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bances in Ifrael, advanced against it with an Army. But Menahem found means to satisfy him by a Present of a thoufand Talents. Archbishop Usher conjectures this Pul to have been the Father of Sardanapalus, imagining that Name to imply as much as Sardan the Son of Pul. It was in the Reign of this Sardanapalus that the Athenians, whose Disposition was pushing them on insensibly to a popular Government, upon the Death of Alcmæon the last of their perpetual Archons, retrenched the Power of these Magistrates, and limited their Administration to ten Years. Charops was the first who held this Dignity under these Restrictions. But we must now turn our Eyes towards Italy, and take a View of the first Beginnings of that Empire, which is in time to swallow up all the rest, and spread its Victories to the remoteft Regions of the known World. After the Destruction of Troy, Æneas gathering together the few Remains of his unhappy Countrymen, failed for Italy; where marrying the Daughter of King Latinus, he succeeded him in the Throne, and left it to his Pofterity. This Race of Latin Kings held the Sovereignty for upwards of three hundred Years ; nor do we read of any remarkable Revolution till the Time of Numitor and Amulius. But then Amulius seizing upon the Crown to the Prejudice of his elder Brother Numitor, remained poffeffed of it till Romulus and Remus the Sons of Ilia, Numitor's Daughter, arriving at Manhood, restored their Grandfather to his Inheritance, and flew the Usurper. Years of tbe This Revolution was followed soon after by the

Building of Rome in the Reign of Jotham King of u m

Yudah. Historians are not agreed as to the precise grb Epocba.

Year of this Event. The Computation of Archof Rome, bishop Ujer, founded on the Authority of Fabius 3250. Pistor, places it a little before the Beginning of

the eighth Olympiad, in the 3966 Year of the Jvlian Period. This I take it was the true Year of the Foundation of Rome. But as Varro's Account is now almost universally followed; to prevent a Disagreement between this Tract, and those other Histories that are most likely to fall in your Way, I shall proceed upon his Hypothesis, which fixes it to the 3d Year of the 6th Olympiad, that is, in the 3960th Year of the Julian Period, 430 Years after the Destruction of Troy, and 753 before the Beginning of the Christian Æra. The Romans, (according to Plutarch and others,) began to build on the 21st of April. This Day was then consecrated to Pales, Goddess of Shepherds, so that the Festival of Pales, and that of the Foundation of the City, were afterwards jointly cele



The Building

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brated at Rome on the same Day. This Æra fo remarkable in History, as ferving the best of any to direct us in regulating our Accounts of the Western and European Nations, is removed but a few Years from another of no less Note in the Eastern Chronology. For about fix Years after the building of Rome, according to the Computation of Varro, happened the Downfal of the Allyrian Monarchy, occasioned chiefly by the Effeminacy of Sardanapalus. This Prince neglecting wholly the Administration of public Affairs, and thutting kimself up in his Palace amongst his Women and Eunuchs, fell into Contempt with his Subjects; whereupon Arbaces Governor of Media, and Belesis Governor of Babylon, conspiring against him, besieged him in his Capital, and reduced him at last to the Necessity of perishing miserably with his Wives and Eunuchs in the Flames of his own Palace. Upon the Diffolution of this mighty Empire, there arose two others in its Stead, founded by the two Leaders of the Conspiracy. Belefis had Babylon, Chaldea, and Arabia ; and Arbaces all the rest. Belesis is the same with Nabonasar, from the Beginning of whose Reign at Babylon; commenceth the famous Astronomical Æra I am speaking of, from him called the Æra of Nabonasar. For this Æra we are beholden to Ptolemy's Canon, which beginning with Nabonafjar, carries down the Succeffion of the Babylonian Kings, and afterwards of the Persian and Macedonian, quite beyond the Birth of Christ. This Canon is a sure Guide in Regard to the Easterni Chronology, and comes in the most opportunely that can be imagined, for the connecting of sacred and profane History. For as it commenceth several Years before the Babylonish Captivity, by which the Course of the Jewish History is interrupted; we can here take up the Series, and continue down the Account of Time with Certainty, to the Beginning of the Christian Æra. The first Year of Nabonassar coincides with the seventh Year of Rome, the second of the 8th 3257. Olympiad, the 747th before Christ, and the 3967 of the Julian Period. In the mean time Ahaz having fucceeded his Father Botham in the Kingdom of Judah, was attacked by Rezin King of Syrid, and Pekah King of Israel; whereupon applying to the King of Allyria, who is in Scripture called Tiglath-Pileser, he readily obtained his Asistance. This Tiglath-Pileser is by some conjectured to be the same with Arbaces the Mede; but the more probable Opinion is, that he was of the Royal Family of Assyria, his Name Tiglath. Pul-Affar, having a plain Resemblance of Pul, and Sardan. Pul, the Names of the two former Kings. It is likely therefore, that taking Advantage of the Confusion that followed Cc 2


