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FOR THE YEAR
HISTORY OF EUROPE.
STATE OF PUBLIC Opision at the Beginning of the Year-Progress
of Erents in Italy-Great Interest felt in England in these Transactions-The expected Reform Bill-General Absence of Agitation or Excitement on the Question-Financial Affairs-Expectations of large Changes in this Direction-PARLIAMENT ASSEMBLED ON 24TH JANUARY - Her Majesty's Speech from the Throne-The Address in the House of Lords is mored by Lord Fitzwilliam, and seconded by Lord Truro-Speeches of Earl Grey, the Duke of Newcastle, Marquis of Normanby, Earl of Derby, and Earl Granville-The Address is agreed to, nem. con. In the Commons the Address is mored by Mr. St. Aubyn, and seconded by Lord Henley-Mr. Disraeli enters at some length into the projected neue commercial relations trith France, and also into the Italian policy of the Government--Lord Palmerston in anner, states that the Commercial Treaty with France has been signed, and justifies its prorisions-He also vindicates the policy of non-interference adopted by his Cabinet in regard to Italy, The Address is roted without opposition - Some further debate on the French Treaty arises on bringing up the Report-Remarks of the Chancellor of the Exchequer and of Mr. Horsman-FOREIGX AFFAIRS-Warlike preparations in France - Mr. Kingslake addresses a question to Lord J. Russell on this subject- His answer-The Marquis of Normanby takes up the cause of the deposed Gorernments in Italy-He more an Address to the Crouen respecting the anticipated anneration of Saroy and Nice to France Speeches of Earls
Granrille, Grey, and Shaftesbury, the Duke of Newcastle, Earl of Vol. CII.
Derby, and other Peers-Second Motion of Lord Normanby reflecting on the Policy of the Sardinian Government — The policy of that Power is vindicated by Earl Granville, the Marquis of Clanricarde, and other Peers—Explanations with respect to the relations of Sardinia and France in the House of Commons — Speeches condemnatory of the proposed annexation of Savoy are made by Mr. Kingslake and Sir Robert Peel -- Remarks of Mr. BriyhiAnswer of Lord John Russell-Various discussions on the proposed annexation of Saroy and Nice-Strong animadversions on the conduct of the French Emperor by Mr. Roebuck-On the 12th March Lord John Russell enters into a full explanation respecting the Savoy question, and the proceedings of Her Majesty's Government in regard to it-Speeches of Mr. Whileside, Mr. Horsman, Lord Palmerston, Mr. Disraeli, and other Members.
THE principal sulijects which to, and it was suspected that a
I engaged the public atten- large section of the liberal party, tion at the beginning of the year though professedly friendly to such 1860 were the state of Italian affairs measures, would be by no means abroad, and the expected measures unwilling to see the question in. of Parliamentary Reform and finan- definitely postponed. A certain cial policy at home. The progress number of public meetings had of the constitutional cause ju Italy been held previously to the comwas regarded with warm sympathy mencement of the Session, and by the people of England without some manifestation of interest had distinction of parties, and the moral been made ; but it was not sussupport which the British Govern- tained, and bore the appearance of ment lent to the Sardinian cause, being factitious rather than real. while they, at the same time. The state of the public finances strictly observed the principle of excited more real interest. It was non-interference, was entirely in known that there would be a conaccordance with the public feeling siderable deficit in the Revenue to on the subject. It will be seen that be supplied, and at the same time the course of events was watched that increased armaments and dewith great anxiety and led to re- fensive preparations would make peated discussions during the augmented demands upon the pubsession of Parliament; though on lic expenditure. It had also been the great principle of Italian inde for some time anticipated that the pendence there were very few ex- year 1860, in which the falling in ceptions to the general unanimity of the Long Annuities was to bring in the Legislature. At home, the with it a considerable reduction in prospect of a Reform Bill was the annual charge of the Public viewed not without some anxiety Debt, would be signalized as the by those who feared polisical agi- era of some large financial changes; tation and change ; but, apparently, and the character of the Chan. with very little interest by the cellor of the