are much wrought: The Gold they have is found chiefly in the Sands of their Rivers, and at the Bottom of Hills, wash'd down by Torrents. This Country produces many venomous Drugs and Herbs, the very Touch or Smell of which occasions present Death. The Cattle have that Sagacity, it is obferv’d, that they seldom touch a noxious Herb; and if they happen to tread near one, immediately fly from it. The Air in the Island of Borneo is not excessive hot, considering it is Borneo Air. situated under the Equinoctial, being refresh'd almost every Day with Showers and Sea-breezes, as all other Countries are under the Line. Gold and Precious Stones, which abound in this Island, make Products. our Adventurers Night Death in every Shape, rather than not possess them. As to their Monsons, or periodical Winds, they are Westerly from September to April, or thereabouts ; during which Time is their wet Season, when heavy Rains continually pour down, intermix'd with violent Storms of Thunder and Lightning; and, at this Time, it is very rare to have two Hours fair Weather together on the South Coast of the Ife, where the Europeans principally resort. The dry Season begins usually in April, and continues till Septembir; and, in this Part of the Year too, they seldom fail of a Shower every Day, when the Sea-breeze comes in. This Ifand also produces Pepper, and many other valuable Commodities. The Air of Sumatra is : generally very unwholsome ; for, from the hot- Sumatra Air. test sultry Weather, it often suddenly changes to chilling Cold. The low Grounds also, near the Coast, where the Natives, as well as Foreigners, principally inhabit, being one continued Morass, the fame Kind of stinking Fogs arile here as in Borneo, and render this Country no less unhealthful, especially to Foreigners. The principal Produce of Sumatra is Pepper, and Gold Dust; it Products, Vol. I.
wo Hourlingand, atd with violenen heavy
also affords good Camphire, and the Bezoar-stone is also
found here. The Monsons and Seasons are Ceylon. the same in the Inand of Ceylon, as on the
neighbouring Continent, and the Rains begin to fall much sooner on the Western Coast than on the Eastern: The Northern Part of the Island is subject to great Droughts for several Years together ; which is the more sensible Affliction, because they have scarce any Springs or Rivers in that Part of the Ifand, but must be supplied, with Difficulty, with Water, as well as Food, from the South: This often renders this Part of the Country very sickly, but the reft is
esteein’d very healthful. The Tree peculiar to Produce, this Island, and more valuable to the Dutch,
than any of the Mines of Potosi to the Spaniards, The Cinna is the Cinnamon : This Tree is as common as Jon-trie,
l. any other, in the Woods, on the South-weft Part of the Illand. GOVERNMENT.] The Japan Isles are under the Govern
ment of fifty or fixty petty Kings, vested with Japan, Sovereign Power in their respective Territories,
but subject to one grand Monarch; who can Philippine depose and punish them as he sees fit. The Ijlands.
Philippine Tands, being mostly subject to the King of Spain, are ruld by a Viceroy, or Captain General,
who keeps his Court in the City of Manila. Bornco. The Isle of Borneo is divided into several
petty Kingdoms; and, when any Prince grows more powerful than the rest, he usually brings his Neighbours into a State of Dependence, and sometimes obtains
the Name of Sultan, or King of the whole Sumatrn, Inand. Sumatra seems to be very differently con
stituted; and most of them have experienc'd grcat Alterations and Revolutions in the last Century. The Crosban King of Ceylon is absolute, being restrained by
no Laws or Customs from doing what he thinks fit. When he goes abroad, his Guards are very numerous, and is preceded by Drums, Trumpets, and other Wind-music, and with Singing-women. When his Subjects come into his Presence, they fall three times upon their Faces; and then do not stand, but sit upon their Legs before - him, and address him in Terms little inferior to those they
use in Divine Worship; and when they go out of his Presence, - they creep backwards till they are out of Sight. His Courtiers, while they are in Waiting, are not permitted to come near
the Dom. This ce or
their Wives ; nor will he fo much as suffer their Wives to remain in the City, insomuch that if they are taken with a Lady, while they are in his Service, it is capital. This Prince manages most of his Affairs by two great Ministers, to whom the Subjects may appeal from inferior Judges, or Governors. The Cinnamon Plantations are wholly in the Power of the Dutch, and they have oblig'd the King to retire farther up into the Country, and suffer him to entertain no Commerce or Correspondence with the rest of the World: This Island may be faid, in general, to be under the Dominion of the Hollanders.
TRADE.] As to the Trade of the Japonese, they have very little at present, but with Jelo, the Chines, and Dutch. The Inhabitants of Mindanao trade Of Mindanao, chiefly to Manila, whither they transport Gold, and Bees-wax; and bring back Calicoes, Mullins, and China Silks : they maintain a Trade also with Borneo; the Dutch come hither, in Sloops, from Ternate and Tidore, and purchase Rice, Bees-wax, and Tobacco. The Island of Manila lies so conveniently between the rich Manila, Kingdoms of the East and West, that it has been esteem'd the best Situation for Trade in the World, especially when the Molucca Islands were under the same Government; then the Spaniards might be said to have the best Share of the East as well as the West-Indies : Hitherto Silver was brought from New Spain and Peru; Diamonds, and other Precious Stones, from Golconda ; Cinnamon from Ceylon ; Pepper, from Sumatra and Java ; Cloves and Nutmegs, from the Moluccas; Silks, from Bengal; Camphire, from Borneo ; China Ware, and Silks, from China, &c. Two Ships fail yearly to Acapulco, in New Spain, loaded with the Riches of the East; these Vessels are returned to Manila, freighted with Silver, and make four hundred per Cent. Profit, 'tis said. The Goods our Merchants deal in, in Borneo, are chiefly Pepper, Gold, and Precious Borneo. Stones; though it affords several other valuable Commodities. Goods proper for Exportation thither (besides Dollars) are Guns, Sheet-lead, showy Calimancoes, Knives, and other Cutlers Wares, but not Forks; Iron Bars, small Steel Bars, Hangers, Nails, Graplings, Red Leather Boots, Spectacles, Clock-work, Fire Arms, Gunpowder, and Looking-glasses. The Dutch suffer no Europeans to trade in Java; but there come to Batavia java. fifteen or twenty Sail of Chinese Junks every Year, from three to five hundred Tons apiece, which furnish T2