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HARBORS AND RIVERS OF THE U.S.-(Continued.)

LEAST WATER IN CHANNEL WAY.

Spring tides, lowest Spring tides, lowest of of day. Moon's greatest day. Mean.

declination.

Mean, lowest of day.

Limits between which depths are given.

PLACES.

Date.

Loro
Water.
Feet.
28
66
54

..

..

High
Water.
Feet.
82.4
70.4
58.4
40.4
46.4
87.4
24.4
30.3
80.3
28.4
21.4

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San Francisco bay,..

From 4 fathom bank around to southern shore,...
Anchorage off Rincon Point, 450 yards from shore,..
Anchorage off Market-street wharf, San Francisco,..
Off Cunningham's wharf,.

Of Clark's point, 450 yards from shore,
San Francisco harbor,

On the bar,

At best wharves...
Mare Island Straits,

In mid channel, between Commission Rock and western shore,

In mid channel, between Navy Yard and Vallejo,..
Ballenas Bay,

Inside of breakers on Duxbury reef, about a mile from shore,..
Sir Francis Drake's Bay,.. Half a mile inside the point, and 400 yards from shore,
Bodega Bay,..

Half a mile inside of reef, anchorage, 900 yards from shore,..
Coast,....

At Haven's anchorage,..
Albion River,

Anchorage at entrance,..
Mendocino City,

Anchorage inside of point,
Shelter Cove,

Anchorage 500 yards inside of point,..
Humboldt Bay,

On bar, half a mile from shore,

• Main channel, .
Crescent City harbor,. Anchorage half a mile off Crescent City,..
Port Orford, or Ewing harbor, Anchorage three-fourths of a mile from Tichenor's Rock,..
Umpquah River,..

On bar, opposite mid-channel,
Columbia River,..

North Channel to Baker's Bay,
Entrance into South Channel,*

On bar of South Channel,...
Shoalwater Bay,

On bar,

86
42
33
20
25
25
24
17
86
48
48
80
22
21
20
21
46

High
Water.
Feet.
82.2
70.2
58.2
40.2
46.2
87.2
24.2
30.5
80.5
28.2
21.2
40.0
52.5
52.5
84.5
26.5
25.8
24.8
26.2
51.7
19.1
30.5
25.5
22.5
24.5

Lowo
Water.
Feet.
26.9
64.9
52.9
84.9
40.9
81.9
18.9
24.0
24.0
22.9
15.9
84.8
46.8
46.8
28.8
20.8
19.7
18.7
19.7

Loro
Water.
Feet.
27.6
65.6
59.6
35.6
41.6
82.6
19.6
24.8
24.8
23.6
16.6
85.4
47.5
47.5
29.5
21.5
20.4
19.4
20.4
45.4
12.4
23.4
18.4
15.4
17.1

High
Water.
Feet.
82.6
70.6
58.6
40.6
46.6
87.6
24.6
80.7
30.7
28.6
21.6
40.7
52.9
52.9
84.9
26.9
26.4
25.4
26.9
52.4
19.6
30.9
25.9
22.9
25

40.4

1851.
1851.
1851.
1851.
1851.
1855.
1855.
1956,
1856.
1858.
1855,
1853.
1853.
1863.
1853.
1853.
1853.
1861.
1858.
1853.
1853.
1852.
1852.
1658.
1851.

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..

11.7
22.7
17.7
14.7
16.4

24
19
16
18

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* Twenty-one feet may be carried in at mean low water by keeping a little northward and westward, nearer the breakers of the middle sands, and, at the turn, hauling up for Cape Disappointment.

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VOL. XLV. -NO. II.

North Channel,...

South Channel, Grenville harbor,

Anchorage three-quarters of a mile inside of Point Grenville,

and same distance from shore,... Neé-ah harbor,

Anchorage a mile inside of Waddah Island, and 450 yards

from shore,..
False Dungeness,

Harbor anchorage,.
New Dungeness,..

