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longeh left Chris fortuna ide of EtRoman
these Misfortunes upon himself. Herod the Idumiean; whô owed his All to that General, was constrained to submit to the Conqueror, and thereby confirmed himself in the Poffeffion of the Throne of Judea. Thus did OEtavius triumph over all Opposition: Alexandria opened its Gates to him; Egypt
became a Roman Province; Cleopatra disdaining 3927..to adorn the Victor's Triumph, ended her Days
by Poison ; and Antony sensible that he could no longer withstand the Power of his Adversary, by a voluntary Death left Cæfar in the unrival'd Possession of the Roman Empire. This fortunate Prince, under the Name of Arguftus, and with the Title of Emperor, took Possession of the Government. Thus was the Roman Commonwealth, 727 Years after the Foundation of that City by Romulus, converted into an absolute Monarchy. Auguftus now set himself to reform the many Abuses that had crept into the State during the Wars, and knowing that the Republican Spirit of the Roc mans tho' greatly weaken’d, was not yet altogether broken, he endeavoured by the Mildness and Justice of his Government, to reconcile his Countrymen to that Power, which it was in vain for them any longer to oppose. With this View he introduced among them Learning and the polite Arts, which by the Encouragement they met with from him and Mecenas, began to lift up their Heads and flourish. Horace, Virgil, Ovid and Livy, adorned the Age we are speaking of, and do it more Honour by their inimitable Writings, than all the Victories of the Prince under whom they lived. Eloquence alone, of all the several Branches of Literature, lay uncultiyated. That expired with Cicero and the free State; nor need we wonder at it, fince Liberty, which had hitherto animated the Orator, ceasing, the Art itself became useless, and was regarded with an Eye of Jealousy by the Men in Power. Augustus having by this wife and politic Management, secured the Tranquillity of Italy and Rome, began to look abroad into the Provinces, with a View to check the Enemies of the Roman Name, who tak. ing Advantage of the intestine Divisions of the Empire, bad committed many Outrages. He fubdued the Cantabrians and Asturians bordering upon the Pyrenees : Ethiopia fued for
Peace: the Parthians dreading his Power, sent 3980. back the Standards taken from Crassus, and all
the Roman Prisoners in their Hands: India fought his Alliance: Pannonia submitted to his Power: and Germany
hany Outrabon the Pyreareading hiraffus,
all the Romaning of Rome, mathe firft Yea
trembled at the Name of this mighty Conqueror. Victorious every where, both by Land and Sea, 4004. he shut the Temple of Janus, and gave Peace to all the Roman Empire. This happened in the 754th Year after the Building of Rome, and the 47 14th of the Julian Period, which coincides with the first Year of the Christian Æra, according to the Computation in use in these Western Parts.
I have now compleated my original Design, which was to day before you a short View of ancient History from the Creation of the World to the Birth of Christ. I have thrown together all the material Transactions of the different Nations of the World, and by referring them as near as possible to the Years in which they happened, have I hope given you a pretty distinct Notion of the coincident Periods of History. By keeping this general Plan constantly in Mind, you will be enabled to read either ancient or modern Writers upon this Subject with all the Advantage to yourself you can desire. For. whether they make Choice of a longer or shorter Portion of
Time, within which to limit their Detail of Transactions, or in whatever Order different Authors occur to your Study, the Knowledge you have of the general Course of Ages, and to what Part of universal History every particular Period belongs, will preserve all your Acquisitions unconfused, and enable you to digest your whole Treasure of Reading under those Heads and Divisions to which each Part properly refers. Nor is this an Advantage to be lightly accounted of, inasmuch as Men, according to their different Views and Aims in Life, find it their Interest sometimes to apply themselves more particularly to one Part of History, and sometimes to another; in which Case nothing is more useful than such a general View of Things, as shall enable them to connect and tie together those feveral Parts of Knowledge, which Interest or Necessity has at different Times added to their Stock of Learning. This is so evident that I need not enlarge upon it, and therefore having now finished all I intended on this part, I shall here conclude the Head of History and Chronology.
C H A P. I.
D HETORIC is the Art or Faculty of Speaking and Writing
K with Elegance and Dignity, in order to instruct, perJuade, and please. Grammar only teaches Plainness and Propriety : Rhetoric lays these for its Foundation, and raises upon them all the Graces of Tropes and Figures. Elegance confists in the Purity and Clearness of the Language. Purity requires choice and proper Words; a Command of which may be gain'd by studying the best Authors, by conversing with refin'd Company, and by frequent and careful Composition : To obtain Perspicuity or Clearness, a full Knowledge of our Subject, and frequent close Meditation upon it, are necessary. You must likewise avoid ambiguous Words, a dry Brevity, a confused Length of Periods, and too large a Train of Metaphors together. Dignity arises from sublime Thoughts, Inoble Tropes, and moving Figures. Tropes alter and affect Single Words : Figures affect and enliven whole Sentences.
E e 2
* I found this Subject to conscisely and sensibly handled by Mr. Blackwel, in the second part of his Introduction to the Classicks; that, despairing to get any thing better, or more to my Purpose, I prevail'd with the Proprietor of the Buok, to give me leave to make such Use of it as should be thought proper. Some small Alterations therefore have been made, and many Examples from the Poets to explain and illustrate the Rules, exchang'd or added; in which lad Particular alone this Treatise seem'd defective,
A Trope is a Word removed from its firit and natural. Signification, and apply'd with Advantage to another Thing, which it does not originally mean; but only stands for it, as it has Relation to or Connexion with it: As in this Sentence, God is my Rock. Here the Trope lies in the Word Rock; which, 'tis plain, in its primary and proper Sense fignifies nothing less than the Hope and Trust Mankind have in that adorable Being : Yet because a Rock is firm and immoveable, and a Building founded on it will not fink, it excites in our Minds the Notion of God's unfailing Power, and the steady Support which good Men receive from their Dependence on him. The Necessity and Use of Tropes will be made plain in a few Words.
'1. No Language furnishes us with a sufficient Number of proper and plain Words fully to express all our Thoughts. The Mind of Man is of an astonishing Capacity, and has a numberless Store of Notions; therefore being often distress'd for want of allow'd and proper Terms to utter her Conceptions in, she turns things all ways; considers them in their different Relations; and views them in all their various Arpects and Appearances : that she may be enabled to declare her Meaning in suitable Terms, and communicate herself intelligibly and forcibly to Persons she has Conversation with, When we know not a Man's Name which we have occasion to speak of, we describe him by his Features, Profeffion, Ha-bit, Place of Abode, Acquaintance, and other Circumstances; till by such a Description he is as well known to the People we speak to, as if we had at first given him his pecu. Jiar Namc, and distinguishing Title.
2. Tropes are used for the sake of an agreeable Variety; they divert the Mind, and revive Attention when it begins to fag and be weary. In many cases there is an absolute Necessity for the Writer or Speaker to repeat the saine thing several times; therefore to prevent the Offence which the Reperition of it in the same Words might probably give, he carefully diversifies his Expression, and judiciously interinixes plain and figurative Language. So he carries on his Reader or I learer with such continual Pleasure, that he is insensible of the Length of the Discourse; and when 'tis concluded, only wishes it had been longer. As a Traveller, if he has a good Road and fair Weather, if he be entertain'd as he países along, with variety of Landscapes, and pleasant Prospects of Groves, Mealows, Parks, and fine Houses, never considers or regrets the Length of the Way; but comes in fresh and chçarful to his Journey's End. Trobes encrease the Stores of