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not unacquainted with the great world of London-was a godsend to his new superiors at such a time. Wiseman was not long in promoting him; and promotion threw him into the midst of what Mr Leslie rather jocularly calls the Wars of Westminster,' or, in other words, the quarrels of the Catholic hierarchy attached to that Archdiocese.

The real issue was between the old Catholics and the new-between the stagnant fidelity of the old English Catholic families who, for a century and a half, had borne the burden of exclusion from almost every form of public activity for the sake of their faith until public activity had virtually ceased to be agreeable to them, and the rising race of converts who were Roman Catholics in a very real and emphatic sense, since it was from Rome rather than from any English Catholic tradition that they drew the inspiration of their lives. It happened that Wiseman, who was not very farsighted, had made Errington, a fine, grim specimen of the older school of thought, his Archbishop-coadjutor, and ipso facto his successor; and that Errington who possessed to the full that stagnant fidelity to his caste to which reference had been made, so misconceived his duty as to convert the post of a lieutenant into a kind of leadership of the opposition. He worked, he intrigued, and eventually he assisted an appeal to Rome against the forward policy which Wiseman was pursuing; and he had at his back the Canons of the Westminster Chapter, whose business it would be, if the See fell vacant and there were no coadjutor in the line of succession, to submit three names for the office of Archbishop to the decision of the Pope. Meanwhile Wiseman was falling into a decline; and Manning, young, enthusiastic, and utterly convinced that the succession of Errington would be fatal to the prospects of his co-religionists in England, slipped into the position of an éminence grise and was charged with the conduct of the Cardinal's case before the Roman authorities. His selection was the more obvious that the co-operation in the management of St Edmund's College, of the Oblates of St Charles—a religious order with the introduction of which into England he had been especially connected was the actual issue that had provoked the appeal to Rome.

It is essential to cut a long story as short as may be. By an act of supreme authority Pius IX, satisfied that the future of his followers in England lay with the party of Wiseman and Manning and not with that represented by Errington and Monsignor Searle, removed the Coadjutor from his office. It was a decisive triumph to which two things had greatly contributed-Manning's diplomacy and Talbot's lack of it. The last-named, like Manning once a clergyman of the Church of England and like Manning a scion of an old English house, had grown into the intimacy of the Pope by virtue as much, perhaps, of his engaging frankness and ingenuous ignorance of convention as on any other account. Pio Nono, witty, human, and capable, as only a southern temperament can be, of mingling grave and gay, appears to have derived considerable entertainment from the conversation of this busy child of thunder and intrigue, and with entertainment counsel. It was Talbot's indiscretion which, as Mr Leslie points out, prevented Errington from resigning before matters came to an issue; and it was Talbot's activity again which insured the ultimate success of Manning.

Feeling had risen too high for the matter to end with the deposition of the Archbishop-coadjutor; and, when Wiseman died five years later (1865), it rose again to fever-pitch. The Chapter of Westminster, sitting in secret conclave, were, as has been said, required to select three names for the Pope's consideration; and over the deliberations of the Chapter, Manning as Provost had the duty of presiding. It is in respect to this period of his career that Mr Leslie's biography becomes so important. The correspondence between Manning and Talbot which Purcell made public ceased for a month at this critical juncture; and it was a natural inference, which Manning's critics were not slow to draw, that the Provost of Westminster, acquainted as he was with the counsels of the Chapter, was not only taking his measures to defeat them-which was true enough-but was further providing against the possible selection by the Pope of any one but himself by a dexterous depreciation through Talbot of his rivals' characters. This theory, already undermined in Father Ryder's paper, must henceforth be decisively rejected. The newly-published letters

to Talbot show quite conclusively that Manning so little contemplated the choice of himself that he was energetically pressing his correspondent to secure that of Bishop Ullathorne or Bishop Cornthwaite. The nomination either of the one or the other, whilst putting no slight upon the aristocratic close-borough' of the old Catholic families, would in his view have preserved • England from being deluged by a worldly Catholicism, and the real work of the conversion of souls' from being *thrown back. He was, as we see, still very much a statesman; and he did not hesitate to use a statesman's weapons. But he was free from the fallacy, to which statesmen commonly fall a prey, of supposing that his personal elevation was essential to his country's cause; his purpose, whatever its merit, remained lofty and pure; and the star of the supernatural, which he strove to follow, rode high in this hour of crisis above the centre of his path.

