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from which the shipping is supplied. Nostra Senhora de la Cabo, a large monastery, of a white appearance, is situated on the summit of the bluff point of land, about 2 miles S. E. of Algoada, which forms the S. side of the bay. The common anchorage is abreast Algoada Fort, the flagstaff bearing about N., at half a mile distance from the shore.
The bar at the entrance of the river is about two miles to the E. of Algoada Point, having 16 or 18 feet on it at high water spring tides; but the bottom about it being hard and rocky, and the channel winding and intricate, a ship ought not to enter the river without a pilot. After the early part of May, it is considered unsafe to remain at the anchorage in the road; the Portuguese then send their large ships that cannot go into the river, to Marmagon roads, 4 or 5 miles to the S. of Algoada Fort, where they are sheltered from the S. W. monsoon, by mooring close under the N. E. side of that peninsula.
The city of Goa is situated on the N. side of an island about twelve miles long and six broad, seven miles from the entrance of the river. The city is large, the streets straight, the houses regularly built of stone, many of them magnificent, but uninhabited.
As a sunk rock off Goa, on which a vessel struck in February 1823, is not in the Charts, it will be desirable to transcribe the particulars from the log-book.-Standing to the N. in soundings, 6 fathoms and less 6, at 7. 30 P. M., the ship struck upon a rock, soundings from 6 to 5 and 6 fathoms, soft mud. When the ship struck, Algoada Point bore N. W. Cabo Point E. by N. N.
TRADE.-The trade carried on by the Portuguese is very trifling, compared with what it formerly was. There are seldom more than three ships sent from Portugal to India in the year, and these generally proceed to the British settlements, to complete their cargoes for Europe.
The trade from Goa to China consists of one or two ships in the year, which are called China ships; these sail in November and December to Surat and ports to the N., carrying China and European goods, and, returning with cotton and other articles, call at Goa, to complete their cargoes for China, and depart in March or April. The earliest of these ships returns in October or November to the Coast of Malabar; the latest arrives generally in January. They commence their trade at the most S. settlement, which is Anjengo, from thence to Cochin, Calicut, Tellicherry, and Mangalore, and then to Goa. At all the above places they take pepper, cardamums, cassia lignea, and other articles, which they resell at their N. settlements, completing their whole voyage within the year.
The coasting trade is considerable, which is carried on with the
different ports on the coast in small vessels, from whence they return to Goa with produce, which forms the home cargoes of their ships.
PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-Ships are supplied with water from the well near Algoada Fort. Poultry and vegetables may at times be procured, and fine mangoes and other fruits in May. Fish is abundant in the river, and many sorts are excellent.
COINS.-Accounts are kept in pardos, tangas, vintins, and budgerooks, but there are good and bad of each kind; 1 pardo is worth 4 good or 5 bad tangas; 16 good vintins, or 20 bad; 300 good budgerooks, or 360 bad: the pardo is also divided into 240 good or 303 bad reas.
The current coins are, the St. Thomé, a gold piece of nearly the weight of a ducat, which passes for 11 good tangas; it weighs 53 grains troy, and is of the purity of 18 carats, and worth about 6s. 8d. sterling.
The silver coin is the pardo, which is of two sorts: the pardo xeraphin passes current for 5 good tangas each, about 74d. sterling; and the common pardo for 4 tangas; the former has on one side a figure of St. Sebastian, and on the other a sheaf of arrows.
The budgerook is made of tin, having on one side a globe, and on the other, two arrows crossed.
Spanish dollars, Venetians, rupees, and all other foreign coins pass current here; but the price fluctuates according to the quantity in the market.
WEIGHTS.-The quintal of 4 arobas, or 129 lbs. is in common use; but they have the Indian candy, thus divided :—
20 Maunds make 1 Candy.........495 0 0
MEASURES.-Corn and rice are sold by the candy of 20 maunds, equal to 14 English bushels, nearly. The maund is divided into 24 medida. A bahar is 3 Portuguese quintals.
The long measures are the Portugal vara and covado; the former 1 English yard; the latter 26 inches.
VIZIADROOG, a town or village situated on a piece of table land, covered with trees, to the S. of a narrow nook of sand in the bay of Viziadroog. This is nearly 2 miles broad and 12 deep, has regular soundings over a muddy bottom, of 84 to 5 fathoms near the shore; it is safe, except just off the S. point, and affords a shelter against a N. W. wind. The river is about half a mile broad, without bar, and said to be navigable
25 miles for vessels of 150 or 200 tons; it is perfectly sheltered from all winds, and vessels of from 6 to 700 tons may anchor in any part, and lay within 150 or 200 feet of the bank. Here they may load, unload, or dock, with equal ease and safety, as at Bombay.
PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-There is plenty of good fresh water, fire-wood, and fish, to be obtained here.
ZYGHUR BAY is formed by Boira Point to the N., and Pagoda Point, in latitude 17° 16′ N., longitude 73° 17′ E., to the S., distant from each other nearly 5 miles, and is about 2 miles deep soundings from 7 to 6 fathoms in the middle, to 3 fathoms close in shore; the bottom fine sand and mud. It is safe, except off the N. point. Several large villages are in the bay. The river, about of a mile broad, is navigable for several miles, and is equally large and safe, as that of Viziadroog.
PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-There is plenty of good water in the upper fort, and in villages close by; but in the lower fort, and near the usual landing-place, it is brackish.
COAST OF CANARA.
THIS coast extends from Cape Ramus to Mount Dilla. CARWAR.-Carwar Head, which forms the N. extreme of the bay, is in latitude 14° 47′ N., and longitude 74° 16′ E. The bay is about two miles deep; at the bottom there is a river, with the fort of Carwar or Sudasagur, on the N. side of the entrance: the river is capable of receiving vessels of 300 tons. Carwar stood about three miles above the fort, on the opposite bank of the river. It was formerly a place of considerable trade; but during the reigns of Hyder and Tippoo, it fell to decay, and at present is of little note.
PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-On this part of the coast there are plenty of good bullocks; but they are forbidden to be killed, on account of the religious prejudices of the natives. Poultry may be procured, and
the bay abounds with various sorts of excellent fish. Wild peacocks are in
plenty in the neighbouring woods..
COINS.-Accounts are kept in pagodas, fanams, and pice; by the Country merchants, in fanams of 24 budgerooks.
6 Pice, or 36 Budgerooks, are equal to 1 Settle, or Jettal.
A Carwar pagoda is reckoned equal to 33 Surat rupees; 18 Anjengo fanams; 1 star pagoda; or 14 fanams, 4 vis, of Calicut.
The Darwar pagoda, being coined in the province, is most esteemed by the natives; but the Ikeri pagodas are worth more, being of the same fineness, but differing in form and weight: 40 Ikeri are equal to 42 Darwar pagodas.
The Darwar Pagoda passes for 33 Rupees.
The Venetian..................for 56 to 57 Settles, or 42 to 421 Fanams.
...for 53 to 54 Settles.
One hundred ounces of silver give 79 pagodas and 34 settles, equal to 286 Surat rupees; or 89 pagodas, 30 fanams, 18 cash, Madras old currency. Spanish dollars pass current.
WEIGHTS.-The candy is about 514 lbs. 14 oz. avoirdupois, though commonly reckoned at 520 lbs.
MEASURES.-The covid is equal to 18 inches.
ANJE-DIVA.-This island is in latitude 14° 44′ N., about two miles from the shore, to the S. of Carwar Head. It is about a mile in length, and possessed by the Portuguese. It appears on the outside barren and rocky, but on the side next the land it is pleasant. Here are a small town and castle, and a few gardens; it is chiefly used to transport felons to from Goa and the island of Diu. They are taught to spin cotton thread and yarn, and to weave stockings, which are the best made in this part of India, and very cheap.
In case of necessity, a ship may find shelter from the S. W. monsoon under this island.
MERJEE. This river is in latitude 14° 30′ N., and longitude 74° 31' E., about 18 miles S. E. from Anje-diva. The entrance is between two bluff points, one to the N., the other to the S., which is the highest, and
defended by a redoubt, near which is a cluster of fine green trees, that makes it very remarkable. Just within the S. point, on the side of a hill, stands a small square fort built of brown stone, and near it the village. Merjee River is recommended for ships wooding and watering, it being very expensive and tedious at most other places on the coast. Upon the N. side of the river, on the hill, you may cut good fire-wood, and rice may be procured in any quantity. Fresh water is to be had also in great plenty, extremely soft and good, and with the greatest ease, as you do not go into the river; the watering place is a very fine sandy cove, just within the N. point of the westernmost part of the bay, where your boats may land, and you can roll your casks upon the sand to a low stone wall about a foot high, over which you may dip your buckets into the pool of fresh water, and a large fleet may water in two or three days. The most convenient situation to anchor is about a mile from the N. bluff, having Fortified Island, near Onore, in one with the S. extreme of the land bearing S. S. E. The river in no place has less than 4 fathoms at half-ebb; on the bar there are 3 fathoms, and within it 7 fathoms, till near the town, so that if there was occasion, a ship might enter the river; but it would be necessary to send a boat first to sound the bar.
Weights and MEASURES.-The candy at Merjee is equal to 540 lbs. avoirdupois; 42 bales or robins of rice are a corge.
FORTIFIED ISLAND.-This island is in latitude 14° 19' N., about two miles from Onore; it derives its name from being fortified all round with a stone wall. The landing place is at the S. end, where there is a fort with eight guns mounted. The island is about six miles in circumference, and about one in the nearest part from the main land; between is a channel for large boats.
A small trade is carried on with this island for a kind of reddle, which is used by the natives for painting their houses; here is abundance of good fresh water.
ONORE, OR HONAWERA, is situated in latitude 14° 18′ N., on the N. side of a salt-water river. Near its entrance is a shoal, on which are only nine feet at low water; within it has sufficient depth to receive vessels drawing 16 or 18 feet; the best channel is at the S. part of the entrance of the river It is navigable a considerable way inland. A ship may anchor in the roads, with Onore flagstaff E. N. E., and Fortified Island N. by W., about a mile from the shore. Fresh water is rather scarce here.
TRADE is now inconsiderable, the chief export being rice, with a little pepper, betel, and coco-nuts.
COINS.-The common currency here consists of Ikeri, Sultany, and