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T hath been the wisdom of the of the Land, and those Laws never

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the first compiling of her Publick unhappy confusions, to be disconLiturgy, to keep the mean between tinued, is too well known to the world, the two extrenies, of too much stiff- and we are not wihing here to rememness in refusing, and of too much easi- ber. But when, upon His Majesty's ness in admitting any variation from happy Restoration, it seemed proit. For, as on the one side common bable, that, amongst other things, the experience sheweth, that where a use of the Liturgy would also return change hath been made of things ad- of course (the same having never been visedly established (no evident neces- legally abolished) unless some timely sity so requiring) sundry inconveni means were used to prevent it; those ences have thereupon ensued; and men who under the late usurped those many times more and greater powers had made it a great part of than the evils, that were intended to be their business to render the people disremedied by such change: So on the affected thereunto, saw themselves in other side, the particular forms of point of Reputation and Interest conDivine worship, and the Rites and cerned (unless they would freely acCeremonies appointed to be used knowledge themselves to bave erred, therein, being things in their own na which such men are very hardly ture indifferent, and alterable, and so brought to do) with their utmost enacknowledged; it is but reasonable, deavours to hinder the restitution that upon weighty and important con- thereof. In order whereunto divers siderations, according to the various Pamphlets were published against the exigency of times and occasions, such Book of Common Prayer, the old changes and alterations should be Objections mustered up, with the admade therein, as to those that are in dition of some new ones, more than place of Authority should from time formerly bad been made, to make the to time seem either necessary or ex number swell. In fine, great imporpedient. Accordingly we find, that tunities were used to His Sacred Main the Reigns of several Princes of jesty, that the said Book might be reblessed memory since the Reforma- vised, and such Alterations therein, tion, the Church, upon just and and Additions thereunto made, as weighty considerations her thereunto should be thought requisite for the moving, hath yielded to make such ease of tender Consciences : whereunto alterations in some particulars, as in His Majesty, out of his pious inclinatheir respective times were thought tion to give satisfaction (so far as could convenient: Yet so, as that the main he reasonably expected) to all his subBody and Essentials of it (as well in jects of what persuasion soever, did the chiefest materials, as in the frame graciously condescend. and order thereof) bave still continued In which review we have endeathe same into this day, and do yet voured to observe the like moderation, stand firm and unshaken, notwith as we find to have been used in the standing all the vain attempts and im- like case in former times. And therepetuous assaults made against it, by fore of the sundry alterations prosuch men as are given to change, and posed unto us, we have rejected all have always discovered a greater re such as were either of dangerous congard to their own private fancies and sequence (as secretly striking at some interests, than to that duty they owe established Doctrine, or laudable Prac. to the publick.

tice of the Church of England, or By what undue means, and for what indeed of the whole Catholick Church mischievous purposes the use of the of Christ) or else of no consequeuce Liturgy (though enjoined by the Laws at all, but utterly frivolous and rain.'

But such alterations as were tendered | words and phrases, that were either of to us (by what persons, under what doubtful signification, or otherwise pretences, or to what purpose soever liable to misconstruction : Or thirdly, tendered) as seemed to us in any de- for a more perfect rendering of such gree requisite or expedient, we have portions of holy Scripture, as are inwillingly, and of our own accord as serted into the Liturgy; which, in the sented unto: not enforced so to do by Epistles and Gospels especially, and any strength of Argument, convincing in sundry other places, are now orderus of the necessity of making the said ed to be read according to the last Alterations : For we are fully per- Translation: and that it was thought suaded in our judgements (and we here convenient, that some Prayers and profess it to the world that the Book, Thanksgivings, fitted to special ocas it stood before established by Law, casions, should be added in their due doth not contain in it any thing con- places; particularly for those at Sea, trary to the Word of God, or to sound together with an Office for the Baptism Doctrine, or which a godly man may of such as are of riper years: which, not with a good Conscience use and although not so necessary when the submit unto, or which is not fairly de- former Book was compiled, yet by the fensible against any that shall oppose growth of Anabaptism, through the the same; if it shall be allowed such licentiousness of the late times crept just and favourable construction as in in amongst us, is now become necescommon Equity ought to be allowed sary, and may be always useful for the to all human Writings, especially such baptizing of Natives in our Plantaas are set forth by Authority, and even tions, and others converted to the to the very best translations of the Faith. If any man, who shall deholy Scripture itself.