The vigorous campaigning of Talbot; the opportune advice of Father Coffin, the Vice-Provincial of the Redemptorists, who chanced to be in Rome at the time; the Pope's prayers for guidance (as some of us may happen to believe) as well as his admitted sensibility to the admonition of an interior voice, bidding him make Manning Archbishop of Westminster—these things sufficed to defeat the recommendation of the Westminster Chapter, which had submitted the names of Errington and of two bishops of Errington's school of thoughtClifford and Grant. It is an interesting little point of detail in which Mr Leslie, benefiting by access to Foreign Office sources, is able to correct Purcell, that Grant and not Clifford was the candidate approved by the British Government for the Westminster Archbishopric. For the comfort of those who fancy that the British Foreign Office is the prey of Popish plots one may add that it was Clifford and not Grant who was the choice of the Jesuits.

Manning, thus, in the month of May 1865, and only fourteen years after his conversion, became Archbishop of Westminster; while Errington retired with much dignity and perfect submission to fulfil his destiny as a parish priest in the Isle of Man. Nothing, indeed, so well became the two parties in the late encounter as the Vol. 236.- No. 469.

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mutual charity which, as soon as the papal decision was given, replaced the strife of tongues; nor will most men read unmoved and this is new matter in the Life-the private record of Manning's retreat at Highgate on the morrow of his appointment.

'O my God,' he wrote, “if ... there has been ambition, make me to see it as Thou seest it, lest I go down to the pit deceiving myself. Let me not hear the sentence, “ Verily thou hast thy reward." Rather than lose Thee, not only hereafter, but now in this life, I would lay down all in the world and live and die out of sight and out of mind, if only Thou remember me and forget all my sins.'

We must pass over the next five years, while Manning was feeling his feet, and look out for his figure again among that crowd of prelates .in purple and fine linen' who met together in council at Rome in the early summer of 1870. The temporal power of the Pope was in the last months of its existence; and his spiritual power was, after long centuries, on the point of being defined. The issue which the Council had to determine was not so much, as English readers have sometimes to be reminded, whether the Pope was infallible—for that he was so in some sense could hardly be said to be in dispute among his adherents-but rather whether a definition of his powers was opportune. Manning had for some years held this to be desirable; and his thought ran in the track of thinkers like Maistre and Lamennais. He had against him, however, the old Gallican school, with Darboy and Dupanloup as its living leaders, the German followers of Döllinger, and an Englishman, subsequently almost as famous as himself, the late Lord Acton. The inhabitants of the British Isles are, indeed, seldom aware how great a part their compatriots played at the Vatican Council. The dogma as finally promulgated, was framed, with the exception of the famous ex cathedra clause, by Cardinal Cullen; no one exerted himself more, both by public eloquence and—which went for quite as much—by private diplomacy, to get it carried than the Archbishop of Westminster; without the linguistic and theological attainments and intermediate activity of Acton, as Mr Leslie thinks now and as Odo Russell thought at the time, the bishops of the Opposition

party would scarcely have been able to exchange ideas; and finally, no other secular emissary can be said to have played a more distinguished rôle than Odo Russell himself, the diplomatic agent at the Vatican of the British Government.

Priests are generally supposed to be the most supple of diplomatists; but Odo Russell could hold his own with the best of them. He had his own methods, and used to assure my father that, when business relations became embarrassed, he was in the habit of ingratiating himself with the Pope by singing him songs. However that may have been, he, the son of a Catholic mother who was by common admission one of the most original and talented of English women, cast his spells over Manning with perfect success. Every Saturday, as the Council proceeded, Mr Russell and the Archbishop would take a walk together in the Campagna; and, so sympathetically did Mr Russell listen to the other's specious arguments in favour of the importance of the Infallibility decree to the maintenance of Papal authority, that Manning supposed himself- and Purcell countenanced the illusion-to have effectively countered the information which Acton was pouring into the mind of Gladstone, at that time Prime Minister. Mr Leslie, however, with a better appreciation of what was going on, informs us that Odo Russell was playing a double game'-a fact which Grant Duff, who was intimately acquainted with Acton and his circle, had been careful to make known on the appearance of Purcell's biography, though of course in less explicit terms.

There we must take leave of the Vatican Council, supreme event though it was in Manning's career. The exaggeration by men like Louis Veuillot in France and W. G. Ward in England, of a doctrine which the Council reduced to intelligible terms, would, in all probability, have made its dogmatic definition sooner or later inevitable, but Manning's championship of it assisted its appearance at the psycho-political moment. No man had more feared the effect of the coming loss of the Temporal Power upon the Papacy, but no one could have provided better against its consequences.

And when the petty intrigues which disfigured this Council, as indeed they disfigure all councils and all conferences, have receded

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