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the Hollanders with all the Merchandize of China, at ant easier Rate, than they could by sending their Fieets thither. Batavia is the great Magazine of the Dutch East India Company : Hither they import the Merchandizes of Japan, of the Spice-Islands, Pirsia, Surat, Bengal, and the Coast of Malebar and Cormandel, as well as every thing that Europe affords. One sort of Goods they barter for another all over the Indies; and having furnished themsclves with what is most

valuable in the East, traníport it into Europe, Sumatra, where all is converted into Money. The Trade

of Sumatra is chiefly carried on at the Port of Achen, where there is seldom less than ten or fifteen Sail of Ships of different Nations. The principal Merchandize of this Country is Pepper and Gold Dust; and, notwithstanding they have greater Quantities of Gold here, than in any other Country in India, the great Demand for it keeps it at a very high Rate.

RELIGION.] The Japonese are Idolaters, and worship the Of You Heavens and the Planets, with several monof the Phi.

strous Idols. The Natives of the Philippine lippines,

Ipands 'retain some Traditions, in their Songs,

concerning the Genealogy and heroic Acts of their Gods or ancient Heroes. By these it appears, they formerly worshipped one Supreme Being, the Maker or Father of all their subordinate Deities. They adored also Birds and Beasts, like the Egyptians; and the Sun and Moon, like the Asyrians : And indeed there is not a Rock or Stone, Pro

montory or River, but what they sacrifice to at present. The Religion of the People of the Inland

Parts of Borneo is Paganism, which they receiv'd from their Ancestors the Chinese, who first planted this Isand; but all the Sea Coasts are Mahometans, being the Posterity of these Colonies which transported themselves from Afric, Arabia, and Persia, to the Oriental Islands, between three and four hundred Years since; invited hither by the Spices and other rich Merchandizes, for which the East has been

famous many Ages past. The Natives of Ceylon. Ceylon worship one Supreme God, the Creator

of Heaven and Earth; they fall down before the Images of their Saints, or Heroes, whom they suppos'd to have liv'd upon the Earth, and are now become Angels, or ministring Spirits, to the great Creator : But the principal of their inferior Deieties is their God Buddou, who, they be

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Borneo,

lieve, came from Heaven, to procure the eternal Happiness of Mankind, and ascended into Heaven from the Top of a Mountain, leaving the Impression of his Foot there in the Rock, which is now become the Object of their Worship.

Customs.] The Japonese wear several Vests one upon another, with a loose Gown over all, not much unlike the Chinese; they have Drawers also, Dress. which come down very low upon their Legs ; and Slippers without Heels, like the Chinese; but wear no Caps, though their Heads are shaved : They have Fans and Umbrellas to defend them from the Weather; they wear a fort Dagger in their Sash, and a heavy Broad-sword on the Right Side. They eat little Beef or Mutton, or of the Flesh of any tame Beast, but chiefly that Diet. which they take in Hunting : Some Sects look upon themselves to be prohibited, by their Religion, to kill any thing, or eat any thing that has Life; and will not so much as eat Milk, Butter, or Cheese. Their common Food is Rice, Pulse, and Herbs, as it is in most Eastern Nations. The Generality of the People drink a Liquor made of Wheat, and draw a Spirit from Rice; but the usual Liquor is Tea. They eat with two little round Sticks, like the Chinese, and use neither Linen, Knives, Forks, or Spoons. These People, it is observ’d, spend great Part of their Night in Eating and Drinking, which others spend in Sleep: And because their Manners and Customs are acknowledg’d to be different from the rest of the World in many In- Saluta:ions, stances, some Writers affirm, that they resemble us in nothing; and particularly, that, instead of bowing, to shew their Respect to their Betters, they stand up as ftiffy as they can : But I find, by the best Writers, that they bow their Bodies as we do, and never approach their Magistrates, but upon their Knees. They delight much in Malquerades and Plays, at which the King and Court Diversions. are often present; the Ministers of State, and great Men, being frequently the principal Actors. When they celebrate their annual Festival of visiting the Tombs of their Ancestors, every House is illu- Festivals. minated ; and they march out of the Town at Midnight, in a solemn Procession, to the Graves of their deceased Friends, where they eat, drink, and make merry, for several Nights successively': At the Conclusion of the Feast, they march round the Town with Flags, Streamers, and Banners; beating upon Brass Pans before the Temples of their T 3

Idols

s as we do, find, by the Betters, they ftand of

faid, upon the rip up theirs fake; andhem will killvants to

Idols, and at the Doors of the great Men. Whert Entertainments. a great Man makes an Entertainment, it is usual, at

the End of the Feast, to call his Servants together, it is said, and demand which of them will kill themselves, before the Guests, for his fake; and thereupon they contend who shall first rip up their Bowels: This is also common, it is faid, upon the Death of their Masters, or upon the laying the Foundation of a Palace, or magnificent Building. In Japan

they burn their dead Bodies, as in India. On · Funerals. the Day appointed for the Funeral, a large square