Exchequer, as a country generally. The leading financier, certainly not wanting in advocates of Reform found their boldness and enterprise, gave asefforts to arouse popular feeling on surance that the opportunity now the subject very feebly responded offered would not be neglected, In other respects, the circum- on the means best adapted for the stances of the country wore a pacification of Italy, and for placing favourable aspect-trade was in its prosperity on a solid and duraa sound and thriving state--the ble basis. furming interest made no com- "Desirous at all times to concur plaint, and the labouring classes in proceedings having for their obwere generally in full employment. ject the maintenance of peace, I
The Legislative Session come accepted the invitation, but at the menced rather before the usual same time I made known that, in time, the two Houses being sum- such a Congress, I should steadnioned for the despatch of business fastly maintain the principle, that on the 24th of January. On that no external force should be emday Parliament was opened with ployed to impose upon the people the usual ceremonies by HerMajesty of Italy any particular government in person, who delivered the fols or constitution. lowing Speech from the throne :- "Circumstances bave arisen
which have led to a postponement « My Lords and Gentlemen, of the Congress, without any day
" It is with great satisfaction having been fixed for its meeting ; that I again meet you in Parlia- but whether in Congress or by sepament, and have recourse to your rate negotiation, I shall endeavoar assistance and advice.
to obtain for the people of Italy "My relations with foreign freedom from foreign interference Powers continue to be on a friendly by force of arms in their internal and satisfactory footing.
concerns; and I trust that the af"At the close of the last Session fairs of the Italian peninsula may be I informed you that overtures had peacefully and satisfactorily settled. been made to me to ascertain " Papers on this subject will whether, if a Conference should be soon be laid before you. held by the Great Powers of “I am in communication with Europe, for the purpose of settling the Emperor of the French with arrangements connected with the & view to extend the commercial present state and future condition intercourse between the two counof Italy,a Plenipotentiary would be tries, and thus to draw still closer sent by me to assist at such a Con- the bonds of friendly alliance ference. I have since received a between them. formal invitation from the Emperor "A dispute having arisen beof Austria and from the Emperor tween Spain and Morocco, I enof the French to send a Plenipo- deavoured, by friendly means, to tentiary to a Congress to consist of prevent a rupture; but, I regret the representatives of the eight to say, without success. Powers who were parties to the "I will direct papers on this Treaties of Vienna of 1815, the subject to be laid before you. objects of such Congress being "My Plenipotentiary and the brated to be to receive communica- Plenipotentiary of the Emperor tion of the treaties concluded at of the French having, in obedienco Zurich; and to deliberate, asso- to their instructions, proceeded to ciating with the above-mentioned the mouth of the Peiho river, in Power the Courts of Rome, of order to repair to Pekin to ex. Sardinia, and of the Two Sicilies, change in that city the ratifications
of the Treaty of Tien-tsin, in pur- “ The last embers of disturbance suance of the LVIth Article of that in my East Indian dominions have treaty, their further progress was been extinguished; my Viceroy has opposed by force, and a conflict made a peaceful progress through took place between the Chinese the districts which had been the forts at the mouth of the river and principal scene of disorder, and, by the naval forces by which the a judicious combination of firmness Plenipotentiaries were escorted. and generosity, my authority has
“The allied forces displayed on been everywhere solidly, and, I this occasion their usual bravery, trust, permanently established. I but, after sustaining a severe loss, have received from my Viceroy the were compelled to retire.
most gratifying accounts of the “I am preparing, in concert and loyalty of my Indian subjects, and co-operation with the Emperor of of the good feeling evinced by the the French, an expedition, intended native chiefs and the great landto obtain redress and a fulfilment owners of the country. The atof the stipulations of the Treaty tention of the Government in India of Tien-tsin.