upon the Diffolution of the Assyrian Monarchy, and the Dir vision of it between Arbaces and Belefis, he put himself at the Head of those who still adhered to the House of Pul, and getting Possession of Nineveh, there established a third Empire for himself, while Arbaces and Belesis were employed in settling themselves in the Provinces they had respectively governed under the former Monarch. Thus we see a second Alyrian Empire rising out of the Ruins of the former, of which Nineveh, as before, remained the Capital. Tiglatb-Pileser coming with a great Army to the Assistance of Ahaz, took Dan mascus, and entirely destroyed the Kingdom of Syria, uniting it to his own. He likewise greatly distressed that of Israel, and even ravaged the Territories of his Friend and Ally King Ahaz. By this means were the Kings of Allyria first introduced into Palestine, which finding to lie convenient for them, they resolved to make a Part of their Empire. They began with the Kingdom of Israel, which Salmaneler, the

Son and Successor of Tiglath-Pilefer, entirely subdu3283. ed, throwing Hofea the King thereof into Prison,

and carrying the People into Captivity. About this Time died Romulus the first King of Rome, after a Reign of 37 Years. He was all his Life engaged in Wars, and always returned from them victorious. But this hindered him not from attending both to the civil and religious Establishment of his new Colony, where he laid the first Foundation of those Laws and Institutions, that contributed so much to the Ad

vancement of the Roman Empire. A long and 3290. uninterrupted Peace, gave Numa his Succeffor an

Opportunity of finishing she Work, by softening the Manners of the People, and bringing their Religion into a more exact Form. In this Time several Colonies from Corinth, and other Parts of Greece, built Syracuse in Sicily; and likewise Crotona and Tarentum, in that part of Italy called Magna Grecia, by reason of the many Greek Colonies already settled there. Mean while Hezekiah had succeeded Abaz in the Throne of Judah. He was a Prince renowned for Piety and Justice, and so much the Favourite of Heaven, that it interposed in a miraculous Manner, both in recovering him from a remarkable Sickness, and delivering him from the Menaces of Sennacherib King of Alyria. But Manalleb his Son not treading in his Steps, he was sold into the Hands of E farhaddon the Successor of Sennacherib. This Prince was wise and politic; he re-united the Kingdom, of Babylon to that of Nineveh, and by his many Conquests equalled if not exceeded in Extent of Dominion, the ancient Asyrian Mo


