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TREATY OF AMITY AND COMMERCE
Between the United States of America and His Most
Feb. 6, 1778.
TREATY OF AMITY AND COMMERCE. Annulled by act of Congress
The Most Christian King, and the thirteen United States of North of July 7, 1798, America, to wit: New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island, ch. 67.
Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, willing to fix in an equitable and permanent manner, the rules which ought to be followed relative to the correspondence and commerce which the two parties desire to establish, between their respective countries, states and subjects, his Most Christian Majesty and the said United States, have judged that the said end could not be better obtained than by taking for the basis of their agreement, the most perfect equality and reciprocity, and by carefully avoiding all those burthensome preferences which are usually sources of debate, embarrassment and discontent; by leaving also each party at liberty to make, respecting commerce and navigation, those interior regulations which it shall find most convenient to itself; and by founding the advantage of commerce solely upon reciprocal utility, and the just rules of free intercourse; reserving withal to each party the liberty of admitting at its pleasure, other nations to a participation of the same advantages. It is in the spirit of this intention, and to fulfil these views, that his said Majesty having named and appointed for his plenipotentiary, Conrad Alexander Gerard, Royal Syndic of the city of Strasbourg, Secretary of his Majesty's Council of State; and the United States on their part, having fully impowered Benjamin Franklin,
Cases decided in the courts of the United States on the provisions of the treaty of amity and commerce with France, of 1778; and the consular convention with France, of November 14, 1783 :
The treaty of amily and commerce of 1778 with France, article 11, enabling French subjects to pur. chase and hold lands in the United States, being abrogated in 1798; the act of Maryland of 1780, per. mitting the lands of a French subject who had become a citizen of that state, dying intestate, to descend on the next of kin, being a non-naturalized Frenchman, with a proviso vesting the lands in the state, if the French heirs should not within ten years become resident citizens of the state, or convey the lands to a citizen; and the convention of 1800, between France and the United States, enabling the people of one country, holding lands in the other, to dispose of the same by testament, and to inherit lands in the other, without being naturalized : Jleld, that the latter treaty dispensed with the performance of the condition in the act of Maryland, and that the constitutional rule applied equally to the case of those who took by descent under the act, as to those who acquired by purchase without its aid. Chirac v. Chirac, 2 Wheat. 259; 4 Cond. Rep. 111.
The further stipulation in the treaty," that in case the laws of either of the two states should restrain strangers from the exercise of the rights of property with respect to real estate, such real estate may be sold, or otherwise disposed of, to citizens or inhabitants of the country where it may be," does not affect the rights of a French subject who takes or holds by the convention, so as to deprive him of the power of selling to citizens of the country; and gives to a French subject who has acquired lands by descent or devise, (and, perhaps, in any other manner,) the right during life to sell or otherwise dispose of the same, if lying in a state where lands purchased by an alien, generally, would be immediately escheatable. Ibid.
Although the convention of 1800 has expired, immediately on a descent being cast on a French subject during its continuance, his rights become complete under it, and cannot be affected by its subsequent expiration. Ibid.
TRAITÉ D'AMITIÉ ET DE COMMERCE
Entre les Etats Unis d'Amérique et sa Majesté très Chre
TRAITÉ D'AMITIÉ ET DE COMMERCE. Le Roi très Chretien et les treize Etats Unis de l'Amérique Septentrionale, savoir, New Hampshire, la Baye de Massachusset, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pensylvanie, les comtés de Newcastle, de Kent et de Sussex sur la Delaware, Maryland, Virginie, Caroline, Septentrionale, Caroline Méridionale, et Georgie, voulant établir d'une maniere équitable et permanente les règles qui devront être suivies relativement à la correspondance et au commerce que les deux parties désirent d'établir entre leurs Païs Etats et sujets respectifs, sa Majesté très Chretienne et les dits Etats Unis ont jugé ne pouvoir mieux atteindre à ce but qu'en prenant pour base de leur arrangement l'égalité et la réciprocité la plus parfaite, et en observant d'éviter
toutes les préférences onéreuses, source de discussions, d'embarras, et de mecontentemens, de laisser à chaque partie la liberté de faire, relativement au commerce et à la navigation les réglemens intérieurs qui seront à sa convenance, de ne fonder les avantages du commerce que sur son utilité reciproque et sur les loix d'une juste concurrence, et de conserver ainsi de part et d'autre la liberté de faire participer, chacun selon son gré, les autres nations, aux mêmes avantages. C'est dans cet esprit et pour remplir ces vües que sa d: Majesté ayant nommé et constitué pour son plénipotentiaire le S. Conrad Alexandre Gerard, Sindic oral de la ville de Strasbourg, Secretaire du Conseil d'Etat de sa Majesté, et les Etats
America was bound as an ally of France by the capitulation between France and Great Britain for the surrender of Dominica. Miller o. The Ship Resolution, 2 Dall. Rep. 15.
