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** Slave Trade Report. United States has been upheld
in all the territories, as it is “ The execution of the laws for
hoped it will be in the future. the suppression of the African
I commend their interests and slave trade has been confided to defence to the enlightened and the Department of the Interior. It
generous care of Congress." is a subject of congratulation that The strength of the army of the efforts which have been made the
de the United States at this time was for the suppression of this in. di
in given in the report of the Secrehuman traffic have been recently
tary of War, as follows: attended with unusual success. Five vessels being fitted out for the slave trade have been seized
Volun. Regu. | Agroand condemned. Two mates
Infantry .. *...
66,383 engaged in the traile and one person in equipping a vessel as
Rafles and harpa slaver have been convicted, and
so ters ... ***
8,396 subjected to the penalty of a fine
Engineers and imprisonment; and one cap Total......... 640 637| 20,334 660,971 tain taken with a cargo of Africans on board his vessel has been In this report he also stated:convicted of the highest grade " The appropriations asked for of offence under our laws, the the service of the next fiscal year punishment of which is death. are computed for lo * The New Territories in the West.
es in the West 500,000 men. I propose, with
the object of reducing the Volun. " The territorries of Colorado, teer force to 500,000, with the Dacotah, and Nevada, created by consent of Congress, to consolithe last Congress, have been or- date such of the regiments as ganized, and civil administration may from time to time fall below has been inaugurated therein the regulation standard. The under auspices especially gratify. adoption of this measure will deing. when it is considered that crease the number of officers, and the leaven of treason was found proportionably diminish the exexisting in some of these new penses of the army. The disaster countries when the Federal offi- of Bull's Run was but the natural cers arrived there. The abundant consequence of the premature ad. natural resources of these terri- vance of our brave, but undistories, with the security and pro- ciplined, troops, which the imtection afforded by organized Go- patience of the country demanded. vernment, will doubtless invite The betrayal, also, of our moveto them a large immigration when ments by traitors in our midst peace shall restore the business enabled the rebels to choose and of the country to its accustomed intrench their position, and by a channels. I submit the resolu. reinforcement in great strength, tions of the Legislature of Colo- at the moment of victory, to rado, wbich evidence the patriotic snatch it from our grasp." spirit of the people of the terri- In the report of the Secretary tory. So far the authority of the of the Navy, the following account
was given of the employment of the marine force of the United States during the civil war:“The limited number of ships and men at command when the proclamation announcing the blockade of the ports of the insurgent States was issued, and the inadequate means provided by the last Congress for the emergency, devolved upon the Department the necessity for calling into immediate service not only all the naval forces, but vessels from the commercial marine. Purchases were accordingly made and charters hastily executed for the exigency, and orders peremptorily issued to forthwith equip and prepare for service the public vessels that were dismantled and in ordinary at the several yards. The force thus hastily gathered was placed along our coast, and divided into two squadrons, one of which, designated as the Atlantic Blockading Squadron, had for its field of operation the whole coast extending from the easternmost line of Virginia to Cape Florida, and was under the command of Flag-officer Silas H. Stringham. The other, or Gulf Squadron, operating from Cape Florida westward to Rio Grande, was commanded by Flag-officer William Mervine. These officers repaired to their stations, and were reinforced from time to time by the arrival of such vessels as were despatched to their commands, and under their supervision and direction all the ports upon their stations were subjected to a blockade as rigid and effective as the peculiar nature of our maritime frontier— which has, through a large portion of its entire extent, a double
coast, inner and outer—would admit. Our principal naval vessels are not, from their great draught of water, adapted to blockade service on our shallow coast, which has been guarded with extreme difficulty. The ports of North Carolina especially, situated within the interior shallow waters of their sounds and inlets, afforded peculiar facilities to a class of small vessels, aided by fraudulent papers and foreign flags, to elude the vigilance of the sentinel ships whose special duty it was to interdict commerce with the insurgents. The duty of guarding the coast, and enforcing the blockade, has been one of great labour, as well as ceaseless vigilance and responsibility. With the steadily-increasing force that added to the squadrons, the efforts of the insurgents to elude our ships were also increased, in order to supply the pressing necessities that af. flicted the whole of the rebel States. The duties imposed upon the flag-officers became correspondingly arduous, and eventually more extensive in their operation and detail than could be