Harbor anchorage,.
o Smith’s Island, (north side). Anchorage near kelp, 450 yards from shore,.
Bellingham Bay,.

Anchorage 400 yards southwest of Fitzhugh's wharf,
Port Townshend,

Anchorage 400 yards east of Custom House,....
Port Ludlow,..

Anchorage,...
Port Gamble,...

Anchorage,..
Seattle,.......

Anchorage,..
Blakely harbor,

Anchorage 450 yards inside of entrance,
Steilacoom harbor,

Anchorage off Steilacoom creek, 400 yards,..
Olympia harbor,..

Mid channel, town 14 miles distant, mission bearing E.NE.,.

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In passing from New-York to an eastern port, the first great change in the tides and tidal currents is between the East
River and Long Island Sound; the difference between Governor's Island and Negro Point on Ward's Island, at the eastern
entrance to Hell Gate, is two hours and forty-five minutes. Between this point and Throg's Point the change is small. The
mariner is now in the full tide of the Sound, and between Throg's Point and Fisher's Island there is a difference of time of but
two hours and twenty minutes, the greatest part of which is at the head of the Sound and at its entrance—that is, near Throg's
Point and Fisher's Island. From off New-London to off Sand's Point the difference is but one hour and forty minutes; so
that if the mariner, instead of remaining at Throg's Point, passes onward to Fisher's Island, he would lose but half a tide in
the whole

passage.

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SHIP-BUILDING AND TONNAGE OF NEW-YORK.

In order to illustrate more fully the foreign commerce of the State of New-York, the following table will show what proportion of vessels entered these ports, compared with all others in the Union:

I. STATEMENT EXHIBITING THE NUMBER OF AMERICAN AND FOREIGN VESSELS, WITH THEIR

TONNAGE AND CREWS, WHICH ENTERED INTO THE SEVERAL DISTRICTS OF THE STATE OF NEW-YORK FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES, DURING THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1860.

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Backett's Harb., N.Y., 132 98,651 4,005

132 98,651 4,005 Genesee, 183 79,182 2,711 229 48,757

862 127,889 3,887 Oswego,

691 280,547 6,082 1 ,817 214,900 11,577 2,608 445,447 17,609 Niagara, 81 1,997 182

287 84,899 4,883 818 86,396 4,515 Buffalo,

1,446 1,801,674 16.508 649 60,560 3,605 2,095 1,862,234 20,108 Oswegatchie,

171 186,566

5,130

178

25,136 8,888 844 161,702 8,513 Sag Har. & Dunkirk, 80 1,140

16 638 67 46 1,778 167 New-York,

2,645 1,856,665 41,495 1,337 617,147 25,233 3,982 1,973,812 66,783 Champlain, 278 17,631 600 801 22,959

1,009 579 40,500 1,609 Cape Vincent,

527 424,525 15,214 425 118,124 6,968 952 537,949 22,182 Tatal State of N. Y., 6,084 3.648,828 91,922 5,231 1,187.620 59,405 11,318 4,836,448 151,327

all other ports, 0,122 2,272,457 | 76,879 5,491 1,166,291 47,166 11,613 3,488,748 124,045 Total U. S., 1859-60, 12,206 5,921,285 168,801 10,725 2,358,911 106,571 22,931 9,275.196 275,372

1858-59, 12,035 5,268,648 155,693 10,532 2.540,887 109,989 22.567 7,806,035 265,687 1857-58, 10,785 4,895,642 141,497 10,037 2,209.403 102,476 20,772 6,605,045 244,373 1856-57, 11,304 4,721,870 161,062 11,024 2,464,946 116,797 22 328 7,186,816 277,859 1855-56, 10,307 4,885,484 148,189 11,375 2,496,769 118,984 21,682 6,872,253 267,173 1554-55, \ 9,315 3,861,391 / 137,251 ( 10,012 2,083,948 | 99,891 19,827 5,945,539 287,14%

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II. STATEMENT SHOWING THE NUMBER AND CLASS OF VESSELS BUILT, AND THE TONNAGE

THEREOF, IN THE STATE OF NEW-YORK, DURING THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1860.

