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“ Is there in Sodom five righteous men? Genoese, and the Dutch ; that those naIs there in Israel fifty who are worthy to tions have fallen one after another, and be saved?"--Lives there in Britain one that you are in danger of falling also, in twelve whom it is useful to address in from the operation of similar causes, zhe language of Truth?—In other words, TRUTH tells you that all those fallen can a votary of Truth, with no other people were corrupted by the influx of protection than the native fascinations foreign wealth; were intoxicated by foof the goddess, make an appeal, at pre- reign power; and were, finally, ambitisent, to any, tribunal in England, and ous of universal dominion. escape the vindiclive accusations of ve- TRUTH informs you that their wealth nality and prejudice?

enabled them to intrigue in the councils Is there, at this day, to be found in of foreign princes; that they sought to England, among twelve men indifferently direct the governments of the whole taken, inore than one or two who will world; and that they were constantly uphold Truth against the blandishments meddling in the quarrels of their neighof sophistry, salsehood, and corruption ? bours. In fine, are not many great Truihs as Truth declares that, to serve the si. obnoxious at this day, in England, as nister purposes of their commerce, they truth ever was, at any time, in any coun- stirred up wars among other nations; try in the world ?-Might not any obsti- and considered that their welfare was nate stickler for Truth meet with mar. best promoted by the strifes and calatyrdom in England, as certainly as did mities of all other people. the prophets and Jesus Christ among Truth informs you that they were the Jews, as the Apostles among the jealous of all competition; that they Gentiles, or as the great Protestant re- aimed at universal monopoly; and that formers among the Catholics i

they thought the only means of perpe. Yet England, with almost the single tuating their prosperity, was to allow exception of the United States of Ame. n,

rivalry in matiers of trade. rica, is the freest and most enlightened Truth tells you that, in consequence country in the world! In England there of their overgrown wealth, inordinate yet remains some scope for Truth! In ambition, and jealous policy, they were an unrestrained, though terrified, press, first envied, then feared, and, finally, she has here a stage on which to play bated and opposed, by the whole world. a part; and she is not wholly fettered, TRUTH records, that, to maintain their banished, or strangled, as in many coun. ascendency ayd pretensions, it became tries. Truth may still, therefore, solicit nccessary to augment their fleets and votaries in these islands, provided she armies; and to carry on wars against the deport herself with sufficient prudence nations which previously had been their and modesty!

customers, and the means of their ag. Truth then, O Britons ! presents her. grandizement. se!f before you ! She invites you to dis- Truth warns you that their acquired uniss passion; and to discharge yourselves wealth was soon dissipated in the main. from the slavery of self-interest! She tenance of fleets and armies in foreign desires, in a choice of public difficulties, countries; that such drains were not reand at a crisis when your eternal fate, supplied by balances of trade as formerly; as a people, depends on your active in that credit was soon substituted for telligence and virtue, to point out your wealth; that paper, or alloyed money, duties to yourselves and your neighbours! took the place of the precious metals; Will you listen to her, and give her coun- and that the solid basis of public prostenance ?-Will you respect or despise her perity, founded on industry and balances warnings?-Will you create a new era in of trade, gave way to temporizing proyour submission to her reign; or will jects and artifices. you reject her till the ascendency of wis- Truth records, that in those coundom becomes useless to your prosperity? tries, as the Pride of the government in

Listen then to the voice of Truth creased, the miseries and oppressions of and, let her declarations, principles, and the people accumulated; and that, as counsels, sink deep into your hearts ! the exigencies of the state augment

Touth iben, without adulation, ad. ed, prelexts became necessary for dimuita dine polls are a great perple; but mmiting the liberties of the people.

have risen 10 greatness by TROTI tells you that, as the necessi. nicions of commerce, like the lyrians, ties of the peopic accumulated with the e Carthaginians, the Venetians, the public distresses, so individuals became 1813.) Declarations of Truth.


IS more willing to sell themselves to the the prosperity, and dangerous to the very government, and to assist in oppressing existence, of those nations whose strengta and enslaving their independent and less is founded on their commerce; and that crafty fellow citizens.

public distress is unfavourable to public TRUTH records that, during the inter- spirit, and fatal to the energies of public nal and external contentions of those peo- liberty. ple, the energetic, industrious, and use- Truta tells you that, without liberty, iul part of the community, emigrated there is no security for persou and proto exercise their talents and experience perty; and that, without security of pera in foreign countries, thereby transferring son and property, individual industry, to them the foundation of their native the soul of coinpierce, can never exist in country's greatness.

any country. Truth illustrates that, in the climax Trutu reminds you that, in Britain, of their national misfortunes, all the the security of public liberty depends on fences and securities of civil liberty were the free and independent Representation destroyed one after another, so that of the people in the legislature; and that public freedom, public spirit, public glory, the security of personal liberty and propublic prosperity, and often national in- perty depends on the unbiassed convendependence, were extinguished together! cion and full powers of Juries.