Pile of Wood is erected without the Town ; and, the Friends and Relations of the Deceased being assembled, the Women first move forward, cloath'd in White; which is the Colour used in Morning here, as well as in China. The Women, of any Quality, are carried in Litters of Cedar; after these follow the Men, richly dress’d; then come the Priests, cloath'd in Linen, one of them with a lighted Torch, singing, with his Brethren, all the Way they march: Some carry Brass Balons, which they beat upon; and others Baskets of Flowers, which they strew in the Way, fignifying that the Soul is gone to Paradije. Several Banners, with the Names of their Idols, and Lanterns full of Lights, are carried before the Corpse ; which is set upright, in a fort of a Couch, cloath'd in White, and his Hands join’d together in a praying Posture ; and is follow'd by his Children, the eldest carrying a Torch to light the Fire. Having three times surrounded the Funeral-pile, about which are placed Tables, with Meat and Drink upon them, the Chief Priest begins a Hymn; and, having wav'd a lighted Torch three times about his Head ; signifying that the Soul is without Beginning or End, he fings the Torch away ; which the Children of the Deceased taking up, kindle the Funeral-pile, throwing on Oil, and costly sweet Woods, till the Corps is burnt to Ashes. After which the Children offer Incense, and adore their Father, as being become one of the heavenly Inhabitants. The next Day they return to the Place, and put the Bones and Ashes in á gilded Urn, which is hung up in the

House for some time, and afterwards interred with Furniture. much Solemnity. They use neither Tables, Beds,

or Chairs ; but sit on Mats when they eat, and

die on them when they sleep. The Natives along Borneo Diet, the Coasts of Borneo eat chiefly boild Rice, Fowls,

hard Eggs, Fish, and Venison ; their usual Liquor is Water, or Tea. They fit cross-legg’d, on Mats,

at their Meals, as they do at other times, being seldom seen in any other Posture. They live in a hospitable, friendly Manner, their Houses being always open to their Acquaintance. Both Sexes are fond of Tobacco, which is uually mix'd with Opium : The Master of the House usually lights the Pipe first, (for they use but one) which, after he has smok'd two or three Whiffs, he gives to his Neighbour, and he to a third, till it has gone round the Company, who fit cross-legg’d in a Ring upon Mats : When they have continu'd smoking some time, they grow exceeding chearful, but, when they fit too long at it, they grow mad, or stupid. The ordinary Way of Salutation is by joining their Hands, and lifting them up towards their Salutations. Breast, or Head, and bowing the Body a little ; but when they appear before a great Man, they lift their join'd Hands to their Forehead, falling down on their Faces and Knees; and if it be before a Prince, they begin to crecp towards him at a considerable Distance; and in the same manner they retire, after they are dispatched. And whoever has Occasion to petition his Superior, lies in this humble Porture till he is spoke to, which is sometimes a considerable Time. These People frequently marry Marriages, their Daughters at eight or nine Years of Age, and they have Children foon after; but are usually past the Peril by that time they are Five-and-twenty. The ordinary Food, in Sumatra, is Rice, and Sumatra. Fish ; but those who can afford it, eat Mutton, Goats-flesh, Buffalo, Beef, and Venison. Their usual Liquor is fair Water, or Tea; Arrack, or Spirits drawn from Rice and Sugar-canes, is very common here; they have also Palm Wine, and a Liquor drawn from the Branches of the Cocoa-tree. The ordinary Salutations are Salutations, perform'd by bringing one or both Hands to their Head; but, before any great Man, they prostrate themselves with their Faces to the Ground; and, like other Asiatics, fit cross-legg'd on the Floor at their Meals, and whenever they meet or converfe together. Gaming they love immoderately, both Cards and Dice ; which were Gaming. probably introduced here by the Chinese ; and few Days pass without a Cock-match : They do not trim the Cock for the Engagement, as in Europe, but produce them with all their gay Plumage, and fasten such murdering Instruments to their Heels, of the Shape and Length of a Penknife Blade, that the Battle is over in an Instant : One Stroke often brings down the stoutest Cock; but the Conquest is noi

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admitted, unless the Victor will strike or peck his Enemy, af. ter he has dispatched him ; for, if he does not, they draw Stakes. They will stake their whole Fortunes upon one of these Encounters. As to the Inhabitants of the Inland Country, and Mountains, we have no Account of their Customs;

but, as they are descended from the Chinese, they Dress of the probably retain many of their Customs. The Ceylonese. Dress of the Ceylonese is usually a Waistcoat, of

blue or white Calico, and a Piece of Calico wrapped about their Middles, with a Sash over it, in which they stick their Knife, which has usually a fine wrought Handle'; they have a Hanger also, and usually walk with a Cane; but the common People go naked to the Middle, about which they wrap a Piece of Calico, which reaches down to their Knees. The Women go in their Hair combed behind their Heads; they have a Waistcoat flourished, which sits close to their Bodies, and shews their Shape: They wrap a Piece of Calico about them, which falls below their Knees; and is longer and shorter, according to their Quality: They have Jewels in their Ears, in which they bore great Holes, and

stretch them out to a great Length. When they Salutations falute their Acquaintance, it is by holding out and Vifits. both their Hands with the Palm upwards, and

bowing their Bodies ; but one of a superior Quality holds out but one Hand, or perhaps nods his Head, The Women falute, by clapping the Palms of their Hands together, and carrying them to their Foreheads. When the nearest Relations visit, they fit very reserv'd and silent, and

are at no time addicted to talk much. The principal Food is Rice, with some favoury Soups,

made of Flesh, or Fish: The better Sort will have fix or seven Dishes at their Tables, but they are most of them Soup, Herbs, or other Garden-stuff; seldom more than one or two of Flesh or l'ish, of which they eat very sparingly. The Meat is cut in little Pieces, and laid by the Rice; so that they use no Knives or Forks, but they have Ladles and Spoons : They have Brass and China Plates to eat on ; but the poorer Sort, who want these, make a' shift with broad Leaves instead of them. Their usual Drink is Water, which they pour into their Mouths, holding the Bottle at a Distance from their Heads. If they have Rice and Salt in the House, the Poor look upon themselves to be well provided for: Beef, I think, they are prohibited to eat, if they are inclin'd to it; and, for Pork and Fowls, they choose to sell these to Foreigners amongst them; and would think themselves hardly used,

Diet.

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