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what may reasonably be supposed to have been im- | been compounded of two words put together
, as shall provements made since their original; he will find the be observed hereafter. 3. Many of the nouns which Chaldean and Hebrew tongue to have been at first the are derived from the verbs, consist of the very same very same. There are evidently, even still, in the letters with the verbs themselves; probably all the Chaldean Tongue, great numbers of words the same nouns did so at first, and the difference there now is with the Hebrew; perhaps as many as mankind had in some of them is owing to improvements made in for their use before the confusion of Babel; and there the language. If we look into the Hebrew tongue in different, but their import or signification is very often city; we shall bring it to a few names of things, men, such as may occasion us to conjecture that they were and actions; we shall make all its words monosyllables, invented at or since that confusion. The first words and give it the true marks of an original language.
And if names of the common things and creatures, and of their (about five hundred,) such a paucity is another argument most obvious qualities and actions, which men could in its favour.” not live without observing, nor converse without speaking of. As they grew more acquainted with the world, more knowledge was acquired, and more words became necessary. It would be to little purpose to consider at large the dispute for the priority of the Hebrew or Chaldean tongue. We may take either, and endeavour to strip it of all its improvements, and see whether in its infant state it has any real marks of an original language. I shall choose the Hebrew, and leave the learned reader to consider how far what I offer may be equally true of the Chaldean tongue.
And if we consider the Hebrew tongue in this view, we must not take it as Moses wrote it, much less with the improvements or additions it may have since received; but we must strip it of every thing which looks like an addition of art, and reduce it, as far as may be, to a true original simplicity. And 1, all its vowels and punctuations, which could never be imagined until it came to be written, and which are in no wise necessary in writing it, are too modern to be mentioned. 2. All the prefixed and affixed letters
RUINS OF MOAB. were added in time, to express persons in a better man We obtained, says Buckingham, a distant view of ner than could be done without them. 3. The various Oom-el-Russas, about eight or ten miles off, to the voices, moods, tenses, numbers
, and persons of verbs, southward of us. The only conspicuous object which were not original, but invented as men found occasion, presented itself to our view, at this distance, was a high for a greater clearness and copiousness of expression. | tower, looking like a monumental column, standing 4. In the same manner the few adjectives they have, alone. We continued our way towards it in nearly a and the numbers and regimen of nouns, were not from straight line, over a gently rising ground, with an imthe beginning By these means we may reduce the proving soil, and reached it about noon. whole language to the single theme of the verbs, and On entering the site of this ruined town, we came to the nouns or names of things and men; and of these first to some smoothly hewn cisterns in the rocks, with I would observe, 1, That the Hebrew nouns are com- marks of a large quarry, from which abundance of monly derived from the verbs; and this is agreeable to stone had been taken away for building. Beyond the account which Moses gives of the first inventing of these, and on a higher level, we found a portion of a the names of things. When Cain was to be named, square building, resembling the remains of a small fort, his mother observed, that she had got a man from the the walls of which were pierced with long and narrow LORD, and therefore called him Cain, from the verb loop-hole for arrows or musketry. A few paces south which signifies to get. So when Seth was to be of this stood the tower which had shown itself so connamed, she considered that God had appointed her spicuously at a distance. This tower was not more another, and called his name Seth, from the verb which than ten feet square at its base, and from thirty to forty signifies to appoint. When Noah was to be named, feet high ; the masonry in it not being remarkable his father foresaw that he would comfort them, and so either for its strength or elegance. On the shaft of named him Noah, from the verb which signifies to this square pillar, for so it might well be called, was a comfort. And probably this was the manner in which sort of square capital, cut off from the body of the Adam named the creatures: he observed and consid- tower by a shelving moulding raised at the corners like ered some particular action in each of them, fixed a the covers of the Roman Sarcophagi, scattered so name for that action, and from that named the creature abundantly over the country. At each corner of this according to it. 2. All the verbs of the Hebrew square capital was a plain Doric column, of small size, tongue, at least all that originally belonged to it, consist supporting a florid cornice, sculptured with an arauniformly of