« EdellinenJatka »
Bahadre pagodas; Surat and Madras rupees, which are considered of equal value; fanams, a small silver coin; and dubs, a copper coin.
WEIGHTS. The Seer weight is the same as at Mangalore; it ought to weigh 24 Bombay rupees: but these being scarce, in their stead dubs are commonly used, and are somewhat heavier. The number of seers contained in the Maund, varies according to goods sold, viz.
Common articles in the Bazar are 40 Seers or...........................avoir. lbs. 24.55
MEASURES.-There are two kinds of grain measures in use, one for the farmers, and one for the merchants; the basis of the former is the hany, containing 87 cubical inches.
16 Hanies....make...1 Colaga, which is equivalent to ... Bushels 0.816
The basis of the measure by which the merchants deal, is the Sida, of
The bazar moray, and that of the farmers for sale, ought to be the same, but they differ a little.
BARCELORE is about 14 leagues to in latitude 13° 50′ N., longitude 74° 58′ E. of a broad river, about 4 miles from the sea. are 13 feet water at spring-tides.
the S. of Onore. The peak is The town stands on the banks The river has a bar, on which
TRADE.-A considerable trade is carried on with the Muscat Arabs, their vessels bringing horses, dates, kismisses, &c. taking in return, rice, pepper, and a few other articles.
MANGALORE.-This town, which is extensive, is situated near the mouth of a considerable river, in latitude 12° 50' N., and longitude 75° 7′ E.; it is navigable only by small vessels, there being but 10 or 11 feet water on
the bar. The anchorage for large ships is abreast the fort and river, with the flagstaff about E. by N., distance from the town 2 or 2 miles. The castle is large and strongly fortified, and so situated as to command and protect the town and entrance of the river.
TRADE. The chief imports are cotton cloths from Surat, Cutch, and Madras; salt from Bombay and Goa; raw silk from China and Bengal; a species of madder from Muscat; sugar from Bengal and China; and oil and ghee from Surat and Cutch. Of exports, rice is the grand article; it is sent to Muscat, Bombay, Goa, and Malabar. Betel-nut is the next, which is sent to Bombay, Surat, and Cutch. Pepper is the third great article. They export also, sandal, cassia, and turmeric. There are many respectable merchants, chiefly Persees, from Surat, Bombay, and to the northward, who have settled here since the Company have acquired the country.
COINS.-The following are the coins in common currency here, and their value in rupees, viz.
Ikeri or Swamy Pagoda .........4 Rupees.
Madras or Star Pagoda.........31 Rupees.
Of silver coins, the Surat and Madras rupees are considered of equal value, and pass for 5 silver fanams, the same as are current in Malabar; in the bazar they exchange for 10 dudus or dubs, but in revenue are taken for 14 dubs each.
Of copper coins, the Bombay pice coined in England, and Tippoo's dubs, are current here; these with their fractions,,, and, are the only small coins in use. Cowries are not in circulation.
In payment for goods or debts, every person must receive these coins at the above rate of exchange. The money changers give silver for gold at the regulated price; but they take a small batta, or exchange, when they give gold for silver. They also give copper for silver at the regulated price, but demand 10 dubs for the silver fanam.
Accounts are commonly kept in Sultany pagodas, rupees, and annas; others are kept in pagodas, a nominal fanam or huna of 10 to a pagoda, and annas or 16 parts of these fanams.
WEIGHTS.—The seer, or sida, used for weighing, contains 4297 grains, which is rather more than 24 Bombay rupees. The seer is divided into halves, quarters, eighths, and sixteenths. The number of seers in the maund varies according to the goods to be disposed of.
The maund, by which goods are sold in the market, is 46 seers, or 28.14 lbs. The maund by which the merchants purchase, and by which the Company buy and sell, weighs 16 rupees more, or 28.55 lbs.-Jaggery is bought and sold by the maund of 40 seers, or 24.47 lbs.
The candy, or baru, contains 20 maunds, and varies accordingly, from 571 lbs. to 589 lbs.
MEASURES.-The seer in the bazar is formed by mixing equal quantities of salt, and of the nine most common grains, and then by taking of the mixture 84 Bombay rupees weight; this fills the seer measure, and is about 73.683 cubical inches. The moray, or mudi, contains 38 seers, or about 1 bushel English.
The grain measure, by which the farmers sell their crops, is thus formed :-64.125 cubical inches make 1 hany, 14 hanies make 1 cullishigay, 3 cullishigays make 1 mudi, or moray, which is about 1.2525 bushel.
Grain, salt, and sometimes pepper, are sold by measure; of this last, a pucka seer, or 73.683 cubical inches, is reckoned to weigh 51 Bombay rupees, or 21 oz. avoirdupois. The corge of 42 robins for rice is 49
COAST OF MALABAR.
THIS coast is said to commence about eight leagues to the S. of Mangalore, at a place called Declah, where there is a white wall in ruins visible from the offing. From thence it extends to Cape Comorin; but Mount Dilla, a conspicuous headland, in latitude 11° 59′ N., and longitude 75° 31′ E., is considered by navigators as the limit between the Coasts of Canara and Malabar. This is the narrowest part of the channel between the main and the Laccadives, the distance being 27 leagues.
