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after which they stand to the Northward, through the Gulph of Florida, till they come into the Latitude of 30 or 40; when they stretch away to the South-east, till they make the Illand of Porto-Rico; and, having dispatched their Business there, they continue their Course to the Southward, till they arrive at Trinity-Tand, near the Mouth of the River Oronoko : From thence the Guarda Costas fail to Margarita, another considerable Island near the Main, coafting along to Comana, and so to Caracos; then they double Cape La Vela, and coaft along by Rio de la Hecha, St. Martha, and Carthagena; on which Coast they frequently meet with English, French, and-Dutch Trading Sloops, and make Prizes of them : And, having staid some time at Carthagena, they proceed to Porto-Bello; whence, having visited the Bay of Campeachy, they return at length to Vera-Cruz again. The Smuggling, or Clandestine Trade, carried on by the English, French, and Dutch, is very beneficial to those Nations ; for the Goods carried over in the Galleons, are bought up at extravagant Rates at the Fair of Porto-Bello, to be transported again by the South-Sea to Peru; which extravagant Prices for Clothing, and Furniture, tempt the English, &c. to fit out Sloops with what Neceflaries are wanting on the coast of Mexico, &c. in order to trade with the Spaniards on those Coasts, who are no less ready to receive the Goods of these Foreigners, than they are to sell them, giving Pieces of Eight for what they buy. But, as was observed before, if the Barlavento Fleet, or Guarda Costas, meet with such Trading Vessels, they never fail to make them all Prize; and even sometimes seize on Ships that have never been concerned in this clandestine Trade, on Suspicion; and, finding Pieces of Eight on board, have frequently procured them to be condemned; which has been the Cause of the many Complaints our Merchants have made, and the Ground of the late War with the Crown of Spain. For it is highly neceffary, that our Trade and Navigation, in the West-Indies, be carried on without Interruption; and the fair Trader be brought under no such Hardships, as may discourage him from carrying on a Trade to our Plantations; which is so advantageous to the Crown of Great Britain, and its Subjects, as was observed in treating of the Trade of the British Dominions in America. The Logwood-Trade, carried on by the English, has occasioned many Disputes between Britain and Spain ; this Business of cutting Loogwood in the Bay of Campeachy, the English have followed for a great many Years, in a Part of the Country destitute of Spanish or Indian Inhabitants; and VOL. I."
looked looked upon it, that this long Possession had given them a least as good a Right to that part of the Country, as the Spaniards seem to have to any of the rest : And, in some Treaties, we are told, the Spaniards seem to have yielded this Trade to the English. However, they have thought fit, of late Years, to fall upon our Logwood-cutters, killed many of them, and carried the rest into perpetual Imprisonment, not suffering them to be exchanged or ransomed. As to the Trade of Paraguay, the City of Buenos Ayres is a great Mart; for hither European Merchandize is brought, and sent from hence to Peru and Chili ; and hither great Numbers of Negroes are brought by the English, by virtue of the Asiento Contract. From Buenos Ajres are exported to Europe Part of the Gold and Silver of Peru, with vaft Quantities of Hides, and Tallow, and other Merchandize.
Religion.] The Mexicans, before the Spaniards arrived among them, acknowledged, that the World was governed by several Gods; and therefore built Temples, and paid their Devotions, to them. But they had the greatest Veneration for the Sun; as is evident from their ascribing whatever was great and wonderful, to the Direction and Infuence of that glorious Planet. They had, however, no Image of that heavenly Body in the Temple of Mexico; for they imagined it unnecessary to make any Resemblance of that Luminary, which appeared to them every Day; or rather they fapposed he governed the World by the Mediation of inferior Deities, to whom they built Temples, and paid their Devotion, as Mediators for them to that mighty Being they did not think themselves worthy to approach directly. As to the human Sacrifices, with which the Spaniards charge the Mexicans, making these a Colour for all the Outrages they committed in
America; for ought I can learn, they neither facrificed Beasts, or Men, constantly, but only in the Time of great Calamity; such as Famine, or ill Success in War, to appease their angry Gods, as the Phenicians and Carthaginians did. As to the Chriftian Religion, which the Spaniards have introduced into this New World, it appears, that many Thousands of the Indians have been baptized by the Popis Missionaries, and have embraced the Gospel. The Piruvians, when the Spaniards arrived amongst them, acknowledged one God, the Maker of all Things, who sustained the Universe; that he was invisible, but offered him no Sacrifice : However, they shewed the profound Reverence they had for him in their Heart, by howing their Heads, lifting up their Eyes, and by other outward Gestures, whenever his sacred Name was mentioned.
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Of the Portuguese Empire in America. BOUNDARIES] D RASIL is bounded on :Te East, North,
D and South, by the Atlantic Ocean ; on the West, by the Land of the Amazons, and Paraguay.