Teuta reminds you that Tyre fell a Tautu declares, that public liberty victim to its meddling policy--Carthage and personal security must be lost to the to its ambition-Venice to the tyranny people of England whenever any consi. of its government-Genoa to foreign derable part of the House of Coumons is wars—and Holland to the corruptions nominated by the minister of the day, consequent on overgrown wealth. and becoines idenuitied with the execu

Truth admits that your geographical tive governinent; and whenever Juries, position and territorial circumstances who are to try questions between the are more advantageous than the territory crown and the subject, can be picked and position of those people; and that from among the treeholders by an oificer the prolongation of your national inde- of the crown, instead of being returned pendence rests less than theirs on extra- by the sheriff' in regular rotation. neous circunstances and warlike atchieve- TRUTH then suggests it as your duty ments.

to hole sacred tisse Bulwarks of your Truth tells you, however, that all freedom as the bases of your public prosthe prosperity, wealth, and power, which perity; to treat as public enemies ihose arise froin foreign commerce, are sube who dare to impair them; and to despise, ject to common laws; and that in these as unnatural sycophants of power, those respects, without increased caution and who decry your unremitting and zealous wisdom, you are dooined to follow the exertions to maintain them. fate of other great cominercial powers,

Truth, in like manner, calls your atand sink to the secondary rank prescribed tention to the confusion and uncertainty by your territory and population. of your laws, which have been the growth

Truto proclaims, that the commerce of a thousand years, of bad as well as and power of the British Islands arise good times, and of ages of superstition, out of their insular securită, their como ignorance, and despotisin, as well as ut manding geographical position, their poc epoclis of liberty; and it tells you that litical liberty, their staple commodities, your entire legal system demands a me and the characteristic energy and in. dical reform and regeneration. dustry of their inhabitants, all existing TRUTIL tells you that the liberty and antecedently to their present ascendency, glory of a country must be utterly de

Truth declares, chat, as the ascen- stroyeid, if, after the great barriers of lidency of the British einpire has arisen berty are undermined, slavery is inade from the gradual and unpremeditated palatable by the corruptions and subjuoperation of natural and inherent causes, gation of the public press, thereby rethose efficient causes are adequate to conciling the people to their chains, sustain the ascendency which they have holding up truth and virtue to the scorii conferred, without the hazard of wars to of ignorance and credulity, and hunting assert abstract powers and commercial down and persecuting all the honest exrights, which did not originally tend to ertions of expiring patriotism. raise the country to its present eminence. TRUTI declares that the exportation

Truth reminds you, by a never-fail- and disappearance of your specie, is ing experience, that wars are alien to symptomatic of the decay of your public




wealth and external powermit warns Truth indicates that the Auctuations you of increasing domestic and foreign of prices, of employments, of credit, and ditficulties froin that cause--and it ad- of foreign trade, demand an increase of duces that fact as a proof that you ought sympathy towards your own poor, most to have sanctioned, by your voice, those of whom have been created by public overtures for peace, which have been circumstances not within their controul, so often inade to your government. rather than by vice and idleness.

Truru likens the operations of your TRUTH calls your attention to the ragovernment, subject to the incumbrances pid progression of the nominal value of of an enormous public debt-to those of all cominodities, at a time when you are a trader who has issued a large amount without specie; and proves, that to adof accominodation-bills. The progress vance farther or to fall back is equally of both is sunilar-is attended by similar dangerous to your welfare. difficulties—and, unless such anticipa Truta solemnly proclaims the rapid tions of means are liquidated by timely progression of your annual public expensacrifices, they are, in both cases, likely diture within rwenty years, from 16 to 20, tu be followed by similar effects.

34,36,48,60, 80, and 100 millions, affordTruiu calls your attention to the ing incontrovertible evidence that in principle, that, as taxes on the people few years it inust advance to 120, 150, cause the people to indemnify theniselves 180, 240, and S00 millions, provided the upon each other, so it is impracticable currency and the augmented taxes can that great public debts can be overtakent continue to sustain such accumulating

апу fund growing out of taxes, because claims. the taxes which generate the fund, aug. TRUTH reminds you that this enormous ment the expenditure of the government augmentation of laxes is called for at a in a higher ratio.

moment when your foreign trade and TRUTH proclains the precarious pur. your sources of wealth are comparasuit and dependent character of com. tively annihilated. merce in any country where the passes. TRUTI tells you that your sure means of sion of currency depends more on inte defence and offence, lie in your great and trigue, sycophancy, and factitious credit, invincible Navy; that a mistaken po. than on 'reai trarte and capital. It tells licy and salse notions of glory stimulate you that, in such a country, speculators your ministers to emulate the military overwhelm capitalists, that merchants establishments of the great continental become the humble tools of power, and powers; and that your condition under that the spirit of trade and honourable such policy, is that of the Frog of Esop, enterprize inuse soon be destroyed.