well executed by one commander. A vigilant watch has been maintained at the passes of the Mississippi, by which the commerce of New Orleans has been successfully interdicted. The task of blockading the coast is unattractive, and devoid of adventure. Those who have engaged in this rebellion have neither commerce nor a navy to reward or stimulate to exertion. One method of blockading the ports of the insurgent States and interdicting communication, as well as to prevent the egress of privateers which sought to depredate on our commerce, has been that of sinking in the channels vessels laden with stone. The first movement in this direction was on the North Carolina coast, where there are numerous inlets to Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds and other interior waters, which afforded facilities for eluding the blockade, and also to the privateers. For this purpose a class of small vessels were purchased in Baltimore, some of which have been placed in Ocracoke Inlet. Another and larger description of vessels were bought in the eastern market, most of them such as were formerly employed in the whale fisheries. These were sent to obstruct the channels of Charleston harbour and the Savannah River; and this, if effectually done, will prove the most economical and satisfactory method of interdicting commerce at those points.” At the close of the year the balance of success was certainly in favour of the South. Its policy was simply a defensive policy, and all it asked was to be let alone. The North, on the other hand, had undertaken the task of conquest, and unless it could pursue a career of victorious invasion, it failed. But not one inch of territory had been recovered to the Union since the Secession began. The Confederate army lay entrenched on the Potomac, and threatened Washington, and the only serious battle had resulted in a disastrous de
feat of the Federal forces. Apparently nothing can shake the stern resolution of the South, which hates the Union with a hatred of which it is difficult for us to form an idea; and it declares its determination to suffer anything and everything, rather than submit to the domination of the North. But it is fearfully overmatched in numbers and resources; and the blockade of its ports cuts it off from all external supplies, and isolates it from the rest of the world. It remains to be seen how far it will be able to cope with the enormous masses of men whom the North will be able to bring into the field, and especially whether it can contend against the naval force of its opponents; and by this we mean not only sea-going ships, butgun-boats and other armed craft, which will be able to penetrate the great rivers that intersect the contiment, and thus afford a support to the armies of the invader against which the South has nothing equivalent to oppose. If, for instance, a steam flotilla from the North can force its way down the Mississippi, the Confederate positions will be in great danger of being taken in flank, and the Border States will be reached by an invading army with far more ease than could possibly be the case if there were no navigable river. But it is idle to speculate on the future course of this tremendous contest. Our next volume will, no doubt, have to record some momentous results.
THE CHRISTMAs WEATHER.— The intense cold which marked the Christmas of 1860, was followed by a singular rise in the temperature during the night which marks “the Old Year out, the New Year in,” but resumed its intensity on the night between January 1st and 2nd, and maintained the character of the season as the coldest ever remembered until the 24th, when there was a sudden rise of temperature which continued to the end of the quarter; so that the average of the 67 days was 39-3 in excess of the usual average of the corresponding period. The mean temperature of the first half of January was less than that of the corresponding period for 20 years. Only in 1814 and 1820 has so great an average degree of cold been recorded: the respective values of the three years being, 1814, 259-6; 1820, 2499; 1861, 28°3. In 1777 the mean temperature of January was 299.9; in 1776, 27°; in 1780, 289.6; in 1795, 230 9'. The localities in which the most intense cold was officially recorded were—Diss, 19; Holkham, 39°3; Norwich, 4°; Lampeter, 4°-2. The highest temperature was marked Vol. CIII.
at Hartwell, 659.7 ; Petersfield, 639:7; Diss, 639. The greatest daily variation was found at Diss and some other places, equal to nearly 14°; while that at Scarborough, Guernsey, and Ventnor was about 6° or 7°. As might be anticipated, no rain fell during the cold weather; and the whole quarter was rather dry, though not less than 14 inches of rain fell at Allenheads. On the other hand, the wind was sometimes extremely high: a very heavy gale blew for 15 hours on the 21st February, with a force varying from 3 lbs. to 25 lbs. From 5 P.M. to 9 P.M. on that day the force was equal to from 13 lbs. to 15 lbs. Notwithstanding the intense cold of one period of this quarter, the condition of the public health was not unfavourable—the mortality was even lower than the average. The deaths were 121,713, or 2:449 in every 1000, the general proportion of the quarter being 2'480. The births were 173,170, less by 10,036 in the corresponding quarter of 1860, which was however, unusually prolific : the natural increase on the population was, therefore, 51,457, or 572 daily. 66,802 persons were married, a considerable falling off from the B