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bringing them to England as lawful Prizes. In the Year 1610, King James I. made a Grant to the Earl of Northampton, and others, of that part of the Isand, which lies between Cape Bonavista and Cape St. Mary's; and the Grantees, being incorporated, and formed into a Company, sent a Colony thither ; but the Severity of the Weather, Sickness, and Scarcity of Provisions, obliged the Planters to return to England: But the English still insisted on the sole Right of fishing on the Coast; and, having a Squadron of Men of War fent thither for their Protection in the Reign of King
James I. drove all others from thence: But in the Reign of King Charles II. the French were suffered to settle in Placentia, and afterwards pofseffed themselves of great Part of the Inand. Jamaica was discovered by Columbus in his second Voyage to America, and planted by the Spaniards Jamaiin. some few Years afterwards ; and remained in the Possession of the Crown of Spain till 1656, when Admiral Penn, and General Venables, being sent by the Usurper Cromwell to reduce Hispaniola, and being disappointed in that Attempt, to save their Credit, invaded Jamaica, and made a complete Conquest of it; and the Spaniards have yielded and confirmed it to Great Britian by a subsequent Treaty of Peace. The Government of Barbadoes resembles that of Jamaica, and the rest of our American Inands, Barbadees. which we shall have occasion to mention under the Head of Trade.
TRADE.) I shall here inquire into the Trade and Importance of the Britiso Dominions in America, The chief Exports of South Carolina are Rice, Carolina. Deer-skins, Pitch, Tar, Turpentine, Tobacco, Beef, Pork, tanned Leather, Cedar Wood, Deal Boards, Pipe Staves, Timber of all sorts, Malts, Yards, &c. They produce and fhip off yearly about 60,000 Barrels of Rice, each containing about four Hundred Weight neat; they have Thipped off allo about 70,000 Deer-skins at a Medium for many Years past. They have very little Shipping of their own in Carolina ; however, they load about 200 Sail of Ships yearly at Charles-town, and at fome other Towns, they trade with the Indians for Deer-skins, and Bear and Buffaloe-skins, for which they give them Guns, Powder, Knives, Scissars, Lookirg-glasses, Beads, and many other Trifles; and some coarse Čloths, Strouds, Duffields, and coarse Calicoes, &c. for their Women ; and they carry them on Pack-horses for 5 or boo Miles to the Westward of Charles-town : Tho' they go so far ('tis but seldom) the most of their Trade being confined within the Limits of the Creek and Charokee Nations, which is not above 300 Miles. It seems, that North Carolina produces a good Quantity of Tobacco, and but little Rice; and South Carolina, on the contrary, produces vaft Quantities of Rice, and little Tobacco; but as to the rest of the Produce, they are pretty much the same. Carolina produces also moft
Sorts of Fruits, and Variety of English Grain, in Virginia, great Abundance. Virginia produces moft Sorts
of Roots, and desirable Fruits, with physical Plants and Herbs, in great Plenty ; but, above all, great Quantity of Tobacco, so much used all the World over. Their only foreign Trade worth mentioning, is that to England; and that indeed is very great, and very profitable to England. They have also a Trade to the Leeward Isles, whither they send Lumber, Corn, and Flesh; for which they take Rum, Sugar, and Melafles, in Return. England takes from them, not only what Tobacco we use at Home, but very great Quantities for Re-exportation, which may properly be said to be the surest Way of enriching this Kingdom. They take from England their Clothing, Houshold Goods, Iron Manufactures of all sorts, Saddles, Bridles, Brass and Copper Wares, and also Turners Wares ; so that it is a very great Number of People in England, that are employed to provide a sufficient Supply of Goods for the Tobacco Plantations. Besides Tobacco, we take from the Virginians Pitch and Tar, Deerfkins, and Furs of several Sorts, Snake-weed, Walnut-tree