three letters, and were perhaps at first besque pattern, and curved outwards at the corners in pronounced as monosyllables; for it may be the vowels the most fanciful manner. were afterwards invented, which dissolved some of the On the north, the east, and the west sides of this words into more syllables than one. I am the more tower, and about midway between its base and summit, inclined to think this possible, because in many instan- a Greek cross was sculptured in relief, and contained ces the same letter dissolves a word, or keeps it a mono- within a circle: but on the south side this emblem was syllable, according as the vowel differs, which is put to not to be found. In various parts of it were many it. Aven is of two syllables ; Aour and Aouth are marks like those on the wells and cisterns of El The words of one: and many Hebrew words now pronoun- med; and as this tower is unquestionably of a date ced with two vowels, might originally have had but much posterior to the days of the Israelites sojourning one : Barak, to bless, might at first be read Brak, with in these parts, and of Greek or Roman work in the many other words of the same sort. There are indeed decline of these empires, the marks are most probably several words in this language which are not so easily those of the Arabs. The inquiry suggested would still reducible to monosyllables ; but these seem to have be useful, however, inasmuch as if the characters op
the Written Mountain were found generally resembling | belonging to the town. This is about 200 yards these, it might be concluded that they also were the square, the walls are low, but are constructed of large work of Arabs, and not of the Jews during their wan- | stones, and the interior of this space is filled with dering in the Desert of Sin.
ruined buildings, the arch doorways of which are the To the eastward of this tower, a few paces only, are only parts remaining perfect. These arches are all of remains of ruined buildings, and to the southward are the Roman shape ; and I observed amongst the ruins, seen foundations, with broken pottery, and other ves- in several places, appearances of stone beams having tiges of former population, extending for more than been laid on the walls, so as to reach from side to side, half a mile to the first division of enclosed dwellings and support entirely the roof of the dwelling.
PHAETON PRECIPITATED FROM THE CHARIOT OF SOL. Sol, or the sun, is stated by some mythologists to be the cut above, but two of these horses appear-the the same as Apollo. This however is not the gen- other two perchance had taken fright, and run away. eral opinion. Sol was the son of Hyperion; though This cut we will now proceed to explain. scme authors suppose Sol and Hyperion the same. Sol had a son by Clymene named Phaeton. Phaeton Lucian makes Sol one of the Titans. He is usually having received some affront from Epaphas, a son of represented like a young man with a radiated head, Jupiter, tending to his disparagement, determined to his pallium thrown over his left arm.
demonstrate to the whole world the nobleness of his Sol had four horses, to wheel his flaming car through birth. To accomplish this object, he repaired to his the vaulted skies. Fulgentius says, the names of these father, and obtained from him an oath that he would horses are, Erythreus or the Red, Actæon or the Bright, grant him whatsoever he might ask. He then requestLampos the Resplendent, and Philogæus the Lover of ed the privilege of driving his father's horses one day. the Earth. The first name, Erythreus, is taken from the Startled at the mad proposal, and yet being bound by rising of the sun, when his rays are of a ruddy colour. his oath, Sol remonstrated with him on the impropriety It is for this reason that Homer calls Aurora rosy-fin- of such an intention, setting before him in the clearest gered. The second of Sol's horses, Actæon, has his light the hazardous nature of the undertaking. But name from the brightness of the sun after he has made Phaeton was not to be shaken in his purpose. He inconsiderable progress in his career for the day. The sisted on the fulfilment of his father's promise, who third, Lampos, is so called from the splendour of the consequently was bound to comply. Phaeton exulting noon-day sun. The fourth, Philogeus, takes his name at the glorious prospect before him, mounted the dread from the setting sun, when he seems to incline to the chariot, and set forward. But being frightened at the earth. Ovid, however
, gives them different names, sight of the sign Scorpio, he turned the coursers from calling them Pyroeis, Eous, Æthon, and Phlegon. In their wonted path ; which they perceiving took fright,
and dashed about at random, Phaeton being unable to universal conflagration, launched forth a mighty thuncontrol those fiery steeds which none but the expe- derbolt, and precipitated Phaeton headlong to the earth. rienced hand of his father could guide. And now they | The sisters of Phaeton, Lampethusa, Lampetia, and were rapidly approaching the earth, and by their ap- Phæthusa, (called the Heliades,) incessantly deplored proximation had already set it on fire. Jupiter from his his fate, and were at length transformed into poplars Empyrean height beheld the scene, and, to prevent a weeping amber instead of tears.
