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be saved," conveys to us instantly the idea of being received to heaven after death; "to be condemned," to be doomed to eternal punishment: though this is far from being the usual import of those expressions. When we hear of "the day of judgment," our fancy kindles at the thought of a simultaneous resurrection, and assembled worlds, but there are several passages, in which it cannot mean this; and our Swedenborgian brethren are not the only Christians, who do not believe that it ever does.
We think it must be obvious to all, that a philological, not a party explication, of the words that have been the most subject to abuses, must be of great service in assisting men to an intelligent use of the sacred Scriptures: for it is those abuses, that are the fountain head of sectarian extravagance. The sermon of the excellent Paley "on caution in the use of Scripture language," has done, we doubt not, great good; although confined to a few popular religious phrases. The posthumous little work of Mr. Cappe, which has given occasion to the preceding remarks, tends to the same end, though entirely different in plan and form. It aims at nothing but to give, in words as plain and few as possible, the different significations, belonging to those expressions, which are important, and of frequent occurrence in the bible and religious writings drawn from it. Every thing from the pen of so enlightened and devout a man deserves respect: we have only to regret that his list is no larger, and that he has not been more full on those words, of which he has found occasion to take notice. As a short manual for those, who would read "with the spirit and with the understanding," we cannot but think it may be of considerable utility. We will offer but two or three short extracts, and close this article.
"ATONEMENT. Removal of that, by which incapacity or disqualification for the service of God has been contracted: reconciliation with God: declaration of it: sanctification: consecration to God, or to his service."
"TO COME, TO COME FROM GOD, TO COME INTO THE WORLD. These phrases, in scripture, frequently refer to the mission of a prophet, and are to be interpreted of his assuming his public character, coming forth in the name of God to exercise his ministry in the world, and to discharge the commission with which he is invested." "To come down from heaven, figuratively, to be given by God, to be sent from God, by him authorized, and furnished for the errand."
"HELL. The grave; death; the state of the dead; the unseen world; the place or state of those, upon whom a sentence of final condemnation has been passed and executed; sometimes temporal ruin and destruction; deep distress and trouble of this present life."
"SALVATION. Deliverance; preservation; in the language of Scripture it often signifies deliverance of Jews and Heathens from the disadvantages of the dispensations under which they lived: from the burdens of the Mosaic law; from superstition, idolatry, ignorance, siu, fear, doubt; by
the Gospel of Christ. It sometimes signifies God the author of salvation; Christ the minister of salvation; the gospel the instrument of salvation. See REDEMPTION."
"SIN. To be made sin: to be judicially condemned, whether legally and righteously or not; to be treated as a sinner; to be hardly thought of; to be accused unjustly; to be singularly afflicted; to suffer by the hand of the magistrate, by the unkind judgment of other men, or by the deed of providence."
Several interpretations are here given to one word: but the intelligent reader will seldom, if ever, be left in doubt which he should apply to the several passages which need the assistance of the "Explication."
The pamphlet of which we are speaking contains but twentyone pages. Within such narrow limits much must be omitted, and nothing can be dwelt upon. Conciseness and simplicity, however, are rarely carried to faults; and the very rudiments of rational interpretation are much wanted among us.
A practical view of Christian Education in its earliest stages. By T. BABINGTON, Esq. Member of the British Parliament. First American from the third London edition. To which are added translations of the Latin sentences and notes. Boston: Cummings & Hilliard. 1818.
Or the importance of the subject, to which this little work invites us, there can exist no reasonable doubt. It is inseparably connected with the best hopes and prospects of society; and every attempt to illustrate or recommend it is entitled to respect. Indeed it may be regarded as a leading feature in the moral history of the present day, that this subject has excited so much attention. It has called forth some of the finest powers and purest feelings in its cause. In nothing has female talent been more happily exerted; and to the labours of Mrs. Hamilton, and More, and Edgeworth, we should in justice ascribe the important changes, which have taken place since the commencement of this century, and which may be particularly seen in the simplicity, practical good sense, and freedom from vulgar errors, with which the great subject of education is now generally regarded, and its acknowledged principles applied.
The author of this work is well known in the political and religious world; having frequently distinguished himself in the British Parliament as the advocate of freedom and humanity.
The experience he has enjoyed in the work of education, even more than the honourable station he fills, gives him a right to be heard; and much of what he has offered will approve itself, we doubt not, to serious and reflecting minds. We can cordially concur with him in all his convictions of the paramount importance of religion in education, though we should be unable to follow him in some of his speculative views. He thus exposes his ideas as to the prevailing indifference of parents on this subject, contrasted with their zeal and anxiety to secure the temporal advantage of their children.
"Is a son intended for a learned profession? He is sent to school. The father is earnest that the master should ground him well in grammar, give him a taste for classical literature, and call forth his powers in composition. A college and tutor are selected with anxious care to promote his intellectual improvement. An earnest solicitude is felt, that he should become a sound and elegant scholar; and inquiring friends are told what progress he makes in his pursuits. Again, suppose, that a more humble walk of life is chosen by the parent, and that the boy is to be a tradesman; with what care does he select a master, who perfectly understands his business, and will be likely to make the boy thoroughly acquainted with it? But how seldom are their spiritual interests the object of equal solicitude! Are masters chosen with the same care for the promotion of these interests? In fixing on schools and colleges for boys destined to the higher professions, and on masters and counting houses for those, who are to move in a more humble line, is it a matter of prime consideration to select those, which are known to be favourable to true religion?" p. 15.
And after an ample illustration of the same subject, he asks,
"Can we consult our experience on these points without exclaiming― What prudent care in human things! what negligence in divine! The result of such negligence may be easily anticipated, and is lamentably apparent in the character and habits of our young Men." p. 18.