Plank, Pipe, Hogshead, and Barrel Staves, and Maryland. fome Iron in Piggs. As the Province of Maryland
seems not to be behind, or inferior to Virginis, and as little can be said of one Province, which the other doth not deserve, or is not capable of, I will say something of them together; for though they do not both belong to the Crown immediately, yet they seem to be of equal Value to this Kingdom. Let us suppose, what is within Bounds, that from these two Colonies we receive 60,000 Hogsheads of Tobacco yearly, then the Shipping employed to bring Home this Tobacco will be at least 24,000 Tons : The neat Produce of the Tobacco will be 225,000 Pounds, which we will suppose ordered to be returned in Goods; yet out of that there will remain at least Five per Cent. Commission and petty Charges, which is 11,250 Pounds. The Value of Lumber annually imported from those two Provinces is not less, it seems, than 15,000 Pounds; and the Skins and Furs from thence we cannot eftimate at less than 6000 Pounds per Annum. The Produce of the delightful Country of Pensylvania is chiefly Wheat, Flour, Bread, Barrel-Beef, Pork, Hams, Pensylvania, Bacon, Cheese, Butter, Soap, Myrtle-Wax, Candles, Starch, Hair-Powder, Cyder, Strong Beer, Tanned Leather, Linseed Oil, Cordial Waters, Deer-skins, Beaver, Otter, Fox, and other Skins, and some Tobacco. They export also Lumber, as faw'd Boards, and l'imber for building Houses, Cypress, Pipe, Hogshead, and Barrel Staves ; Mafts, Yards, &c. Drugs, as Sasafras, Snake-root, &c. Tá shew the Advantage arising from this Province to this Kinga dom, let us suppose, what is a pretty constant Practice : À Londoner, or any Englishman, lays out here in our Manufactures to the Value of 500 Pounds ;. it will purchase there 6666 Bushels of Wheat; which, sent to Lisoon at 4 Shillings per Bushel, will come to 1333 Pounds, 4 Shillings, which is sure to be sent Home to England at least, if not immediately, and it is of the same Advantage for Remittance or Exchange, as any such Sum produced by Goods or Mera chandize sent from hence directly. It is pretty common for the Captain, if the Ship be Plantation-built, to have Orders to fell the Ship, if he can get a certain Price for it, which often happens; and in that Case, generally, the whole Produce of Ship and Cargo is sent to England; and, if it was not the Property of Englishmen residing in England, it is always ordered to be laid out in Goods of all the Manufacture of this Kingdom, or such as are imported here, and sent to Pensylvania. In another Branch this Province is also of signal Advantage to us; for all the Money they get by trading with the Dutch, French, Spaniards, or any others, which are not inconsiderable Sums, are sent directly hither. It is computed, that, as many of their Sloops make several Trips in the Year, they cannot export less annually than 12,000 Tons of their own Commodities. Besides their own Produce, they fre. quently send us Logwood, Sugar, Rice, Pitch, Tar, and Train-Oil ; in fine, whatever they think we want, or they can spare : And as there are in the City of Philadelphia many Merchants of Ability, and good Capacity, they carry their Trade into all Parts, where Gain and Advantage are to be made. It has been computed, that 60,000 Pounds in Cala have been annually remitted into England, for which there were always ordered Goods and Manufactures from this Kingdom only. Whatever is said above of Pensylvania, with
Sail of Ships and singland Trade, Sfreights. I
'regard to its Produce and Trade, may be said of New York New Jersey and New-York, except that they do and New
not build so many Ships: They send fewer Ships Jersey.