narchs. While Efarhaddon was thus enlarging his Empire, the Medes were beginning to render themselves considerable by the wise Administration of Deioces their first King. He had been raised to the Throne on account of his Virtue, and to put an End to the Disorders occasioned by the Anarchy under which his Countrymen then 3296. lived. He built the City of Ecbatana, and laid the Foundations of a mighty Empire. Rome begins now to increase in Power and Territory, tho' by flow Advances at first. Under Tullus Hoftilius her third King, and in the 83d Year of the City, happened the fa- 3332. mous Combat of the Horatii and Curiatii, by which Alba was subjected, and its Citizens incorporated with the victorious Romans. At this Period begins the Reign of Psammitichus in Egypt. It had fome 3334. time before been divided into twelve Parts, over which reigned twelve Princes, who as a Monument of their Union built the famous Labyrinth. But Pfammitichus, who was one of them, incurring the Jealousy of the rest, they expelled him, whereupon he drew any Army together, subdued and dethroned the eleven confederate Princes, and seized on the whole Kingdom for himself. As the lonians and Carians had been very serviceable to him in this Revolution, he granted them an Establishment in Egypt, hitherto inacceffible to Strangers. On this Occasion began the first Cominerce between the Egyptians and Greeks, which as it was ever after constantly kept up, we are to account this according to Herodotus the Æra of true Egyptian History; all that goes before being fo darkened by the Fables and Inventions of the Priests, that it seems very little worthy of Credit. 3348. :: In Media, Phraortes fucceeded his Father Deioces, and after a Reign of 22 Years left the Kingdom to his Son Graxares, in whose Time happened the Irruption of the Scythians, who vanquishing Cyaxares in Battle, dispossessed him of all the upper Afia, and reigned there twenty-eight Years. In Judah, Ammon fucceeding Manasseh, after a short Reign left the Kingdoin to his Son Jofiah, who proved a pious Prince, and thoroughly reformed the Jewish State. Rome in the mean time was enlarging her Territories under her 4th King Ancus Martius, and by the wise Establishment of incorporating the conquered Nations, increased in Power and the Number of her Citizens. Babylon we have feen had been re-united to Nineveh, and so continued till the Reign of Chiniladar ; but he proving an effeminate Prince, NabopelleCc 3

- far,

far, whom he had made General of his Armies against Cys axares the Mede, rebelled against him, and joining with Afya

ages the Son of Cyaxares, invested Nineveb, took 3378. the Place, and few his Master Chiniladan, call

ed otherwise Saracus. After which, to gratify the Medes, he utterly destroyed that great and ancient City, and from that Time Babylon became the fole Metropolis

of the Allyrian Empire. Nabopollafar was fucs 3397. ceeded by his Son Nebuchadnezzar, a Prince

renowned in History, and who by his mighty Conquests both in the East and West, raised Babylon to be the Metropolis of the World. By him was Jerusalem taken three several Times, and at last totally destroyed, the whole Land of Judab being led into Bondage by the Conqueror. This is the famous Babylonijh Captivity of seventy Years, so often mentioned in the Writings of the Prophets, Griece was at this Time in a very flourishing Way, and be

gan to discover her Acquirements in Learning and 3410. the polite Arts. Her seven Sages rendered her fa

mous, and Solon by the wise Laws which he estas blished at Athens, reconciling Liberty and Justice, introduced fuch Regulations among the Citizens, as naturally conduced to the forming them a brave and knowing People. Tarquinius Prifcus now reigned at Rome. He subdued part of Tuscany,

and having adorned the City with many magni. 3425. ficent Works, left the Throne to Servius Tullius,

This Prince is famous for the Institution of the Census, and the many Laws he made in favour of the People, In Egypt, Pfammitichus, after a Reign of 54 Years, was lucceeded by his Son Nechus, the fame who in Scripture is called

Pharaoh Necho. It was against him that yofiab 3394. King of Judab fought that unhappy Battle in the

Valley of Megiddo, where he received the fatal Wound of which he died. N.chus was succeeded by Psammis, who left the Kingdom to his Son Apries, the Pharaoh Hophra of the Scripture, againft whom so many Prophecies are leveled. The first Year of Apries was the last of Cyaxares King of

the Medes, who after a Reign of 40 Years, was 3410.

succeeded by his Son Aslyages. Nebuchadnezzar in Babylon having finished all his Expeditions, and

greatly enriched himself with the Spoils of the 3434: conquered Nations, set himself to adorn that City,

and raised all those stupendous Works about it, of which we read with so much Wonder in ancient History.

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