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Total, 1859–60,

1858-59, 1857–58, 1856–57, 1855-56, 1854-55,

31 14 47 76 87 98

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125 64 94 83 161 356

38 27 42 45 27 48

28 24 45

31,906 16,313 37,185 67,826 76,301 115,231

203 237 306 654

III. STATEMENT SHOWING THE NUMBER AND CLASS OF VESSELS BUILT, AND THE TONNAGE

THEREOF, IN THE SEVERAL STATES AND TERRITORIES OF THE UNITED STATES, FROM 1815 TO JUNE 30, 1860, INCLUSIVE.

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1821, 1822, 1823, 1824, 1925, 1826, 1827, 1828, 1629, 1880, 1831, 1832, 1983, 1884, 1885, 1836, 1837, 1838. 1839,1840, 1841, 1842, 1843, 1844,... 1845, 1846, 1947, 1848, 1849, 1850,1851,.. 1852, 1853, 1854, 1535, 1556, 1857, 1658, 1859, 1860,

154,624 181,668 86,893 82,421 79,817 47,734 55,856 75,846 75,007 90,939 114,997 126,438 103,342 93,875 77,098, 85,962 141,589 161,626 118,830

46,235 118,627 122,987 118,135 120,989

118,309 118,893 129,083

43,617 103,537 146,0181 188,203 243,782 318,075 256,577 272,218 298,208 351,493 425,572 535,616 588,450 469,893 878,804 242,286 156,601 212,892

IV. VESSELS AND TONNAGE CLEARED FROM THE DISTRICT OF NEW-YORK.

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Fiscal Years.
1926,
1830,
1835,
1810,
1845,
1850,..
1855,
1857,
1858,

Vessels. Tonnage.

208,202

210,535 1,226 289,268 1,067 283,149 1,127

341,094 1,379 596,812 1,941 1,091,244 2,307 1,310,875 1,901 1,027,390 1,911

Vessels. Tonnage.

19,655

32,620 433.. 77,121 603 125,619

661 142,431 1,230 .. 385,666 1,169 354,510 1,047 .. 445,566

936 433,608 1,175 .. 550,751 1,376 .. 622,419

Vessels. Tonnage.

227,857

243,155 1,659 366,389 1,570 408,768 1,688 483,525 2,609 982,478 3,110 1,445,754 3,354 1,756,441 2,837 .. 1,460,998 3,086 .. 1,476,279 3,402 .. 1,678,906

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925,528 2,026 .. 1,056,486

1859,

1860,

V. STATEMENT EXHIBITING THE NUMBER OF AMERICAN AND FOREIGN VESSELS, WITH THEIR

Tonnage AND Crews, WHICH ENTERED INTO THE DISTRICT or New.YORK, AND THE COUNTRIES FROM WHENCE THEY ARRIVED, DURING THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1860.

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Russia on the North,
7 4,584 125

7 4,584 125 Prussia,

1 810 10

1 310 10 Sweden and Norway,

1,099 26 1 251 9 3 1,850 Swedish West Indies,

452 17 1 122 6 4 574 23 Danish West Indies, .

1,878 58 4 1,670 47 11 2,919 105 Hamburg,

1,584

40 42 56,951 2,467 44 58,535 2,507 Bremen,

64 57,972 2,102

64 57.972 2,102 Holland,

14
10,870
260 15

8,781 251 29 19,151 514 Dutch West Indies, 43 8,749 825 5 899 88

9,618 363 Dutch East Indies, . 4 2,074 70

2,074 70 Belgium, 18 15,523 847 2 1,453 42

16,976 899 England,

857 384,168 8,725 149 219,199 9,389 506 603,367 18,114 Scotland,

26 16,810 427 45 34,542 1,377 71 51.352 1,504 Ireland, 1 1,115 24 12 20,926 1,065