atteinpting to swell himself to the size of . Truth declares, that increased taxes, the Ux. levied to carry on wars and pay the in TRUTII whispers that your public eneterest of enormous public debts, have una my rejoices in the policy which leads duly increases the nominal value of all your ministers to spend nearly a million conimudities ; so that many of those com. weekly in inaintaining an army in the Pet forts are consequently abridged which ninsula of Spain and Portugal: and it are usually enjoyed by industry in wise te!ls you that your best policy, in regard and weil regulated communities.

to Spain under a french dynasty, (if it TRUTII telis you that, as a consequence be necessary to intertere in any way,) of uncertain foreign relations, and of should have been to detach from otá luctuations in trade and prosperiy, the re. Spain its extensive colonies, and erect ward of industry and cute prize is reii. them into independent free governments. dered precarious; that the education of TRUTH reminds you of the primary youth in trade and Irabies of wdustry has olojects and principles of colonization; greatly abated; and that trade ceases and teaches you to seek no other colofrom day tu riay tu present ils usual in nies than islands whose dependence and ducements and its advantageous prose produce you can secure by means of pects in industry.

yonis invincible

Davy. Thun reminds you that your com Trutu lells you that, as the most pow. mercial system has drawn TIIRLE MILLI erful of frie people, you ought every Ons vt your population from agriculture where to sustain public liberiy; and, in to manufactures, and that those manufac. all your alliances and foreign connecturtis have no adierquate means of subsise tisons, never to support despotism against dance will the restoration vi commerce by exertions of the people made to assert a general pence.

or recover their civil libertics,


Struggles of Truth.

15 Truth quotes the example of all lista. is, however, this prodigious difference bem ry to prove that, to maintain your nation- tween the effect of eternal truths, and al independence, it is necessary to husband the influence of frauds and falsehoods, your resources, and to consider your agri- ibat at the end of a thousand generaculture and manufactures as the primary tions, the former will retain their original sources of your public welfare and power. force and vigour ; while the sophistry of

TRU1n declares that no great nation corruption and the tricks of dishonest can ever be conquered till its resources statesmen are generally detected, exhave been drained and exhausted by the posed, despised, and rejected within the long continuance of wars; and thał the passing year! strength which results froin the

prospe- Their most active enemies will be those rity of peace is the only perfect security traders in politics and great events who which any country can acquire.

niislead the public, and pollute, by their TRUTH asserts, that one country has sordid calculations, all the ordinary channo right to niedale with or disturb the nels of Truth. These persons are the government established in another; it conductors of our venal newspapers, recognizes the peaceful authority of the a race of people who live upon public Chinese and Japanese, to restrict and credulity, and who forster all the unhappy forbid intercourse with foreign nations; prejudices and passions of mankind. it legitimatizes the alliance of free states Never was a blessing so perverted as with the tyrants of Algiers and Morocco; the power of the press by these corrupt and it denies the justice or necessity of speculators in news, many of whom care wars founded on changes of other go. not whether they blast and wither half Ternments or dynasties, on the internal the world, if they can but procure the policy of other countries, or on the re- sale and ascendency of their newspapers, ported character of the heads of other Such are the struggles of Truth, even governments.

in its connection with its grand agent and TRUTII solemnly declares, that, if natural guardianhe Press! Canove wicked and corrupt ministers of a free wonder theu at the unhappy face of men, people, at any time, involve those people who in different ages have had the teme in foreign wars, with no justifiable ob- rity to attack public prejudices, aided ject; such free people, so abused, are by no weapons besides those of a good not bound to become partizans in the cause? Can we be surprized at the poisonwar of such ministers, which is not a war ing of Socratesmatthe roasting of Cubhain of the country, or for the country; on matthe perpet mal imprisonment of Galileo the contrary, they are bound to exert —or at the martyrdoms of Truth and Vira themselves to procure the speedy resto- lue, which have disgraced all nges? ration of peace, by all constitutionat Public igrurance, generating prejudices means.

which are humoured by statesten, cheTrutu declares it to be a great crime rished by the priesthood, and pamperasi to carry on war without some assignable by unprincipled writers and evilois, is cause of sufficient inagnitude, and como consequently that many-leaded monster incisurate with the evils of war; and that which in all ages has opposed itself in nmie but defensive wars, provoked by the progress and ascendency of Truth. notorious and definable aggressions of The first considerations of every pre the enerny, are justifiable in a inoral or lilic statesman, are not what would he religious sense.

