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law makes in case of intestacy re- Covent-garden market had as much mains unaltered; and the landlord, right to come to parliament, as the at least in new leases, by giving no old clothesmen who paid 2d. upon express authority in the lease to the sale of a wig, or 6d. upon

the sub-let, can thus always secure him- sale of a pair of breeches, at the self against a testamentary distribu- fair of Skibbereen. So far, theretion of his lands among a number of fore, as these tolls had been legally sons, or other relations, who, each imposed, and were legally. exacted, following the same plan in regard there was no reason for viewing to his own family, so long as the Ireland in a different light from term of years is to run, or renewals any other part of the country. If, can be obtained, at last cover the again, illegal extortions were pracestate with a race of paupers. tised by those having right to tolls,

Among the recommendations of on the one hand, or if the collectthe select committee of 1825 was ing of legitimate tolls wereillegally one to apply some remedy to the resisted by those who were bound evils produced in Ireland by levy- to pay them, on the other, and if ing certain tolls and customs upon scenes of tumult and violence and fairs and markets in Ireland, which bad humour were thus occasionally had been granted to particular in- produced, all this furnished no dividuals and corporations; and, reason for the interference of paron February 16, Mr. Spring Rice liament, unless it could be shown moved an Address to his Majesty, that the existing law, duly resorted praying him to order a commission to, was insufficient to compel both to issue to inquire into “ the tolls parties to keep within the bounand customs collected in fairs, daries of their respective rights. markets, and sea-ports, in Ire- The existing act of parliament on land.” The motion was opposed this subject provided the party both on the general merits of the complainant with a remedy, in the measure, and on the inefficacy of shape of an appeal to a sitting the particular mode of inquiry pro- magistrate. To secure expedition posed. Mr. Goulburn said, he had in granting redress, and imparno doubt that abuses, such as it was tiality in deciding, this act, in the the object of this motion to reform, first place, imposed a heavy fine did exist; and did not mean to upon any magistrate declining deny that they ought to be speedily summarily to interfere upon due remedied, if a practicable remedy cause shewn; and, in the next could be discovered. The levying place, provided, that the cause might of tolls in a fair or market, to any be removed out of the jurisdiction extent, was undoubtedly a restraint of any corporate body interested in laid

upon the trade which might the levy of such tolls and customs. there be carried on ; but the motion If the Irish gentlemen resident in could not stand upon this principle; such parts of Ireland as happened for that objection would be equally to be in the neighbourhood of any applicable to every part of the place where illegal extortions took United Kingdom as to Ireland, place, would lend their assistance there being scarcely an ancient to those who were the victims of fair in existence in which tolls of such extortion and to those whose this kind were not payable ; and legal rights were violently resisted, the trades-people who frequented by pointing out, in either case, the

them ;

proper steps to be taken for ob- clerk of the peace of the district. taining legitimate redress, one or Besides, how could a commission two examples would suffice to adequately accomplish the objects prove to all parties concerned, the of the motion? If any one comillegality of the courses pursued by missioner were to live to the age

and the law, as it at present of Nestor himself, he could scarcely stood, being strong enough to inspect and report upon more than punish any such illegal practices, two thousand patents for levying would soon prevent the levy of tolls and customs that existed in tolls which were either illegal or Ireland, and extended to a great improper. It was of importance variety of articles, few of them that the people of Ireland should to less than fifty or sixty artibe encouraged in a disposition to cles, and many of them to still act under the sanction of the law, more. What commissioner would rather than to resort to any extra- undertake the Herculean labour ordinary modes of obtaining redress; that the terms of this proposition and nothing could be more easy would impose upon him? If the than to prove to them that the hon. mover, said Mr. Plunket, will legal tribunals were open to the point out the abuses, I shall take consideration of even their slightest upon myself the labour of remedyinterests, and entirely disposed to ing them, for there are no cases afford them redress for every injury which the law is not already suffiof which they justly complained. cient to meet ; but an inquiry like Again, as these tolls were perfectly that proposed would never termilegal rights, and recognized as nate. There were in Ireland such, they could not be taken away two thousand and sixteen frana without compensation being made chises, and each of these franto the parties, who should, by com- chises had from fifteen to twenty pulsion, be deprived of them. Their different tolls; that there yearly value might amount in Ire- would be about forty thousand land to about 500,000l. ; and it rights of toll to investigate, bem could not be expected that their sides the many minor points which proprietors would sell them under sprang out of them. twenty years purchase: but to Sir John Newport, Mr. Fitzburthen the country with such gerald, and Mr. Martin, in supan annuity for so unnecessary an porting the motion, rested chiefly object, would be most improvident upon the hardship and the hopein any state of the Exchequer. lessness of the peasantry being

In regard to the particular mode driven to defend themselves by å of inquiry proposed, it was asked, lawsuit against a corporate body, would the commission moved for or an opulent individual, and urged produce any more information (it the necessity, if the commission called for a statement of “the tolls should be refused, of furnishing to and customs collected in fairs, mar- the poor man more speedy, kets, and sea-ports in Ireland”) cheap, and effectual, remedy than than the House already possessed the law at present afforded. The in the returns and tables of these motion was withdrawn, on an unmatters already made out in most of derstanding that the matter should such townsand places in Ireland, and be sent for inquiry to a committee, supported by the authority of the the private rights of parties re



maining untouched. Accordingly, quire how far the existing laws on on the 21st February, a select the subject were capable of being committee was appointed to take consolidated and amended, and a into consideration the returns of remedy afforded for the grievances tolls and customs at sea-ports, fairs, at present complained of. and markets in Ireland, and to in

C H A P. VI.