“The human race excepted, the Elephant is the ty; in fine, the elephant, like the beaver, loves the most respectable of animals. In size he surpasses all society of his equals, and makes them understand him. other terrestrial creatures, and in understanding he is They are often seen to assemble together, disperse, act inferior only to man. Of all the brute creation, the in concert, and if they do not erect buildings, and do elephant, the dog, the ape, the beaver, are all most ad- not work in common, it is perhaps for want of room mirable for their sagacity ; but the genius of the dog is only, and tranquillity; for men have very anciently only borrowed, being instructed by man in almost multiplied in all the regions inhabited by the elephant; every thing he knows; the monkey has only the appear he consequently lives in fear and anxiety, and is noance of wisdom; and the beaver is only sensible with where a peaceful possessor of a space large and secure regard to himself
, and those of his species. The Ele- enough to establish his habitation on a settled spoi. phant is superior to them all three; he unites all their Every being in nature has his real price, and relative most eminent qualities. The hand is the principal value; to judge of both in the elephant, we must allow organ of the monkey's dexterity; the Elephant with his him at least the judgment of the beaver, dexterity trunk, which serves him instead of arms and hands, of the monkey, the sentiment of the dog, and, to add to with which he can lift up and seize the smallest as these qualifications, the peculiar advantages of strength, well as the largest objects, carry them to his mouth, size, and longevity: We must not forget his arms, or place them on his back, hold them, or throw them far his d-fence, with which he can pierce through and conoff, has the same dexterity as the monkey, and at the quer the lion. We must observe, that he shakes the same time the tractableness of the dog; he is like him ground at every step; that with his trunk he roots up susceptible of gratitude, capable of strong attachment; trees; that with the strength of his body he makes a he uses himself to man withuut reluctance, and sub breach in a wall; that being terrible by his force, he is mits to him, not so much by force, as by good treat- invincible by the resistance only of his enormous mass, ment; he serves bim with zeal, intelligence, and fideli- I and by the thickness of the leather which covers it;
that he can carry on his back a tower armed ir. war, they waste a large territory in about an hour's time; with a number of men ; that he alone zoves marbines, for this reason the Indians and t... Negroes take great and carries burthens which six horses cannot acue. pains to prevent their visits, and to drive them away, To this prodigious strength he joins courage, prudeure by making a great noise, and great fires ; notwithstandcoolness, and exaet obedience : he preserves moderatiun ng these precautions, however, the elephants often even in his most violent passion; he is more constaci take possession of them, drive away the cattle and men, than impetuous in love; in anger he does not forget and sometimes pull down their cottages. It is difficult his friends; he never attacks any but those who have to frighten them, as they are little susceptible of fear; given him offence; he remembers favours as long as nothing can stop them but fireworks, and crackers injuries : having no taste for flesh, and feeding chiesiy thrown amongst them, the sudden effect of which, often upon vegetables, he is not naturally an enemy 10 repeated, forces them sometimes to turn back. It is other animals; he is beloved by them all, since all of very difícult to part them, for they commonly attack them respect him, and have no cause to fear him. For their enemies all together, proceed unconcerned, or these reasons, men have had at all times a veneration turn back. for this great, this first of animals. The ancients con The female Elephant goes two years with young ; sidered the Elephant as a prodigy, a miracle of nature, when she is in that condition the male never conjoins they have much exaggerated his natural faculties; they with her. They only bring forth a young one, which attribute to him, without hesitation, not only intellect has teeth as soon as brought forth; he is then larger ual qualities, but moral virtues.
