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usurped such an extravagant extent of authority was Innocent III. (A. D. 1198—1216.) whose example was followed by Honorius III. (A. D. 1216,) Gregory IX. (A. D. 1227.) and several of their successors." Thus the plenitude of the papal power, (as it is termed,) was not confined to what was spiritual; the Romish bishops " dethroned monarchs, disposed of crowns, absolved subjects from the obedience due to their sovereigns, and laid kingdoms under interdicts. There was not a state in Europe which had not been disquieted by their ambition. There was not a throne which they had not shaken, nor a prince who did not tremble at their presence." The point of time in which the Romish bishops attained their highest elevation of authority was about the commencement of the 14th century. Boniface VIII. who was pope at this time, outstripped all his pre'decessors in the high-sounding tone of his public decrees. According to Ws famous bull, Unam Sanctam, published Nov. 16, 1302, "the secular power is but a simple emanation from the ecclesiastical and the double power of the pope, founded upon Holy scripture, is even an article of faith. "God," said he, " has confided to Saint Peter, and to his successors, two swords, the one spiritual, the other temporal. The first ought to be exercised by the church itself, and the other by secular powers for the service of the church, and according to the will of the pope. The latter, that is to say, the temporal sword, is in subjection to the former; and the temporal authority depends indispensably on the spiritual power. Finally, he adds, it is necessary to the salvation of every human
creature to be in subjection to the Roman pontiff." The false, prophet SAID " to them that dwell upon the earth, that they should make an image to the beast that had the wound by a sword and did live" that is the Romish priesthood preached up the pope's supremacy over temporal princes; and through their astonishing influence on the minds of the people, the bishop of Rome, at last, became the supreme sovereign of the secular Latin empire; and thus was at the head of all authority, temporal and spiritual.
The papists have, in their various superstitions, professed to worship God. But they are said, in the unerring words of prophecy, to worship the dragon, beast, and image of the beast; and to blaspheme God: for they received "as'holy those commandments of men that stand in direct opposition to the Sacred Scriptures, and which have been imposed on them by the Romish bishops, aided by the secular powers. "God is a Spirit, and they who worship Him must worship Him in SPIRIT and in TRUTH."
Verse 16. And he cameth all, both small a7id greaU rich and poor, free and bond to receive a mart—-To. ascertain the meaning of the mark which the two-horned beast causes all orders and degrees of men in the Latin world to receive, we need only refer to chap. xiv. 11. where the mark imposed by the two-horned beast is called the mark of his name. The name of the beast is the Latin empire; the mark of his name must, therefore, be his Latin worship; for this very reason, that it is the two-horned beast, or false prophet, who causes all descriptions of persons to receive it. Now It
is well known that the continual employment of the Latin clergy is to enforce the Latin idolatry upon their flocks. The mass and offices of the church, which are in Latin, and contain the sum and substance of their idolatrous worship, are of different kinds, and abound in impious prayers to the Virgin Mary, and the saints and. angels. In a word, the Latin worship is the universal badge of distinction of the Latin church, from all other churches on the face of the earth; and is, therefore, the only infallible Mark by which a genuine papist can be distinguished from the rest of mankind. But the two-horned beast causes all to receive this mark—
In their right hand, or in their foreheads—Right hand, in Scripture language, when used figuratively, represents the physical power of the person of whom it is spoken; and, when applied to God, designates a signal manifestation of Divine power against His enemies, and in behalf of His people. See Psa. xvii. 7. xx. 6. xxi. 8. xlv. 3, 4, Sic. The reception of the mark in the right hand must, therefore, mean that all, so receiving it, devote the whole power of their minds and body for the propagation of the Latin worship, and in the eradication of all they denominate .heresies QUt of'their church. But some receive the mark in their foreheads. By any thing being impressed upon the forehead, is meant the public profession of whatever is inscribed or marked upon it: see Rev. ix. 4. xiv. 1. xxii. 4, &c. The mark of the beast being received on the forehead, therefore, means that all those so marked make a public profession of the Latin worship; whereby it is evident to all that they form a part of the Latin church. Many may be marked in the right hand, who are also marked on their foreheads; but it does not follow that those marked on their foreheads are also marked in their right hand; that is to say, it is not every individual that complies with the Latin worship, who, to the utmost of his power, endeavours to propagate his religious system. Hence the propriety of the words. "He causeth all—to receive a mark in their right hand, Or in their foreheads."
Verse 17. And that no man might buy or sell, saw he that had the mark—" If any," observes Bishop Newton, " dissent from the stated and authorised forms, they are condemned and excommunicated as heretics; and in consequence of that, they are no longer suffered to buy or sell; they are interdicted from traffic and commerce, and all tltc benefit of civil society. So Ro ger Hovedcn relates of William the Conqueror, that he was so dutiful to the pope that he would not permit any one in his power to buy or sell any thing whom he found disobedient to the apostolic see. So the canon of the council of Lateran, under pope Alexander III. made against the Waldenses and Albigenses, enjoins, upon pain of anathema, that no man presume to entertain or cherish them in his house or land, or exercise traffic with them. The synod of Tours in France, under the same pope, orders, under the like intermination, that no man should presume to receive or assist them, no not so much as to hold any communion with them in selling or buying; that, being deprived of the comfort of humanity, they may be compelled to repent of tbe error of their way." In the tenth and eleventh centuries, the severity against the excommunicated was carried to so high a pitch, that nobody might come near them, not even their own wives, children, or servants; they forfeited alTtheir natural legal rights and privileges, and were excluded from all kinds of offices. The form of excommunication in the Romish church' is to take lighted torches, throw them upon the ground with curses and anathemas, and trample them out under feet to the ringing of the bells. It is in this, and similar ways, that the false prophet has terrified the Latin world, and kept it in subjection to the secular and spiritual powers. Those interdicted by the two-horntcl beast from all offices of civil life, are also such as have not—the name of the beast, or the number of his name.
Having thus far described the beast rising out of the sea with seven heads, ten horns and ten crowns, and the beast coming out of the earth with two horns, we proceed to give an account of the great whore which sat upon many waters; her description, name and conduct, as signified by the Revelator, Chap. xvii.—See Dr. Clark.
Verse 1. And there came one of the seven angels which had the seven vials, and talked tvith me, saying unto me, Come hither, I will show unto thee the judgment of the great whore that sittcth upon many wafers.—That idolatrous worship is frequently represented in Scripture under the character of a whore or whordom, is evident from numerous passages which it isr unnecessary to quote.—Sec 1 Chrou. v. 25. Esek. xvi.