COLONIES.-Slave Trade-Motion regarding the Trials of Slaves

in JamaicaResolutions of the Commons on the Slave Trade adopted by the Lords-Motion by Lord Suffield to disqualify Proprietors of Šlaves from being public Functionaries--Motion to the same effect made in the Commons by Mr. Smith- Petitions from the Council and House of Assembly of Antigua, and the West-India Merchants-Mr. Brougham's Motion on the Conduct of the Colonies--INDIA---Jury Bill— Education of WritersPetition of Mr. Buckingham complaining of the Indian Government referred to a Committee~CANADA.— Naturalization Act.- FOREIGN RELATIONS.— The Alien Act. PROROGATION AND DISSOLUTION OF PARLIAMENT.

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THE foreign dependencies of a strong recommendation to their

matter to occupy the attention of Nearly three years had now parliament, with the exception of elapsed since the sense of parliathe repeated discussions connected ment, and the wishes of governwith the Slave Trade. The House ment, had been officially notified to of Commons, on the 15th May, the colonial legislatures ; and the 1823, had passed resolutions ex- supporters of emancipation mainpressive of the expediency of tained, that their hopes had been adopting effectual measures to deceived; for that, during those ameliorate the condition of the three years, the planters had taken slave population. These resolu- no measures for the improvement tions had been immediately trans- of the slave system, but had given mitted to the colonies by govern- a decisive confirmation of what ment, accompanied by an urgent their opponents had always assertexhortation to cause them to be ed—of the vanity of looking for executed, feeling it to be desirable any thing like amelioration from that the colonial assemblies and the very persons who were intergovernments should themselves be ested, or thought they were interthe parties to carry them into ested, in the continuance of every effect. Disappointed in this hope, evil which existed. Now, theregovernment had, in 1824, em- fore, they said, that the order of bodied in an order in council those government had been trifled with, measures which seemed most im- and the voice of the House of mediately necessary for the ame- Commons had been contemned, it lioration of the condition of the wastime for the authorities at home negroes; and had sent that order to interfere; and nothing remained both to the colonies in which, from but to introduce into the islands the absence of local legislatures, by compulsion, a sense of justice the crown had power to command, and humanity, which neither good and also to the other colonies, with feeling nor common prudence had yet been able to teach the colo- had been executed, having been nists. In conformity with these convicted upon trial of being conviews, petitions were gotten up in cerned in the conspiracy. The incredible numbers ; seldom had papers connected with these trials the tables of both Houses been had been laid on the table of the covered at one time with so many House during the session of 1825, applications on the same subject. but no motion had hitherto been Their general tenor was agree- founded upon them. Mr. Denable to that of the common coun- man now brought the legality and cil of London, which expressed justice of these proceedings under abhorrence at the continuance of discussion, by moving a resolution the traffic, and regret that its abo- to the effect, that the House, have lition, notwithstanding the declared ing taken into consideration the opinion of parliament, should have trials which took place at Jamaica experienced resistance in another for rebellion, conspiracy, and other quarter; and declared the willing- offences, in the years 1823 and ness of the petitioners to join in 1824, deem it their duty to exbearing any burthen which might press their sorrow and regret at be rendered necessary by indemnic the violation of law which took fying the slave-proprietors for the place upon the said trials; that losses which they might sustain. they deeply lament the precipitate At the same time, the meetings manner in which the sentence of which were encouraged, and the death was passed and executed ; publications which were issued, and recommend some alteration by the Anti-slavery Society and in the mode of administering the its agents, sought to excite public code of criminal justice, affecting feeling by details of individual the slaves in the said colony. acts of injustice and oppression, The motion was prefaced by a not always accompanied with every speech analysing the evidence upthing necessary to their proper on which the accused had been understanding, and often leading convicted, demonstrating its conto dangerous generalization, and tradictions, its insufficiency, its crude and indefinite propositions. absurdity, and arriving at the conMr. Hume mentioned, in the clusion that such atrocities, perHouse of Commons (1st March), petrated under the mask of jusas an instance of the unfair means tice, and the law of evidence which adopted by the friends of abolition permitted them, required the abóto excite popular prejudice, and lition of a system which placed a obscure the actual state of the negro for trial before interested question, that a print had been masters for his judges and jury, sent to him (and he doubted not and, in giving him an appeal to to many other members) repre- the council, merely gave him an apsenting the impalement of a fe- peal to another body of masters male slave which had taken place equally prejudiced. The first trials in the year 1782.

took place in the parish of St. In the end of 1823, and the Mary's; and, it appeared, said earlier part of 1824, a plan for an Mr. Denman, from the papers, insurrection among the slaves on that on the 16th of December, certain plantations in Jamaica had 1823, a person of the name of been discovered, and eight negroes Roberts, who resided in Kingston,

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