than a boar; yet his tusks are not visible, they appear “In a wild state, the Elephant is neither bloody nor soon after, and at six months old are some inches in ferocious; his manners are social; he seldom wanders length ; at that age, the Elephant is larger than an ox, alone ;, he colomonly walks in company, the oldest and the tusks continue to increase till he is advanced leads the herd, the next in age drives them, and forms in years. the rear; the young and the weak are in the middle. " It is very easy to tame the Elephant. As he is the The females carry their young, and hold them close strongest and most rational of animals, he is more serwith their trunks. They only observe this order, how- viceable than any of them; but he was formerly supever, in perilous marches, when they go to feed on posed to feel his servile condition, and never to couple cultivated lands; they walk or travel with less precau- in a domestic state. This, however, has been found to tion in forests and solitary places, but still keeping at be an erroneous opinion. such a moderate distance from each other as to be “There is, therefore, no domestic Elephant but has able to give mutual assistance and seasonable warn- been wild before ; and the manner of taking, taming, ings of danger. Some, however, straggle, and remain and bringing them into submission, deserves particular behind the others ; none but these are attacked by attention. In the middle of forests, and in the vicinity hunters, for a small army would be requisite to assail of the places which they frequent, a large space is the whole herd, and they could not conquer without a chosen, and encircled with palisadoes; the strongest great loss of men ; it is even dangerous do them the trees of the forest serve insiead of stakes, to which least injury; they go straight to the offender, and, not- cross pieces of timber are fastened, which support the withstanding the weight of their body, they walk so other stakes ; a man may easily pass through this palfast as that they easily. overtake the lightest man in isado; there is another great opening, through which running; they pierce him through with their tusks, the Elephant may go in, with a trap hanging over it, throw him against a stone, and tread him under their or a gate, which is shut behind him: to bring him to feet; but it is only when they have been provoked, that that enclosure, he must be enticed by a tame female they become so furious and implacable. It is said, that ready to take the male ; and when her leader thinks when they have been once attacked by men, or have she is near enough to be heard, he obliges her to indifallen into a snare, they never forget it, and seek for cate by her cries the condition she is in; the wild male revenge on all occasions. As they have an exquisite naswers immediately, and begins his march to join sense of smelling, perhaps more perfect than any other her; she repeats her call now and then, and arrives animal, owing to the large extent of their nose, they first to the first enclosure, where the male, following smell a man at a great distance, and could easily follow her track, enters through the same gate. As soon as him by the track. These animals are fond of the banks he perceives himself shut up, his ardour vanishes, and of rivers, deep valleys, shady places, and marshy when he discovers the hunters, he becomes furious ; grounds; they cannot subsist a long while without they throw at him ropes with a running knot to stop water, and they make it thick and muddy before they him; they fetter his legs and his trunk; they bring two drink; they often fill their trunks with it, either to con- tame Elephants, led by dexterous men, and try to tie vey it to their mouth, or to cool their nose, and to them with the wild Elephant; and at last, by dint of amuse themselves in sprinkling it around them; they dexterity, strength, terror, and caresses, they succeed cannot support cold, and suffer equally from excessive in taming him in a few days. beat, for, to avoid the burning rays of the sun, they
(To be continued.) penetrate into the thickest forests. They also bathe often in the water; the enormous size of their body is
BIOGRAPHY. rather an advantage to them in swimming, and they do not swim so deep in the water as other animals; besides, the length of their trunk, which they erect, and
THE “VENERABLE" BENEDICT JOSEPH LABRE. through which they breathe, takes from them all fear
(Concluded.) of being drowned.