BILLIAPATAM is on the banks of a river, about six miles to the E. of Mount Dilla. The river extends a considerable distance inland, but is only navigable by small vessels, it having a bar with from one to two
fathoms, abreast of which ships may anchor in three to five fathoms, about two miles off shore.
CANANORE is at the bottom of a small bay, one of the best on the coast. The town contains many good houses belonging to the Mussulman merchants; the remainder are chiefly huts. The fort, which is strong, is situated on a kind of peninsula, which forms the bay, and is in latitude 11° 51' N., and longitude 75° 25′ E. Ships may anchor abreast the fort, in from 4 to 5 fathoms.
TRADE. The Chief of Cananore, to whom most of the Laccadives belong, has several vessels trading to Arabia, Bengal, Surat, &c. The European articles imported are chiefly for the consumption of the Company's servants stationed here.
PROVISIONS AND Refreshments. Indifferent bullocks and poultry are to be had; watering is difficult and expensive, and fire-wood scarce.
COINS.-All Indian money passes here.
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES are the same as at Tellicherry.
LACCADIVE ISLANDS, an archipelago of low islands, opposite the Coast of Malabar, extending from latitude 10° to about 12° N., a large channel separating them from the coast. There are 19 principal islands, mostly surrounded with coral reefs and steep rocks; but their positions are not well determined, nor their description well authenticated. An American navigator states, that in 1818 he traversed them, and that they are in general safe to approach, and well inhabited, the natives not shy, but inoffensive. He recommends the Island Kau Rattea, in latitude 10° 34' N., longitude 72° 56′ E., as furnishing abundance of poultry, eggs, coco-nuts, and very fine water. "The ship may lie off and on within a mile of the landing-place. The natives will bring off poultry and coco-nuts at a reasonable rate. If you want water, you must land, the Chief, who understands the use of money. with the empty casks, and the natives fill them. inside the reef; the entrance near the N. end of the island, a fine sandy beach, and the water perfectly smooth."-He adds, that the old Charts are extremely erroneous, which is perhaps the only part of the account that can be implicitly depended upon.
and make a bargain with
The boat harbour is
MINICOY, OR MALACOY, is the southernmost of the islands, in latitude 8° 17′ N., and longitude 73° 18′ E. It is about 6 miles long, and half a mile broad, extending in the form of a crescent to the N. W., having a coral reef across it, the channel through which is very intricate and narrow, having only two fathoms water. The town is situated within this reef; the inhabitants are very civil. A trade is carried on from hence to
Cananore, in coir and coco-nuts, and at this island is caught the fish called commelmutch, so much esteemed in Malabar.
UNDEROOT is about 3 miles long from E. to W., and 14 broad; it is in latitude 10° 48' N., and longitude 74° E., well planted with coconut trees; the town is on the N. side of the island, and consists of a few houses scattered along the sea-side. Turtle may be taken here. The water is tolerably good, and the inhabitants are poor and inoffensive. This island is the nearest of the group to the Malabar Coast, and is about 38 leagues distant from Mount Dilla.
The inhabitants of the greater part of these islands are Moplas, and very poor; they subsist chiefly on coco-nuts and fish, having no grain; their boats are made of coco-nut stems, and their houses are entirely constructed of that tree. The principal export is coir, and that which is made here, is esteemed the best in India; it has always been used by the Arabs, and our ships in the Indian Ocean generally prefer it to hempen cordage for running rigging. Ambergris is occasionally to be met with among
TELLICHERRY, the principal English settlement on the Coast of Malabar, is in latitude 11° 44′ N., and longitude 75° 32′ E., and about ten miles to the S. of Cananore. In fine weather, ships anchor in the roads in five fathoms, the flagstaff bearing N. E. by N. off the town 1 to 2 miles; but when there is a chance of unsettled weather, they should anchor well out in 7 or 8 fathoms. There is a ledge of black rocks facing the fort, where small vessels have been known to lie during the S. W. monsoon.
Tellicherry Fort is of considerable size, with strong walls, though rather ruinous, having convenient houses for the Chief and gentlemen of the factory; that of the Chief is a large and handsome building. About a mile to the S. is a small fort called Mile End, and at a short distance to the N. of Tellicherry is a blockhouse. There are two towns, one bordering on the sea-coast, the other in the wood: the principal inhabitants of the former are Portuguese; those of the latter natives. Between the town and the fort is an extensive and open place; on one side is a pleasant garden belonging to the Chief, who has likewise a small one adjoining his house. There is an excellent ride through the wood, much frequented by the European residents.
TRADE.-A considerable inland and foreign trade is carried on here. Most of the ships from China bound to Bombay and Goa, touch here, and dispose of part of their cargoes, which is mostly resold to the inhabitants of the interior, who make their returns in the produce of the country, such as ginger, pepper, coco-nuts, coir, and cotton cloth, which is very good and