right and what would be consistens Such, O my countrymen, are the dic. with truth; but, what is the most agree. tates of Truth! May ihey sink deep into able to the public feelings and in whuc your hearts and govern your practices! It degree can right conduct he reconciled is, liowever, too certain, that such truthisa with existing prejudices! lle would be incontrovertible as they are, will find few deeined a rash statesman whose measures votaries! Passion, Prejudice, and Pride, preceded, rather than fullowed, the prewill vigorously resist and assail thein! iudices of the public; and, if his conduct Sopbistry will employ all its arts against is measured by any other consideration tisem; and, great Truihs as they are, they equally poweriil, it is only that of buis will be often denied helore their authority interest. A public wrong is perpetiated, is established! Unhappily they do not

but the statesman who inflicts it excuses appear wiih a Royal signature, nor bave binseif by referring to the public opinion they the sanction of any Church, or of and voice, by which he says, he is geso any Cabinet Council. Their only recom. verned--the priest, who often becomes mendation is their absolute Verity! There die moral apologist of the statesman, 1





ED AS A Fal 20,"descended trud ua

consults in like manner the prejudices of progress, and decay of national Errorsthe public--and the Journalist, the echo should it, in fine, tend to promote the 11of the public voice, in like manner con. fluence, or establish the authority, of sults the public wishes ! A concordant Truth in the great questions which arise result is thus produced at the very mo in the progress of society—the Ambition ment in which great public errors are of the writer will, in either of those secommitted ! Discords may arise, followed sults, be abundantly gratified! by repentance and mutual accusations; yet

COMMON Sense. the mischief cannot be recalled. Hence the Histories of fluinan Lile, and of the For the Alonthly Mugazine. Transactions of Nations, are composed

LUSITANICA; by JOHN alınost, entirely of a catalogue of Errors, Calamnities, Repentance, and often of

Andrude Caminha, Vengeance, for crimes which arise less EDRO

ANDRADE CAMINHA from the fault of individuals than from a defect in the constitution of human so illustrious family in Castile, from whence ciety.

his ancestor Fernaõ Caminta einigraled, Perhaps the justice of these reasonings in 1307, w Portugal, and was presented, will be generally admitted, and the writer by hmg Dom Fernando, with the seigmay probably bave credit for purity of neury of S. Estevao, for the services which intentions and moderation of language, he had rendered that monarch, in making the exposition. Far be it The family of Caminha bad, after this from him by any asperity of invective to event, made frequent alliances with the confirm or irritate ile prejudices which Portuguese gentry, and was, at the birila he is anxious to diminishi and subdue of the poet, divided into two branches. by a sober appeal to the reason and goud

Affonso Vaz Caminha, the grandfather, sense of his readers!

had (w sons. Vasco Fernandez, the Should his arguments tend further in elder, was Alcaide Mor* of Villa-Viçosa, prove the neressily of educating the chamberlain to Doin Theodosio, Vuké whole population, as one means of eman of Braganzit, and father of Altunsu Vaz cipating ihe nižjority from the domino Caniuha, a very celebrated and learned of the prejudices of crafty men—should

Joao Caininha, the younger, it tend to rouse statesmen to think for served under Antunso de Albuquerque, in themselves, and to instruct, rather than India, where he gained great reputation, mislead, those whose interest they are and, returning in Portugal, was nomie appointed to direci-should it develope nated Comptroller of the Househoid of ti pivas and well-intentioned Clergymer, the lotanta Dona Isabel, afterward, the the mischiefs to which they may contri consort of Charles V. Joao espoused bute by fostering prejudices; they may Duna Filippa de Sousa, and, after living probably be led to think that they shall many years with great telicity, died un better serve their country, and obtain the the same day ius liis wife, leaving several more substantial gratitude of their su. children, of whom the subject of this periors, hy enlightening, rather than memoir was the eldest. blinding, those whose mental powers they fle entered early into the service of govern--sbould Journalists perceive that Duo Duarte, Duke of Gulnaraēs, and truth is the most easily maintained, and employed his tine in the cultivation of inay, if perseveringly supportell, become literature, and the atientions required as avvantageous to their interests, as the by bis office. Dom Duaile was a prince gratitication of the public prejudices; of extensive erudition; lie was a sincere they may perhaps be led to try the ex friend and patrou tu men of' ability, and periment for a limited period, till Truth his death was deeply feit and regretted. becomes fashionable should it lead the lo his service, Pedro de Andrade, currenumerous creatures of their prejudices, sponding with some and mixmg in the the primary authors of public wrongs Society of others, secured the friendship aud errors, to examine ihemselves in of the most enlightened poets of Portua regard to the grounds and origin of those gal. Enjoying a lile desticated to liceopinions whichi, at any time, disturb the ralure, windade lived contented and repose and happiness of the world quite unambitious of that advancement, should it establish more correct views of lo mbicho dois residence in the palace of a the cause of iht overu belming influence prince mylit lave raised his expectations, of prejudice, and illustrate the moral phenomena which accompany the rise,

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