has been directed to the develop" It will be gratifying to me, if ment of the internal resources of the prompt acquiescence of the the country; and I am glad to Emperor of China in the moderate inform you that an improvement demands which will be made by has taken place in its finaucial the Plenipotentiaries, shall obviate prospects. the necessity for the employment “I have concluded a treaty with of force.
the Tycoon of Japan, and a treaty “ I have directed that papers on regarding boundaries with the this subject shall be laid before republic of Guatemala. I have
directed that these treaties shall “Ad unauthorized proceeding be laid before you. by an officer of the United States in regard to the Island of San Juan, “Gentlemen of the House of between Vancouver's Island and Commons, the mainland, might have led to a
“I have directed the estimates serious collision between my forces
for the ensuing year to be laid and those of the United States.
before you. They have been preSuch collision, however, has been
pared with a view to place the prevented by the judicious forbear
military and naval services, and ance of my naval and civil officers
the defences of the country, upou on the spot, and by the equitable
an efficient footing. and conciliatory provisional arrange
“I am glad to be able to inform ment proposed on this matter by the Government of the United yo
you that the public revenue is in a
satisfactory condition. States. “I trust that the question of
"My Lords and Gentlemen,- . boundary out of which this affair has arisen may be amicably settled “I have accepted, with gratifin a manner conformable with the cation and pride, the extensive just rights of the two countries, as offers of Voluntary service which I idefined by the first article of the have received from my subjects. Treaty of 1816.
This manifestation of public spirit
has added an important element greatest satisfaction the paragraph to our system of national defence. on Italian affairs, and ihe policy
* Measures will be laid before wbich was therein enunciated. you for amending the laws which That policy assured the nation regulate the representation of the that the British Government would people in Parliament, and for be no party to cutting up and parplacing that representation upon a celling out Italy in order to forward broader and firmer basis.
the interest or desires of other " I earnestly recommend you to countries, but would maintain the resume your labours for the im. right of the Italians to choose provement of our jurisprudence, their own Government, by which and particularly in regard to bank. means a powerful and free State ruptcy, the transfer of land, the would be established in Italy, calconsolidation of the statutes, and culated to promote the general such a further fusion of law and welfare of Europe and of this equity as may be necessary to in- country. He could not, however, sure that, in every suit, the rights express the same satisfaction at of the parties may be satisfactorily that part of the Royal Speech determined by the court in which which related to the recent comthe suit is commenced.
mercial treaty between this country * I am deeply gratified to ob- and France. No one could wish serve that the great interests of more strongly than himself to see the country are generally in a the commercial intercourse of the sound and thriving condition ; that two countries increased, but be pauperism and crime have di- feared that the present experi. minished ; and that, throughout ment would prove a retrogression the whole of my empire, both in in our financial policy. At the the United Kingdom and in my present time, when our financial colonies and possessions beyond condition was likely to be one of sea, there reigns a spirit of loyalty, some difficulty, he condemned the of contentment, of order, and of obe reduction of duties on French prodience to the law.
ducts for the purpose of obtaining With heartfelt gratitude to a commercial treaty from France. the Almighty Ruler of nations In regard to China, be also could for these inestimable blessings, I not concur in the words of the ferrently pray that His beneficent Speech, as he thought that the power may guide your deliberations whole question ought to have been for the advancement and consoli- brought before Parliament predation of the welfare and happi- viously to the fitting out of any ex. ness of my people."
pedition, in order that improper 'The Address to the Throne was expenditure might have been moved in the House of Lords avoided, and an impolitic and unby Earl Fitzwilliam and seconded just war prevented. He proceeded by Lord Truro. Earl Grey then to consider whether we had been addressed the House. He begru justified in forcing our way up the by expressing his gratification that Peibo, and whether war with China Her Majesty was able to lay so would place our interests in that satisfactory # statement of our country in a better position by A domestic and foreign aflairs before corresponding increase of our com. Parliament He viewed with the merce. He blamed in strong