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history appeals to Vespasian, and Titus, and King Agrippa, * then living. He † presented it to Vespasian and Titus; which last not only desired che publication of it, but with his own hand signed the book that should be reckoned authentic.
2. “ The Jewish Antiquities," in twenty books, or the history of the Jews from the creation of the world to the twelfth year of Nero, in which the war began. This work was finished by him $ in the 56th year of his own life, in the third year of the reign of Doinitian, and the year of Christ 93.
3. To this work is lubjoined, as a part of it, or an appendix to it, “ His Life," written by himself some while afterwards.
4. After the several above-mentioned works, he published another work in two books, entitled “ Of the Antiquity of the Jews, against " Apion:" being a vindication of the Jewish people against the calumnies of that Egyptian author.
5. To Josephus likewise is generally ascribed a book, entitled, “ A « Discourse of the Maccabees.” But, as || Cave says, there is good reason to doubt of its genuineness. And ** Mr. Whiston, who made an English translation of all the above-named works of this writer, declined to translate this, and would not publish it among the rest.
The works of Josephus, notwithstanding many things in them liable to exception, which may be observed by careful and impartial readers, are very valuable. . In his larger work, the “ Jewish Anti" quities,” he confirms the truth of the history of the Old Testament. And, as in several of the last books of that work he has brought down the Jewish history from the ceasing of prophecy among them to the twelfth of Nero, he has let us know the state of affairs in Judea during the time of the evangelical history. And he had before done the like in the first two books of the 66 Jewish War.” What he has therein said of Herod, and his sons, of the Roman governors in Judea, the Jewish sects, and their principles, the manners of the Jewish people, and likewise concerning the Samaritans, greatly confirms and illustrates the history of our Evangelifts: as was fora merly thewn in the first part of this work, the 66 Credibility of the “ Gospel-history;" the design of which was to confirm the facts occasionally mentioned in the New Testament by pafiages of ancient tt authors.
We are now to consider, whether there is any thing in the works of this Jewish author more directly confirming the principal facts of the New Testament: particularly, whether he affords any evidences
* In Vit. cap. 65. Adv. Ap. 1. i. c. 9. † 'AXX'Zulois anéłwa toisavlongátopoi Tà Benid. Vit. $ 65. Conf. Adv. Ap. ut supr. I åss magaças con tavla xerci tü Bienia omposteúceda. Teochlačev, Vit. $ 65.
Ant. I. 20. cap. ult. fin. pi" Nihilominus an genuinum fit Josephi opus, jufta eft dubitandi ratio." Cav. H. L. de Josepho, p. 35. ** See his note at the end of his translation of Josephus.
tt " Quam in multis capitibus Evangelistarum narrationi suffragetur Jofephus, erudite “ nuper demonstravit Nathanael Lardnerus in opere Anglice edito, de Fide Historiæ Evan"gelicæ." Lond. 1727, 8vo. 2 vols. J. A. Fabric. Lux Evangelii, p. 16. not. (à).
of the fulfilment of our Lord's predictions concerning the destruction of the temple and city of Jerusalem, and the great calamities coming upon the Jewish people; and whether he has laid any thing of John the Baptist, our Lord's fore-runner, or of our Lord himself, or of any of his Apostles,
I shall begin with the first, article. For it is very likely, that in his 6 History of the Jewish War,” we should find many things giving credit to the fulfilment of our Lord's predictions concerning the Jewish people.
II. STATE OF JUDEA IN OUR SAVIOUR'S TIME, AND BEFORE.
Judea was first brought into subjection to the Romans by Pompey, who, after a fiege of three months, took Jerusalem in the year 63, before the Christian æra, about the time of our * Midsummer. Jofephus always dates + the loss of their liberty at that time. The same is said by I Tacitus.
But though the Jewish people then became subject to the Romans, and it may be said, that from that time forward the rod of Heaven hung over them; they enjoyed many privileges, and the freedom of their worship, under the mild government of those masters : as appears both from Josephus, and from the historical books of the New Teftament.
When Pompey became master of Jerusalem, he sand some of his officers entered into the temple, and the most holy places of it; but he took nothing away. There were then in it the table, the candlestick, with its lamps, the pouring vessels, and the censers, all of gold, and great quantities of spices, and two thousand talents in money; all which he left untouched. And the day after he gave orders, that they who had the charge of the temple should cleanse it, and perform the accustomed sacrifices. And he restored the priesthood to Hyrcanus.
And that after this the Jewish people were, sometimes at least, in a flourishing condition, appears from many confiderations. It was during this period, that || Herod repaired the temple. Excepting the cloud of glory with which the first temple had been favoured, that erected by Herod may be reckoned to have been equal to it in the fplendor and magnificence of the building, and in rich and costly presents, and other ornaments.