sire a more particular account of Our general aim therefore in this the several Alterations in any part undertaking was, not to gratify this or of the Liturgy, shall take the paius that party in any their unreasonable to compare the present Book with deinands; but to do that, which to the former; we doubt not but the our best understandings we conceived reason of the change may easily might most tend to the preservation of appear. Peace and Unity in the Church; the And having thus endeavoured to procuring of Reverence, and exciting discharge our duties in this weighty of Piety and Devotion in the publick affair, as in the sight of God, and to Worship of God; and the cutting off approve our sincerity therein (so far as occasion from them that seek occa- lay in us) to the consciences of all sion of cavil or quarrel against the men; although we know it impossible Liturgy of the Church. And as to in such variety of apprehensions, huthe several variations from the former mours, and interests, as are in the Book, whether by Alteration, Addi- world) to please all; nor can expect tion, or otherwise, it shall suffice to that men of factious, peevish, and pergive this general account, That most verse spirits should be satisfied with of the Alterations were made, either any thing that can be done in this first, for the better direction of them kind by any other than themselves : that are to officiate in any part of Yet we have good hope, that what is Divine Service; which is chietiy done here presented, and hath been by the in the Calendars and Rubricks: Or Convocations of both Provinces with secondly, for the more proper express- great diligence examined and approv. ing of some words or phrases of an-ed, will be also well accepted and apcient usage in terms niore suitable to proved by all sober, peaceable, and the language of the present times, and truly conscientious Sons of the Church the clearer explanation of some other of England.

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HERE was never any thing by many years hath been read in Latin

the wit of man so well devised, to the people, which they understand or so sure established, which in conti- not; so that they have heard with nuance of time hath not been corrupt- | their ears only, and their heart, spirit, ed: As, among other things, it may and mind, have not been edified thereplainly appear by the Common Pray- by. And furthermore, notwithstanders in the Church, commonly called ing that the ancient Fathers have diDivine Service. The first original and vided the Psalms into seven Portions, ground whereof if a man would search whereof every one was called a Nocout by the ancient Fathers, he shall turn: Now of late time a few of find, that the same was not ordained them have been daily said, and the but of a good purpose, and for a rest utterly omitted. Moreover, the great advancement of godliness. For number and hardness of the Rules they so ordered the matter, that all called the Pie, and the manifold the whole Bible (or the greatest part changings of the Service, was the thereof) should be read over once cause, that to turn the Book only was every year; intending thereby, that so hard and intricate a matter, that the Clergy, and especially such as were many times there was more business Ministers in the Congregation, should to find out what should be read, than (by often reading, and meditation in to read it when it was found out. God's word) be stirred up to godli- These inconveniences therefore ness themselves, and be more able to considered, here is set forth such an exhort others by wholesome Doctrine, Order, whereby the same shall be reand to confute them that were adver-dressed. And for a readiness in this saries to the Truth; and further, that matter, here is drawn out a Calendar the people (by daily hearing of holy for that purpose, which is plain and Scripture read in the Church) might easy to be understood; wherein (so continually profit more and more in much as may be) the reading of holy the knowledge of God, and be the Scripture is so set forth, that all things more inflamed with the love of his shall be done in order, without breaktrue Religion.

ing one piece from another. For this But these many years passed, this cause be cut off Anthems, Responds, godly and decent order of the ancient Invitatories, and such like things as Fathers hath been so altered, broken, did break the continual course of the and neglected, by planting in uncertain reading of the Scripture. Stories, and Legends, with multitude Yet, because there is no remedy, of Responds, Verses, vain Repetitions, but that of necessity there must be Commemorations, and Synodals; that some Rules; therefore certain Rules commonly when any Book of the are here set forth; which, as they are Bible was begun, after three or four few in number, so they are plain and Chapters were read out, all the rest easy to be understood. So that here were unread. And in this sort the you have an Order for Prayer, and Book of Isaiah was begun in Advent, for the reading of the holy Scripture, and the Book of Genesis in Septua- much agreeable to the mind and purgesima ; but they were only begun, pose of the old Fathers, and a great and never read through : After like deal more profitable and commodious, sort were other Books of holy Scrip- than that which of late was used. It ture used. And moreover, whereas is more profitable, because here are St. Paul would have such language left out many things, whereof some spoken to the people in the Church, are untrue, some uncertain, some vain as they might understand, and have and superstitious; and nothing is orprofit by hearing the same ; The Ser- dained to be read, but the very pure vice in this Church of England these Word of God, the holy Scriptures, or

that which is agreeable to the same; so that the same order be not conand that in such a Language and Order trary to any thing contained in this as is most easy and plain for the un- Book. And if the Bishop of the derstanding both of the Readers and Diocese be in doubt, then he may Hearers. It is also more commodi- , send for the resolution thereof to the ous, both for the shortness thereof, Archbishop. and for the plainness of the Order,

and for that the Rules be few and Thall things shall be read and sung

easy.