His next steps were pilgrimages. First he went to “ Their common food is roots, herbs, leaves, and Loretto," from tender devotion to the Blessed Virgin, young branches; they also eat fruit and corn, but they whom he looked on as his mother;" next to Assissium, have a dislike to flesh and fish. When one of them the birth-place of St. Francis, where he, according to finds abundant pasture, he calls the others, and invites custom, got a small blessed cord, which he constantly them to come and feed with him. As they want a wore; then he went to Rome, where he sojourned for great quantity of fodder, they often change their place, eight or nine months, and wept " in the presence of the and when they find cultivated lands, they make a pro- tomb of the holy apostles ;" afterwards he visited the digious waste; their bodies being of an enormous tomb of St. Romuald at Fabrieno, where the inhabitweight, they destroy ten times more with their feet ants immediately began to look upon him as a saint; than they consume for their food, which may be reck- from thence he returned to Loretto; he then journeyed oned at the rate of one hundred and fifty pounds of to Naples, and had the pleasure of seeing the blood of grass daily. As they never feed but in great numbers, I St. Januarius, which would not liquify when the French
entered Naples, till the French General threatened the supposed would end his memoirs. But no. In whatpriests who performed the miracle that the city would ever odour he lived, as he died in the odour of sancsuffer, if the saint remained obstinate; and in short, tity,” an enthusiasm seized some persons to touch Lasays the Rev. Vicar General of the London district, bre dead, who, when living, was touchless. Labre "there was hardly any famous place of devotion in being deceased, was competent to work miracles; acEurope which was not visited by this servant of God.” cordingly he stretched out his left hand, and laid hold To follow Labre's other goings to and fro would be on the board of one of the benches. On Easter-dar, tedious: suffice it to say that at one of his Loretto trips being a holiday, he worked more miracles, and wonde.s some people offered him an abode, in order to save him more wonderful than ever were wondered at in o'r the trouble of going every night to a barn at a great days, as may be seen at large in the aforesaid volume, distance; but as they had prepared a room for him with entitled—“'The life of the venerable Benedict Joseph a bed in it, he thought this lodging was too sumptuous; Labre, who died at Rome, in the odour of sanctity." and he therefore retired into a hole cut out of the rock
London Every Day Book. under the street. Labre at last favoured the city of Rome by his fixed residence, and sanctified the Am
LEGENDS. phitheatre of Flavian by making his home in a hole of The monks of the dark ages imagined a saint to be the ancient ruins.
holy in proportion to his filthiness. They said St. IgIn this hole of sufficient depth to hold and shelter natius delighted to appear abroad in dirty old shoes him in a tolerable degree from the weather, he depos- —that he never used a comb, but let his hair get matited himself every night for several years. He em- ted, and religiously abstained from paring his nails. ployed the whole of every day, sometimes in one One saint attained to such piety as to have nearly three church, and sometimes in another, praying most. com- hundred patches on his inexpressibles, which alter his monly upon his knees, and at other times standing, and death were hung up in public as an incentive to emųalways keeping his body as still as if he were a statue. lation. St. Francis discovered by certain experience Labre's daily exercise in fasting and lifelessness re- that the devils were frightened away by such kind of duced him to so helpless a state, that a beggar had com- economy, and that clean clothing animated them to passion on him, and gave him a recommendation to a tempt and seduce the wearers; and one of their heroes hospital, where, “by taking medicines proper for his declares that the purest souls are in the dirtiest bodies. disorder, and more substantial tood, he soon grew well;" In the life of St. Francis we find, among other but relapsing into his “constant, uniform, and hidden grotesque miracles, that he preached a sermon in life," he became worse. This opportunity of exhibiting desert, where he collected an immense audience, as the Labre's virtues is not neglected by Labre's biographer, birds shrilly warbled at every sentence; and when tom who minutely informs us of several particulars. 1st. left off, they dispersed into four companies, to report his He was so careful to observe the law of silence, that in sermon to all the birds in the universe.