SITUATION.] Brasil is situated between the Equator and 45 Degrees South Latitude ; and between 35 and 58 Degrees West Longitude. The Length whereof is 2220 ; and the Breadth 900 Miles: The Square Miles are 940,000.
CLIMATE.] As to the Face of the Country, the Land is rather low than high near the Coast, but exceeding pleasant, diversified with Woods, and Meadow-grounds, and Trees, for the most part, Ever-greens : But on the West Side of it, far within Land, are high Mountains, which separate it from Paraguay; and, in these, are innumerable Springs and Lakes, from whence issue abundance of Rivers, that How into the greater ones of Amazon and La Plata, or run West to East, and fall into the Atlantic Ocean. That Part of Brasil, which lies near the Equator, like other Countries in the fame Situation, is subject to great Rains, and variable Winds, particularly in the Months of March and September, when they have Deluges of Rain, with Storms and Tornadoes, the Country overflowed, and the Air unhealthful. The Winds and Seasons, from five Degrees to about 23 and an half South, are the very reverse to what they are in other Parts of the World in the fame Latitudes; for, whereas the dry Season comes on in other Places South of the Equinoctial, when the Şun goes to the Northward of the Equator, and the wet Season begins when the Sun returns to the Southward, here the wet Season begins in April, when the South-east Winds set in with violent Tornadoes, Thunder and Lightning: And in September, when the Wind shifts to East-north-east, it brings with it a clear Sky, and fair Weather. There are but two Winds that blow upon this Coast, viz. the South-east, from April to September, and the North-east from September to April again: But 30 or 40 Leagues out at Sea, they meet with the constant Trade-wind, which blows in the Atlantic Ocean all the Year round from the Eastward, with very little Variation.
GOVERNMENT.] The Coast of Brasil was first discovered by Americus Vejputius, an Italian. Several private Portuguese Adventurers, soon after, went over to Brasil with their Families; but were, most of thein, destroyed by the Natives;
and no Settlements were made, to any purpose, till the Year 1549, when John King of Portugal sent a great Fleet thither, with 1000 Soldiers on board.
TRADE.] The European Ships commonly arrive in Brasil in February or March, and they have generally quick Passages; finding, at that time of the Year, brisk Gales to bring them to the Line, little Trouble then in crossing it, and brisk East-north-east Winds to carry them thither. The chief Commodities these Ships transport from Europe, are Linencloths, both coarse and fine; Woollens, as Bays, Serges, Perpetuanas, &c. Hats, Stockings, both of Silk and Thread; Biscuit-bread, Wheat-four, Wine, Oil-olive, Butter, Cheese, &c. Iron, and all sorts of Iron-tools, Pewter Vessels of all Sorts, as Dishes, Plates, Spoons, &c. Looking-glasses, Beads, and other Toys. The Ships commonly return from Brasil the latter End of May, or in June. They bring to Europe Sugar, Tobacco, either in Roll or Snuff, never in Leaf.
Of the French Empire in America. CLIMATE, AS Louisiana resembles Carolina in these GOVERNMENT, | Articles; and as New-France resemTRADE,
bles New England, New York, New-ScoRELIGION, í tia, which lie contiguous to it; therefore CHARACTER, I shall not repeat them here, but refer CUSTOMS. j my Reader to these Heads in the respec, tive Countries. As to the Trade of the French Islands in America, they export prodigious Quantities of Sugar ; which Commodity the French have cultivated with great Application of late Years ; and, it seems, have had enough of it to furnish themselves, and all Europe,
of the Dutch Dominions in America.
T HE chief of the Dutch Settlements is Surinam, on the
1 Coast of Guiana, in Terra-Firma. They have given the Name of Surinam to all the Country about this Fortress for several hundred Miles ; and look upon themselves as Sovereigns of it. To the Northward of Terra-Firma, among the Caribee Illands, lie the Dutch Isles Curassaw and Bonair. The Illand of Curasow, containing about 342 Square Miles, is not so much esteemed for its Produce, as its Situation for a Trade with the Spanish Weft-Indies : Formerly the Harbour of Cura low was never without Ships from Carthagena and Porto-Bello ; however, the Dutch have still a very extensive Trade in this place, sending Ships of good Force from Hol. land, freighted with European Goods, to this Coast, from whence they make very profitable Returns. The Island of Bonair contains about 168 Square Miles; the Dutch have seven or eight Soilders here, and five or fix Families of Indians, whose chief Employment is the looking after their Goats for their Masters, of which the Dutch salt up great Numbers every Year. Add to these the Island of Oraba, seven or eight Leagues to the Westward of Curallow; which are all the Acquisitions of the Dutch in America.