The Phabe Ann, a British vessel, had been captured by a French privateer, and sent into Charleston. Restitution of the prize was claimed by the British consul, who filed a libel in the district court, suggest. ing that the privateer had been illegally fitted out, and had illegally augmented her force within the United States. It appeared in proof that the privateer had originally entered the port of Charleston, armed and commissioned for war; and that she had taken out her guns, masts and sails, which remained on shore until the general repairs of the vessel were completed, when they were again put on board, with the same force, or thereabouts; and on a subsequent cruise, the prize was taken.
ELLSWORTH, Chief Justice. Suggestions of policy and convenience cannot be considered in the judi. cial determination of a question of right : the treaty with France, whatever that is, must have its effect. By the nineteenth article, it is declared that French vessels, whether public and of war, or private and of merchants, may, on any urgent necessity, enter our ports, and be supplied with all things needful for repairs. In the present case, the privateer only underwent a repair ; and the mere replacement of her force cannot be a material augmentation ; even if an augmentation of force could be proven, which we do not decide a sufficient cause of restitution. Moodie v. The Sloop Phæbe Ann, 2 Dall. Rep. 319; 1 Cond. Rep. 139.
The appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of the United States extends to a final judgment or decree in any suit in the highest court of the United States, where is drawn in question the validity of a treaty, and the judgment or decree is against the validity of the right claimed under the treaty; and such judgment may be re-examined by writ of error, in the same manner as if rendered in a circuit court. Martin v. Hunter's lessee, 1 Wheat. 104 ; 3 Cond. Rep. 575.
By the treaty with France of 1778, articles 17 and 23, the subjects of France had a right to equip and arm their vessels in the ports of the United Stales, to bring in their prizes and depart with them, without interference by the couris of the United States. Bee's Admiralty Reports, 40, 43.
Deputy from the state of Pennsylvania to the General Congress, and President of the Convention of said state ; Silas Deane, late Deputy from the state of Connecticut to the said Congress, and Arthur Lee, Councellor at Law; the said respective plenipotentiaries after exchanging their powers, and after mature deliberation, have concluded and agreed upon the following articles.
ARTICLE I. Peace and
There shall be a firm, inviolable and universal peace, and a true and friendship be- sincere friendship between the Most Christian King, his heirs and suctween the two nations.
cessors, and the United States of America; and the subjects of the Most Christian King and of the said States; and between the countries, islands, cities and towns, situate under the jurisdiction of the Most Christian King and of the said United States, and the people and inhabitants of every degree, without exception of persons or places; and the terms hereinafter mentioned shall be perpetual between the Most Christian King, his heirs and successors, and the said United States.
ARTICLE II. Neither party
The Most Christian King and the United States, engage mutually not to grant favors to grant any particular favour to other nations, in respect of commerce to other nations and navigation, which shall not immediately become common to the become com
other party, who shall enjoy the same favour, freely, if the concession mon to the was freely made, or on allowing the same compensation, if the concesother party. sion was conditional.