18 22,041 1,089 Gibraltar,

2 425 15 4 794 32 6 1,219 47 Malta,

1 219 8 1

219

8 Canada,

8 885 18 7 1,463 50 Other British N. Am. Poss... 60 11,099

405

414 68,363 2,711 474 79,461 3,116 British West Indies,

163

84,858 1,834 140 25,228 1,077 803 60,081 2,411 British Honduras, 12 8,782 128

12 8,782 129 British Guiana,

8 2,618 89

840 15 10 2,953 103 British Possessions in Africa, 9 2,185 81

978 40 14 3,163 121 British Australia, . 6 1,469 51

6 1,469 51 British East Indies,

81 29,844 711

1,740

45 84 81,124 756 France on the Atlantic,

94 124,689 4,260

6,762

216 112 181,351 France on Mediterranean,..

4,476 18 7,205 209 26 9,410 808

16,615 517 French North Amer'n Poss.,

887 58 7 S87 58 French West Indies,

1 173 6

690 49

6 869 Spain on the Atlantic,..

12 8,635 113

484 18 14 4,119 181 Spain on the Mediterranean, 37 9,965 824 24 4,896 149 61 14,961 523 Canary Islands,...

S 2,342 78

480 19 10 2,822 92 Philippine Islands,.. 18 19,6.34 453 804 22 19 20,339

475 Cuba,

840 308,571 10,526

28.032 1,206 925

836,603 11,782 Porto Rico,

154 81,715 | 1,230
10,245 404 209 61,960

1,034 Portugal,

2,556 98 11

2,556 98 Azores,

i 699 23

197 8 2

896 31 Madeira, 1 259 7

1

259 7 Sardinia,

1,627 56 7 8,087

119

12 4,714 175 Tuscany,

28 18,713 498

2,241 60 27 20,954 498 Papal States,

170 8 1 170 8 Two Sicilies,

44 15,146

458

12,124

478 82 27,270 981 Austria,

6
2,460 79

3,730 123 19 6,190 202 Greece, ..

1
245

1,241 48 7 1,459 56 Turkey in Asia,

4 1,109 44 6

8,302 102 10

4,411 146 Egypt,

1
299 9

659 27 4 959 86 Other ports in Africa, 19 6,062 197

499 18 21 6,561 215 Hayti,

90 16,053 675 20 3,002 132 110 19,055 S07 San Domingo,

17 3,148 124

4,056 182 40 7,204 806 Mexico,

55 17,841 568 5 1,643 43 60 18,984 611 Central Republic,

6 1,116 42

516 22 9 1,632 64 New-Granada,

100 97.930 4,401 5 1,236 42 105 99,166 4,443 Venezuela,

47 10,230 893

1,762 73 56 11,992 466 Brazil, 137 85,701 1,805

9,297 837 178 47,998 1,612 Uruguay, or Cisplatine Rep., 10 3,463 113

10 8,463 113 Buenos Ayres, or Arg. Rep.,. 40 18,914 430

293 10 41 14,207 440 Chili, 6 3,750 94

6

8,750 94 Peru, 10 10,675 229

10 10,675

229 Sandwich Islands,

8 1,072

448 i7 5 1,520 51 Other Islands in the Pacific, 3 2,194 55

2,194 China,... 50 47,984 1,230 1,850 45

49,314 1,275 Total 1859-60,

2,645 1,356,665 41,495 1,337 617,147 25,239 3,992 1,973,812 66,733 1858-59,

2,657 1,820,290 40,011 1,245 569,854 23,623 3,902 1,890,144 63.634 1857-58

2,401 1,273,758 39,666 929 420,431 17,188 3,330 1,694,219 56,549 1856–57,

3,014 1,684,764 49,759 1,054 450,895 18,028 4,068 2,035,649 67,787 1855–56, 2,496 1,381,726 1,033 299,933

3,529 1,681,659 1854–55,.

2,588 1,377,788 41,983 (1,185 358,169' 13,263 3,778 (1,735,907 | 55,246

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