And whereas heretofore there hath in the Church in eie English Tongue, been great diversity in saying and to the end that the congregation may singing in Churches within this Realm; be thereby edified ; yet it is not some following Salisbury Use, some meant, but that when inen say MornHereford Use, and some the Use of ing and Evening Prayer privately, they Bangor, some of York, some of Lin- may say the same in any language that cóln; now from henceforth all the they themselves do understand. whole Realin shall have but one And all Priests and Deacons are to Use.

say daily the Morning and Evening And forasmuch as nothing can be Prayer either privately or openly, not so plainly set forth, but doubts may being let by sickness, or some other arise in the use and practice of the urgent cause. same; to appease all such diversity (if And the Curate that ministereth in any arise) and for the resolution of all every Parislı-Church or Chapel, being doubts, concerning the manner how at home, and not being otherwise reato understand, do, and execute, the sonably hindered, shall say the same things contained in this Book; the in the Parish-Church or Chapel where parties that so doubt, or diversly take he ministereth, and shall cause a Bell any thing, shall alway resort to the to be tolled thereunto a convenient Bishop of the Diocese, who by his time before he begin, that the people discretion shall take order for the may come to hear God's Word, and quieting and appeasing of the same ; ! to pray with him.

Of Ceremonies, why some be abolished, and some retained.
F such Ceremonies as be used in | bave been devised by man, yet it is

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beginning by the institution of man, well for a decent order in the Church, some at the first were of godly intent (for the wbich they were first devised) and purpose devised, and yet at length as because they pertain to edification, turned to vanity and superstition : | whereunto all things done in the some entered into the Church by un Church (as the Apostle teacheth) discreet devotion, and such a zeal as ought to be referred. was without knowledge; and for be And although the keeping or omitcause they were winked at in the be- ting of a Ceremony, in itself conginning, they grew daily to more and sidered, is but a small thing ; yet the more abuses, which not only for their wilful and contemptuous transgression unprofitableness, but also because they and breaking of a common order and bave much blinded the people, and discipline is no small offence before obscured the glory of God, are worthy God, Let all things be done among, to be cut away, and clean rejected: you, saith St. Paul, in a seemly and other there be, which although they due order : The appointment of the

which order pertaineth not to private the freedom of the Spirit; being conmen ; therefore no man ought to take tent only with those Ceremonies which in hand, nor presume to appoint or do serve to a decent Order and godly alter any publick or common Order Discipline, and such as be apt to stir in Christ's Church, except he be law up the dull mind of man to the refully called and authorized thereunto. meinbrance of his duty to God, by

And whereas in this our time, the some notable and special signification, minds of men are so diverse, that whereby he might be edified. Fursome think it a great matter of con thermore, the most weighty cause of science to depart from a piece of the the abolishment of certain Ceremoleast of their Ceremonies, they be so nies was, That they were so far abused, addicted to their old customs ; and partly by the superstitious blindness of again on the other side, some be so the rude and unlearned, and partly new-fangled, that they would inno- by the unsatiable avarice of such as vate all things, and so despise the old, sought more their own lucre, than that nothing can like them, but that the glory of God, that the abuses is new : it was thought expedient, not could not well be taken away, the so much to have respect how to please thing remaining still. and satisfy either of these parties, as But now as concerning those perhow to please God, and profit them sons, which peradventure will be of both. And yet lest any man should fended, for that some of the old be offended, whom good reason might Ceremonies are retained still: If they satisfy, here be certain causes ren consider that without some Ceremodered, why some of the accustomed nies it is not possible to keep any Ceremonies be put away, and some Order, or quiet Discipline in the retained and kept still.

Church, they shall easily perceive just Some are put away, because the cause to reform their judgements. And great excess and multitude of them if they think much, that any of the hath so increased in these latter days, old do remain, and would rather have that the burden of them was intolera- all devised anew : then such men ble; whereof Saint Augustine in his granting sonje Ceremonies convenient tiine complained, that they were to be had, surely where the old may grown to such a pumber, that the be well used, there they cannot reaestate of Christian people was in sonably reprove the old only for their

case concerning that matter, age, without bewraying of their own than were the Jews.

And he coun folly. For in such a case they ought selled that such yoke and burdeu rather to have reverence unto them should be taken away, as time would for their antiquity, if they will declare serve quietly to do it. But what themselves to be more studious of would Saint Augustine have said, if unity and concord, than of innovations he had seen the Ceremonies of late and new-angleness, which (as much days used among us; whereunto the as may be with true setting forth of multitude used in his time was not to Christ's Religion) is always to be esbe compared ? This our excessive mul- chewed. Furthermore, such shall titude of Ceremonies was so great, have no just cause with the Ceremoand many of them so dark, that they nies reserved to be offended. For as did more confound and darken, than those be taken away which were most declare and set forth Christ's benefits abused, and did burden meu's conunto us. And besides this, Christ's sciences without any cause ; Gospel is not a Ceremonial Law, (as other that remain, are retained for a much of Moses' Law was,) but it is a discipline and order

, which (upon just Religion to serve God, not in bond-causes) may be altered and changed, age of the figure or shadow, but in and therefore are not to be esteemed

worse

so the

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