Now there is no one, who thinks seriously upon the subject of religion, but will cordially subscribe to these sentiments, as applied to simple uncorrupt christianity, and will lament with him the great inattention that prevails. Let religion in its purity and beauty be made the very basis of education. Let its plain, its alluring, its undisputed truths be continually impressed, as entering essentially into all our hopes of present, as well as of future usefulness and happiness; and let their influence constantly accompany and sanctify the intellectual progress. But there is infinite danger from attempting to indoctrinate the youthful, and still more the infant mind, in the peculiarities of a sect. It is rendering that disgusting, which should appear, as it indeed is, most lovely and attractive and it is well if, in the end, it do New Series-vol. I.
not create a disrelish for every thing connected with religion itself.
It seems to us, that there can be scarcely a greater abuse in education, than to make it the instrument of a sectarian theology. Here, if any where, controversy is out of place. It impedes the native growth and expansion of the powers; it makes religion a prejudice instead of a principle; calls to its aid our passions and our ignorance, when its peculiar province is to enlighten the one and subdue the other; or else, by a re-action, produced partly by impatience of constraint and partly by disgust at a revolting system, it drives the pupil to the miserable refuge of infidelity. These remarks will not be thought misplaced by any, who have considered the history of those academic institutions, where literary and intellectual progress have been made subordinate to the views of a party.
In the second chapter the author recommends a very early attention to the temper and habits of children, and exposes what he justly deems the error of delay or neglect. His general views on this subject seem to us very judicious, though they borrow something of their complexion from the system, with which the mind and pen of the writer seem strongly tinctured. We quote the following.
"In a few weeks after its birth a child's reason begins to dawn; and with the first dawn of reason ought to commence the moral culture, which may be best suited to counteract the evils of its nature. Let me appeal to every mother, who delights to view her infant, as it lies in her arms, whether it does not soon begin to read the human face divine, to recognize her smile, and to show itself sensible of her affection in the little arts she employs to entertain it. Does it not in no long time return that smile, and repay her maternal caresses with looks and motions, so expressive, that she cannot mistake their import? She will not doubt then the importance of fostering in its bosom those benevolent sympathies which delight her, by banishing from her nursery whatever is likely to contradict them."
· But parental cares soon extend. In a short time, impatience and selfishness show themselves in a child, and are accompanied by fretfulness, jealousy, anger and envy. At so early a period does innate corruption display its powers, and call for the restraining hand of a parent! But how are these evils to be counteracted at an age, when both the body and mind are so tender, and neither arguments nor explanations can be understood? Undoubtedly great delicacy of treatment is required. The character of the child must be studied, and if possible such corrections must be applied as will not deeply wound its feelings. It is surprising what female ingenuity,quickened by maternal tenderness, will atchieve in this way." pp.32.33.
And after adducing some particular examples, he proceeds with the following admirable sentiments, which are so just and interesting, that we feel unwilling, as we are compelled, to abridge.
"But how, some parents may ask, how can this be effected at so tender an age? It seems to us impossible. Believe me, much may be done with very young children, by placing gradually before them with cheerfulness and affection, and in a spirit suited to the occasion, religious truths, associated as much as may be with images pleasing to their minds. These may be so set forth and brought home to the feelings by little and simple illustra tions, that while the tender mind is embued with the first rudiments of religious knowledge, reverence and affection for divine things, if God smile upon the endeavour, shall be excited in the heart. But special care must be taken not to give fatiguing lectures, nor to make too powerful calls on the feelings. Here a little and there a little' must be a parent's motto in conveying instruction at this age; and for that little, the lessons must be chosen, when the child is most likely to lend a willing ear; and the subject must always be dropped, before it becomes tiresome. Very short and simple stories from Holy Writ may be employed with great advantage. But in conveying instruction, it is a most important point for the parent always to have in mind, that far more may be done by exciting the sympathy of the child, than by appealing to its reason. Things indeed should always be presented to it in the garb of truth and good sense; but unless its feelings are in unison with its convictions, it may be perfectly persuaded of truths without being influenced by them in practice. And how are the appropriate feelings to be excited in its bosom? Chiefly by the feelings of the parent being in unison with the subject on which he speaks. Is he dwelling on the greatness of God, or on his all seeing eye, or on his eternity, or on his glory? Let his own heart harmonize with his lofty theme, and probably the right strings in that of his child will vibrate. Is he describing the divine love and tenderness, and mercy, especially as exemplified in Jesus Christ? If his own feelings are impressed by the picture he presents, those of his child are not likely to be altogether unmoved. But who can be so absurd as to hope, that when religious truths are taught as a schoolmaster teaches the grammar, good impressions will be made on the heart? Do we see in fact, that when the Catechism is so taught, any such impression is made? Step into a village school, when that compendium is learnt merely as a task, and you will find the children as little affected by its truths (even if they understand it) as they are by the lessons in their spelling book. One would almost think that they conceived it pointed out the high privileges and the sacred duties of the inhabitants of the moon, and that they had nothing to do with it, but to get it by heart. Few if any parents, it is hoped, who make religion a branch of education, proceed in a way so utterly irrational, as the generality of village schoolmasters in teaching the catechism; but, in whatever degree they approach to the village school system, in that degree, must they look for a similar result." p. 35.
The third chapter contains general recommendations to guard parents against some evils, not uncommon in families. They are for the most part characterised by great judgment and good sense; and obviously the result of experience. We were particularly pleased with the last, on the importance of parents being much with their children, and attentively studying their characters.
"The mother is much more with her children than the father. but generally, I think, not so much as she ought to be. This is the more to be lamented, because women are admirably fitted for training their offspring in the nurture and admonition of the Lord. They have a remarkably quick