to England it is thought, yet those richer, as they deal for more Skins and Furs with the Indians. These Countries send us all 'the Money which they can by any of their Trades; they do not take less from us than Pensylvania,
and are, in all respects, of equal Advantage to us. New-Eng- New-England takes from us all sorts of Woollen kard. Manufactures, Linen, Sail-Cloth, and Cordage for Rigging their Ships, Haberdashery, &c. To raise Money to pay for what they want of us, they are forced to visit the Spanis Coast, where they pick up any Commodity they can trade for: They carry Lumber and Provisions to the Sugarplantations; exchange Provisions for Logwood with Logwoodcutters at Campechey : They send Pipe and Barrel-Staves, and Fish, to Spain, Portugal, and the Streights. It is computed, that, by the New-England Trade, there are not less than 600 Sail of 'Ships and Sloops employed ; one half of which trade to Europe; and also, that, by the Fisheries, and in the Shipping together, there are not less than from Five to Six thoufand Men employed. It is presumed, that the Trade we have to New-England is advantageous and profitable to England; for it seems, they take from us annually, of our Manufactures, and Linens imported here, also India Goods, &c. to the Value of 400,000 Pounds, for which they remit to us their Gold and Silver; and we also take from them Pitch,
Tar, and Turpentine, with some Skins, &c. Newfound. Newfoundland is of prodigious Advantage to us : land.
. It is computed, that we take, one Year with another, about Two hundred thousand Quintals of Fish there, which will sell for One hundred and twenty thousand Pounds clear of all Charges, and which may be reckoned clear Gain to this Kingdom ; for the Oil would pay for Salt, &c. and all this Sum is actually got by our Labour, and is of more Service to the Kingdom, by breeding useful Seamen, than if so much were to be dug out of the Mine by a thousandth Part of the Labour. From Newfoundland we have great Quantities of Skins and Furs, namely Seal, Deer, Fox, Otter, Minx, and Bear-skins, likewise fome Beaver, &c. We shall
be able to form some Judgment of the ImporJamgica.
tance of Jamaica, by the Quantity of its own Produce shipped off annually to us; namely, in
Sugar, 10,000 Tons; in Cotton, Indico, Ginger, Pimento; Rum, Lime-juice, Cocoa, Mahogany-Wood, &c. 2000 more. By this it will appear, that there is not less than 12000 Tons of our own Shipping constantly employed in that Service only; over and above what is employed between that Island and the Northern Plantations. They take from us all Sorts of Cloathing, both Linen, Silks, and Woollen, wrought Iron, Brass, Copper; all Sorts of Houshold Furniture, &c. The Trade of the other Sugar Colonies is vastly profitable, of which Barbadoes is an Instance; for it appeared to the Parliament in 1730, that this Inand exported Barbadors,
and the orber 22,769 Hogsheads of Sugar into England, valued
Sagar Planát 340,396 Pounds; and that this was the net rations, riz. Profit, because it was admitted, that the Rum Antegoa, Si. and Melasses of a Sugar Plantation bearthe Net
Cbrißopber, Charges of it. We may from hence conclude, serrat, &c. that the net Product of all the Sugar Colonies þrought into the Ports of Great Britain must be an immense Sum to England. Besides this considerable Article of Sugar, these Islands produce great Quantities of Cotton, Ginger, Indico, Aloes, &c. which are all brought to Great Britain, where the whole Profit of all our Plantations Product does and mult center. They have been, and perhaps äre, equal, it is said, to the Mines of the Spanish West-Indies; and have cona tributed in å particular Manner to the Trade, Navigation, and Wealth, of this Kingdoin. It is calculated, that there are 300 Sail of Ships sent from Great Britain every Year to our Sugar Colonies, which are navigated by about 4500 Seamen ; and that the Freight, from the Sugars brought here, amounts to 170,000 Pounds a Year; and the Duties, Commissions, &c. to little less than 200,000 Pounds more, which upon the Whole, is about 1,200,000 Pounds a Year Profit to Great Britain, besides the Profit arising from the other Articles.. These Sugar Plantations also take from England all Sorts of Cloathing, both Linen, Silks, and Woollen, wrought Iron, &c. as Jamaica ; and we receive from them Sugar, Cotton; Ginger, Indico, &C. . Religion. í The Indians in Carolina, Virginia, and Maryland, believe in One God, the Creator of all Things, who is infinitely happy in himself, but has little or no Regard for the triding Concerns of Men; having committed the Government of the World to certain inferior Deities or Demons; to whom therefore the Natives pay their Devotion; and these inferior Deities most of our Travellers have indica creetly denominated Devils.
drifelf, but having Deitiese votions