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routes should be left with the steamship companies; that all ocean-going ships above a certain size should have wireless; that they should maintain continuous watches; that ship masters should be required to go to the aid of vessels in distress, or inform the latter of reason for refusal and enter same in log; that life-boats and life-jackets should be provided for all on board, special jackets being provided for children; that there should be not less than three certificated life-boat men assigned to each life-boat; that inflammable cargoes or ballast should be prohibited on passenger ships; that the construction of passenger vessels should conform to rules of construction set forth in the regulations prescribed; and that surveys of all vessels should be made before they were put into commission, periodically thereafter, and whenever an accident has occurred.

In view of the objections raised against the Convention at the hearings before the

the Convention at the hearings before the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, following the conference at London, Articles 60 and 61 of the Convention are quoted as follows:

Article 60:

"The Safety Certificate, issued under the authority of a contracting State, shall be accepted by the governments of the other contracting States for all purposes covered by this Convention. It shall be regarded by the governments of the other contracting States as having the same force as the certificates issued by them to their own vessels."

Article 61:

"Every vessel holding a Safety Certificate, issued by the officers of the contracting State to which it belongs, or by persons duly authorized by that State, is subject in the ports of the other contracting States to control by officers duly authorized by their governments in so far as this control is directed towards verifying that there is on board a valid Safety Certificate, and, if necessary, that the conditions of the vessel's seaworthiness correspond substantially with the particulars of that certificate; that is to say, so that the vessel can proceed to sea without danger to the passengers and crew."



A faithful effort has been made in the foregoing chapters to show by a conclusive array of fact and circumstance how deeply our domestic welfare and our national defense are involved in the re-establishment of an American merchant marine. No other

problem now before our people so vitally concerns their future prosperity or their military security. And no other presses upon us so urgently for solution.

These highest interests may have been just as much at stake in years gone by as they are at present. Our well-being as a nation may have demanded action just as strongly then as now, but we either would not or could not comprehend the importance of dealing decisively with this far-reaching question. We preferred to pursue the course of least resistance, to calmly dissipate our

heritage, to surrender our standing as an ocean carrier, and to leave the fate of our foreign commerce in the hands of ungenerous aliens.

It has taken the demoralization of a world war to move us. Only the complete derangement of all foreign relationships, the utter collapse of the entire international trade structure could force upon us the realization that our faith had been misplaced and that our fancied immunity from danger and damage was founded upon shifting sands. But disillusionment has come, and with it a challenge that we must heed. We must act now, and act definitely, for the protection of our over-seas industry, or else confess that we are incapable of meeting a national emergency and unfitted to grasp a national opportunity.

The conditions are all spread before us. We know, at last, exactly where we stand. We know our necessities, and we know the extent of our native resources. We know

the fatuity of further reliance upon the foreigner to do our work, and we know the price we must pay if we undertake to do it ourselves. We know that the markets of half the world are wide open to us, and we know that we cannot enter them without the means of delivering our goods. We know that there are millions, yes, billions of dollars to be made, and we know that they cannot be made unless we establish and maintain direct ocean communication with our customers. We know that the exigencies of war have crippled our trade rivals for the time being, but we know, just as surely that soon or late they will come back. These are, briefly, the profit possibilities which the events of the past two years have defined

to us.

But that is not all. We have learned, without having to go to war, the steps we must take in order to prepare ourselves for effective self-defense. We have learned that we have no means of moving an army

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