He grew so the course of a whole month, scarcely any one could intimate with a nightingale, that when a nest of swal. hear him speak so much as a few words. 2dly. He lows began to babble, he hushed them by desiring them lived in the midst of Rome as if he had lived in the not to tittle-tattle of their sister the nightingalenta midst of a desert. 3dly. He led a life of the greatest tacked by a wolf, he, with only the sign manual vi me self-denial, destitute of every thing, disengaged from cross, held a long dialogue with his rabid assailant, till every earthly affection, unnoticed by all mankind, de- the wolf, meek as a lap-dog, putting his paws into the siring no other riches than poverty, no other pleasures hands of the saint, followed him through the town, and than mortification, no other distinction than that of became half a Christian. This same St. Francis' had being the object of universal contempt. 4thly: He in such a detestation of the good things of this world, dulged in rigorous poverty, exposed to the vicissitudes that he would never suffer his followers to touch and inclemencies of the weather, without shelter money. St. Philip Nereius, too, was such a lover of against the cold of winter or the heat of summer, wear- poverty, that he frequently prayed that God would bring ing oid clothes, or rather rag3, eating very coarse food, him to such a state as to stand in need of a penny, and and for three years living in the whole in the wall." find nobody that would give him one. 5thly. To his privations of all wordly goods, he joined of the fables of this period, the legend of St. Nichan almost continual abstinence, frequent fasts, nightly olas and the naked boys in the tub is a characteristic vigils, lively and insupportable pains from particular specimen. The fame of Nicholas's virtues was so mortifications, and two painful tumours which covered great, that an Asiatic gentleman, on sending his two both his knees, from resting the whole weight of his sons to Athens for education, ordered them to call on body on them when he prayed. 6thly. “He looked the bishop for his benediction, but it being late in the upon himself as one of the greatest of sinners;" and day when they arrived at Mira, they thought proper to this was the reason why "he chose to lead a life of re- defer their visit till the morrow. They accordingly proach and contempt;" why he herded "among the took lodgings at an inn, where the host, in order to multitude of poor beggars;" “why he chose to cover secure their baggage and effects to himself, murdered himself with rags and tatters instead of garments; why them in their sleep, and having cut them in pieces, he he chose to place a barrier of disgust between himself salted them and put them in a pickle tub with some and mankind;" " why he abandoned himself to the pork, meaning to sell them as such. The bishop, howbites of disagreeable insects;" and why he coveted to ever, having had a vision of this impious transaction, be covered with filthy blotches.
immediately resorted to the inn, and calling the landLabre's biographer, who was also his confessor, says lord to him, reproached him for his horrid villany, that his “appearance was disagreeable and forbidding, when the man, perceiving that he was discovered, conhis legs were half naked, his clothes were tied round fessed his crime, and entreated the Bishop to intercede the waist with an old cord, his head was uncombed, he with the Almighty for his pardon; upon which the was badiy clothed and wrapped up in an old and rag- Bishop did beseech Almighty God not only to pardon ged coat, and in his outward appearance he seemed to the murderer, but also for the glory of his name to rebe the most miserable beggar that I had ever seen.” siore life to the poor innocents who had been so inhuHis biographer further says, I
never heard his con- manly put to death. The saint had hardly finished fession but in a confessional, on purpose that there his prayer, when the mangled and detached pieces were might be some kind of separation betwixt us." The by divine power reunited, and the youths perceiving holy father's lively reason for this precaution, any his- they were alive again, threw themselves at the feet of tory of insects with the word "pediculus" will describe the holy man to embrace and to kiss him: but the accurately.
Bishop, not suffering their humiliation, raised them up, Thus Labre lived and died; and here it might be and exhorted them to return thanks to God alone for