ARTICLE III. The subjects of the Most Christian King shall pay in the ports, Subjects of the havens, roads, countries, islands, cities, or towns, of the United States, King of France entitled to the or any of them, no other, or greater duties, or imposts, of what nature same privileges soever they may be, or by what name soever called, than those which in the United States as the
the nations most favoured are or shall be obliged to pay; and they shall most favored enjoy all the rights, liberties; privileges, immunities, and exemptions in nations. trade, navigation and commerce, whether in passing from one port in
the said states to another, or in going to and from the same, from and to any part of the world, which the said nations do or shall enjoy.
ARTICLE IV. The subjects, people and inhabitants of the said United States, and Citizens of the each of them, shall not pay in the ports, havens, roads, isles, cities and U.S. entitled to places under the domination of his Most Christian Majesty, in Europe, leges in the do- any other, or greater duties or imposts, of what nature soever they may minions of be, or by what name soever called, than those which the most favoured France, as the
nations are or shall be obliged to pay; and they shall enjoy all the rights, most favored nations.
liberties, privileges, immunities, and exemptions in trade, navigation and commerce, whether in passing from one port in the said dominions, in Europe, to another, or in going to and from the same, from and to any part of the world, which the said nations do or shall enjoy.
ARTICLE V. In the above exemption is particularly comprised, the imposition of one hundred sols per ton, established in France on foreign ships; unless when the ships of the United States shall load with the merchandize of France for another port of the same dominion, in which case the said ships shall pay the duty above mentioned so long as other nations the most favoured shall be obliged to pay it. But it is understood that the said United States, or any of them, are at liberty when they shall judge it proper, to establish a duty equivalent in the same case.
Unis aïant, de leur coté, munis de leurs pleins pouvoirs les S. Benjamin Franklin, Député au Congrès Général de la part de l'Etat de Pensylvanie, et Président de la Convention du d: Etat, Silas Deane ci-devant Député de l'Etat de Connecticut, et Arthur Lée, Conseiller és Loir, les di plénipotentiaires respectifs après l'échange de leurs pouvoirs et après mure déliberation ont conclu et arrêté les points et articles suivans.
ARTICLE I. Il y aura une paix ferme, inviolable et universelle et une amitié vraie et sincère entre Le Roi très Chrétien ses héritiers et successeurs, et entre les Etats Unis de l'Amérique ainsi qu'entre les sujets de sa Majesté très Chretienne et ceux des dits Etats, comme aussi entre les peuples, isles, villes et places situés sous la jurisdiction du Roi très Chretien et des dits Etats Unis, et entre leurs peuples et habitans de toutes les classes, sans aucune exception de personnes et de lieux; les conditions mentionnées au present traité seront perpetuelles et permanentes entre Le Roi très Chretien, ses héritiers et successeurs, et les dits Etats Unis.
ARTICLE II. Le Roi très Chretien et les Etats Unis s'engagent mutuellement à n'accorder aucune faveur particuliere à d'autres nations, en fait de commerce et de navigation, qui ne devienne ausitót commune à l'autre partie, et celle-ci jouira de cette faveur gratuitement, si la concession est gratuite, ou en accordant la même compensation, si la concession est conditionnelle.
ARTICLE III. Les sujets du Roi très Chretien ne païeront dans les ports, havres, rades, contrées, isles, cités et lieux des Etats Unis ou d'aucun d'entr'eux, d'autres ni plus grands droits ou impôts, de quelque nature qu'ils puissent être, et quelque nom qu'ils puissent avoir que ceux que les nations les plus favorisées sont, ou seront tenües de païer ; Et ils jouiront de tous les droits, libertés, priviléges, immunités et exemtions en fait de négoce, navigation et commerce, soit en passant d'un port des dits Etats à un autre; soit en y allant ou en revenant de quelque partie ou pour quelque partie du monde que ce soit, dont les do nations jouissent ou jouiront.