When the Jewish people, after their return from the Babylonith captivity, laid the foundation of the new house, “ many of the Priests, as the Levites, and chief of the fathers, who were ancient men, « wept with a loud voice." Ezr. iii. 12. But God encouraged them
* See Prideaux, in the year before Christ 63, p. 439. And Joseph. Antiq. I. 14. cap. iv. 4. De B. s. 1. i. cap. vii. $ 6.
«Τέτο το πάθος τους Ιεροσολύμοις αίτιοι καλέςεσαν Υρκανός Αριςοτέλος προς αλλήλες φασιάζονες. TÁv te yàs & asu@epbav trebáropsv, rj ÚTÁKool Paraiwi xalésauer. Antiq.1. 14. iv. 5. And compare what Agrippa says to the Jews at Jerusalem. D. B. J. I. 2. cap. xvi. 4. p. 187.
I ss Romanorum primus Cn. Pompeius Judæos domuit, templumque jure victoria inoc greflus est.” Tacit. H. E. 5. c. 9. § De B. 1. l. 1. cap. vii. 6. Conf. Antig. 1. 14. cap. iv.
Vid. Antig. l. 15. cap. xi. De B. J. 1. 1. cap. xxi, et l. 5. cap. v.
by the prophet Haggai, in this manner; ch. ii. 3. “ Who is left « among you, that saw this house in its first glory? and how do ye « fee it now? is it not in your eyes, in comparison of it, as nothing? « Yet now be strong, O Zerubbabel, saith the Lord... and be strong, « all ye people of the land, and work : for I am with you, saith the " Lord of Hofts. . . For thus faith the Lord of Hosts, . . I will « fhake all nations. And the desire of all nacions shall come. And « I will fill this house with glory, saith the Lord of Hosts. The 1 « filver is mine, and the gold is mine, saith the Lord of Hoits. The 16 glory of this latter house shall be greater than that of the for« mer, faith the Lord of Hofts. And in this place will I give peace, « faith the Lord of Hofts.” ..
Here is, undoubtedly, a renewal of the great promise concerning the coming of the Messiah, the true Shechinah, whose presence would make this second temple more glorious than the first. But here is also
a gracious assurance of external grandeur and splendor. " Silver Tünd gold, and all the riches of the world, says God, are mine, to
16 bestow on whom I please. And notwithstanding the present mean 6 and despicable appearance of the building before your eyes, I « will fill it with glory, and will cause it to equal, or even fur66 pass, the former in splendor and magnificence. . . For in this place « will I give peace. My purpose is to bless you abundantly, and to "give you great prosperity.” Which gracious declaration was fulfilled.
That they were in flourishing circumstances at the time of our Lord's preaching among them, is apparent: though they were une caly under subjection to the Romans. Josephus continually speaks of the temple, as very grand and magnificent. And it appears to be fo, from his large and particular description of it in the fifth chapter of the fifth book of the Jewish War, just before its final ruin. And when Tirus, upon the fire having seized the temple, entered it, with fome of his officers, he says, " that * Titus faw it to be far supe" rior to the report of strangers, and not inferior to our boastings 1 concerning it.” And, having related how it was burnt, he says, it might be justly lamented : “ since t it was the most admirable "s of all the works which we have seen, or heard of, for its curious of structure and magnitude, and for all the wealth bestowed upon it, «s as well as for the reputation of its sanctity.” And he expressly calls ie the temple that was built, or begun to be built, in the second year of Cyrus, under the direction of the prophet Haggai. And our Lord's disciples bear witness to the same in some paffages that will come before us in reciting his predictions, of which we are now to take notice, and then observe the fulfilment of them.
* παρελθόν μετά των ηγεμόνων ένδεν εθεάσατο τα να το άγιον, και τα εν αυτώ πολύ μεν της παρά Tại; LANGQUA ; $ung ả4 Vid, T8 Đề xá408 % ; © Agà oxEkov; đóng gx Exá la. De B. J. 1. 6. cap. iv. 7. + L. 6. iv. 8. Conf. 1. 6. x. fin. | dwi di rão üsegov, tv ëtei deutézy Kúgy Basınsúortos émot"cato ‘Afyzãos. L. 6. c. iv. 8. .