ARTICLE IV. Les sujets, peuples et habitans des do Etats Unis et de chacun d'iceux ne païeront dans les ports, havres, rades, isles, villes et places de la domination de sa Majesté très Chretienne en Europe d'autres ni plus grands droits ou impots de quelque nature qu'ils puissent être et quelque nom qu'ils puissent avoir que les nations les plus favorisées sont, ou seront tenues de païer, et ils jouiront de tous les droits, libertés, priviléges, immunités et exemtions en fait de négoce, navigation et commerce soit en passant d'un port à un autre des dits Etats du Roi très Chretien en Europe, soit en y allant ou en revenant de quelque partie ou pour quelque partie du monde que ce soit, dont les nations susdo jouissent ou jouiront.
ARTICLE V. Dans l'exemtion ci-dessus est nommément compris l'imposition de cent sous par tonneau établie en France sur les navires étrangers, si ce n'est lorsque les navires des Etats Unis chargeront des marchandises de France, dans un port de France, pour un autre port de la même domination, auquel cas les do navires des do Etats Unis acquiteront le droit dont il s'agit aussi long tems que les autres nations les plus favorisées seront obligées de l'acquiter. Bien entendu qu'il sera libre aux dits Etats Unis, ou à aucun d'iceux d'établir, quand ils le jugeront à propos, un droit equivalent à celui dont il est question pour le même cas pour lequel il est établi dans les ports de sa Majesté très Chretienne.
ARTICLE VI. France to pro- The Most Christian King shall endeavour by all the means in his power tect vessels of
to protect and defend all vessels and the effects belonging to the subcitizens of the United States jects, people or inhabitants of the said United States, or any of them, in her jurisdic. being in his ports, havens, or roads, or on the seas near to his countries, them when cap. islands, cities or towns, and to recover and restore to the right owners, tured, and to their agent or attornies, all such vessels and effects, which shall be taken convoy vessels within his jurisdiction; and the ships of war of his Most Christian Main certain cases. jesty, or any convoy sailing under his authority, shall upon all occasions
take under their protection, all vessels belonging to the subjects, people or inhabitants of the said United States, or any of them, and holding the same course, or going the same way, and shall defend such vessels as long as they hold the same course, or go the same way, against all attacks, force and violence, in the same manner as they ought to protect and defend the vessels belonging to the subjects of the Most Christian King.
ARTICLE VII. United States In like manner the said United States and their ships of war, sailing to do the same. under their authority, shall protect and defend, conformable to the tenor
of the preceding article, all the vessels and effects belonging to the subjects of the Most Christian King, and use all their endeavours to recover, and cause to be restored, the said vessels and effects that shall have been taken within the jurisdiction of the said United States, or any of them.
ARTICLE VIII. The King of The Most Christian King will employ his good offices and interposiFrance to aid tion with the King or Emperor of Morocco or Fez, the regencies of the U.States to Algier, Tunis, and Tripoli, or with any of them; and also with every with the Bar. other Prince, State or Power, of the coast of Barbary, in Africa, and bary powers. the subjects of the said King, Emperor, States and Powers, and each
of them, in order to provide as fully and efficaciously as possible for the benefit, conveniency and safety of the said United States, and each of them, their subjects, people and inhabitants, and their vessels and effects against all violence, insult, attacks, or depredations, on the part of the said Princes, and States of Barbary, or their subjects.
ARTICLE IX. Subjects of The subjects, inhabitants, merchants, commanders of ships, masters either party shall not fish in
and mariners of the states, provinces and dominions of each party rethe dominions spectively shall abstain and forbear to fish in all places possessed, or of the other. which shall be possessed by the other party; the Most Christian King's
subjects shall not fish in the havens, bays, creeks, roads, coasts or places, which the said United States hold, or shall hereafter hold, and in like manner the subjects, people and inhabitants of the said United States, shall not fish in the havens, bays, creeks, roads, coasts or places, which the Most Christian King possesses, or shall hereafter possess; and if any ship or vessel shall be found fishing contrary to the tenor of this treaty, the said ship or vessel, with its lading, proof being made thereof, shall be confiscated; it is however understood that the exclusion stipulated in the present article, shall take place only so long, and so 'far as the Most Christian King, or the United States, shall not in this respect have granted an exemption to some other nation.
ARTICLE X. The United States, their citizens and inhabitants shall never disturb the subjects of the Most Christian King in the enjoyment and