III. Our Lord'S PREDICTIONS CONCERNING THE CALAMITIES
COMING UPON THE JEWISH NATION. We find our Lord's disciples speaking of the magnificence of the temple with admiration. So in Mark xiii. 1-10. " And as he as went out of the temple, one of his disciples faith unto him : Mafter, “ see what manner of stones, and what buildings are here! And « Jesus answering said unto him : Seest thou these great buildings? « There shall not be left one stone upon another, that shall not be 6 thrown down. And as he sat upon the Mount of Olives over " against the temple, Peter, and James, and John, and Andrew, 66 alked him privately : Tell us when these things Ihall be; and what « shall be the sign, when all these things shall be fulfilled? And Jesus " answering them began to fay: Take heed, lest any man deceive ¢ you: for many will come in my name, and say, I am Chrift; and
will deceive many. And when ye shall hear of wars, and rumours ” of wars, be ye not troubled ; for such things must needs be. But " the end shall not be yet: for nation shall rise against nation, and “ kingdom against kingdom ; and there shall be earthquakes in di« vers places; and there shall be famines, and troubles. These are " the beginnings of sorrows, . . And the Gospel must first be published « among all nations." And ver. 14--20. 66 But when ye ihall see " the abomination of desolation spoken of by Daniel the Prophet, “ standing where it ought not, (let him that readeth understand) 6then let them that be in Judea flee to the mountains. And let him " that is on the house-top, not go down into the house, neither enter " therein, or take any thing out of his house. And let him that is « in the field not turn back again, for to take up his garment. But o wo to them that are with child, and to them that give fuck in those 6 days. And pray ye, that your flight be not in the winter; for in in those days shall be affiction, such as was not from the begin" ning of the creation, which God created, unto this time, neither 6 shall be.”
The like things are in St. Matthew xxiv. 1–35. “ And Jesus " went out, and departed from the temple. And his disciples came " to him, for to thew him the buildings of the temple. And Jesus " said unto them : See ye not all these things ? Verily I say unto you, « there shall not be left here.one stone upon another, that shall not 66 be thrown down. And as he sat upon the Mount of Olives, the 66 disciples came unto him privately, saying: Tell us when these 66 things shall be, and what shall be the sign of thy coming, and of of the end of the world ? And Jesus answered, and said unto them: « Take heed, that no man deceive you : for many will come in my «6 naine, saying, I am Chrift; and will deceive many. And ye will ¢ hear of wars and rumours of wars. See that ye be not troubled. 46 For all these things must come to pass. But the end is not yet : “ for nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom; cs and there will be famines and pestilences, and earthquakes in « divers places. All these are the beginnings of sorrows. Then thall
el of the nations. Anination of desolatioro re
« they deliver you up to be afflicted, and shåll kill you. And ye “ will be hated of all nations for my name sake. And then will “ many be offended, and will betray one another, and will hate one “ another; and many false prophets will arise, and will deceive " many. And because iniquity shall abound, the love of many will “ wax cold. But he that shall endure to the end, shall be saved. “ And this Gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world, “ for a witness unto all nations. And then shall the end come. " When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken " of by Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place, (whoso readeth, “ let him understand) then let them which are in Judea flee to " the mountains. Let him which is on the house-top, not come “ down to take any thing out of his house. Neither let him that is " in the field return back, to take his cloaths. And wo unto them " which are with child, and to them that give fuck in those days. “But pray ye, that your fight be not in the winter, neither on the " sabbath-day. For then shall be great tribulation, such as was not s from the beginning of the world to this time : no, nor ever lhall " be. And except those days should be shortened, there should no " Aeth be saved. But for the elects sake those days shall be short"ened. Then, if any fay unto you, Lo, here is Christ, or there; “ believe it nat. For there will arise false Christs, and false Pro“phets, and shall thew great figns and wonders, insomuch that (if " it were poffible) they should deceive the very elect. Behold, I " have told you before. Wherefore, if they shall say unto you, “ Behold, he is in the desert, go not forth : Behold, he is in the “ secret chambers, believe it not. For as the lightning cometh out " of the east, and shinech even unto the west, so shall also the co“ming of the Son of man be. For wheresoever the carcass is, there « will the eagles be gathered together ... Verily, I say unto you, “ This generation thall not pass, till all these things be fuifilled. “ Heaven and earth shall pass away; but my words shall not pass “ away." .
Thore inquiries of the disciples, and our Lord's answers to them, are made in private. But they plainly refer to things said by our Lord publicly in the courts of the temple. We may do well, therefore, to look back to what precedes, as related in St. Matthew's Gora pel especially ; where are recorded the many woes pronounced by our Lord upon the Scribes and Pharisees, and the people in general, who were under their influence and direction. Matt. xxiii. 2o-20. “Wo unto you, Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites; because ye “ build the tombs of the Prophets, and garnith the sepulchres of the “ righteous. And ye say, if we had been in the days of our fathers, “ we would not have been partakers with them in the blood of the “ Prophets. Wherefore* ye be witnesses unto yourselves, that ye are " the children of them that killed the Prophets. Fill ye up then the " measure of your fathers. Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers, “ how can ye escape the damnation of hell! Wherefore, behold I
* Compare Luke xi. 47, 51.