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was utterly subverted. Some critics understand rivers and fountains with relation to doctrins; and in this sense the application is still very proper to Genferic, who was a moft bigotted Arian, and during his whole reign moft cruelly perfecuted the orthodox Chriftians. Vidor Uticentis, or Vitensis as he is more usually called, who (6) wrote in three books the history of this persecution by the Vandals, speaking of St. Austin (7) hath used this very fame metaphor, of the river of his eloquence being dried up, and his sweetness tumed into the bitterness of wormwood.
12 And the fourth angel founded, and the third part of the fun was smitten, and the third part
of the moon, and the third part of the stars; fo as the third part of them was darkened, and the day Mone not for a third part of it, and the night likewife.
At the founding of the fourth trumpet (ver. 12.) the third part of the fun, moon, and fiars, that is the great lights of the Roman empire, are eclipted and darkened, and renjain in darkness for fome time. Genseric left the western enpire in a weak and desperate condition. It struggled hard, and gasped as it were for breath, through (8) cight short and turbulent reigns, for the space of twenty years, and at length expired in the year 476 under Momyllus, or Auguftulus as he was named in derifion, being a diminutive Auguftus. This change was effected by Odoacer king of the Heruli
, who coming to Rome with an army of barbarians, stripped Momyllus of the imperial robes, put an end to the very name of the western empire, and caused bimself to be proclaimed King of Italy. His kingdom indeed was of no long duration ; for after a reign of fixteen years he was overcome and fain (9) in the year 493 by Theodoric king of the Ostrogoths, who founded the kingdom of the Ostrogoths in Italy, which continued about fixty years under his fucceffors. Thus was the Roman fun extinguished in the western emperor; but the other leffer luminaries, the moon and stars, still sublisted; for Rome was still allowed to have her senate, and consuls, and other subordinate magistrates as before. Odoacer (1) at first fupprefled them, but after two or three years restored them again. Theodoric (2) changed none of the Roman institutes; he retained the senate, and confuls, and patricians, and all the ancient magiftrates, and committed those offices only to Romans. These lights, we may suppose, fhone more faintly under barbarian kings than under Roman emperors; but they were not totally suppressed and extinguished, till after the king dom of the Ostrogoths was destroyed by the emperor of the east's lieutenants, and Italy was made a province of the eastern empire. Longinus was (3) fent then in the year 566 by the emperor Justin II. to govern Italy with absolute authority: and he changed the whole form of the government; abolished the fenate, and consuls, and all the former magistrates in Rome and Italy, and in every city of note conftituted a new governor with the title of Duke. He himself presided over all; and residing at Ravenna, and not at Rome, he was called the Exarch of Ravenna, as were also his fucceffors in the fame office. Rome was degraded to the same level with other places, and from being the queen of cities and empress of the world was reduced to a poor dukedom, and made tributary to Ravenna which the had used to govern. .
(6) Vossius de Hift. Latinis Lib. 2. verfa eft. Victor Vit. de Perfecut. VanCap. 13. Hofmanni Lex.
dal. Lib. 1. n. 3. Vide etiam Vitain (7). Tunc illud eloquentiæ, quod Augustini Lib. 8. Cap. 11. Sect. 2. ubertim per omnes campos ecclelia Edit. Benedict. decurrebat, ipfo metu ficcatum elt flu- (8) igonius de Occidentali Iin. men; atque dulcedo fuavitatis dulcius perio. Lib. 14, et 15 in initio. propinata, in amaritudinem ahjinthii
13 And I beheld, and heard an angel flying
(9) Sigonius ibid. Lib. 15. in fine. terofque qui fuerant in imperio, ma. Procop. de Bell. Goth. Lib.1. Cap. 1. giftratus retinuit eosque Romanis ho
(1) Sigonius ibid. Lib. 15. Ann. minibus tantum mandavit. Sigonius 476 et 479.
ibid. Lib. 16. Ann. 494. (2) Jam vero nullum Romanum (3) Sigonii Hift. de Regno Italiæ, inftitutum mutavit : fiquidem et se. Lib. 1. Blondi Decad. primæ, Lib. Datum, et consules, patricios,-cæ8.
through through the midst of heaven, faying with a loud voice, Woe, woe, woe to the inhabiters of the earth, by reason of the other voices of the trumpet of the three angels which are yet to found.
Notice is then proclaimed by an angel (ver. 13.) that the three other trumpets found to still greater and more terrible plagues, and are therefore distinguished from the former by the name of woes. The delign of this messenger is to raise our attention to the following trumpets; and the following we shall find to be more ftrongly marked than the foregoing. The foregoing relate chiefly to the downtall of the western empire; the two following relate chiefly to the downfall of the eastern empire. The foregoing are described more succinctly, and contain a less compass of time; the following are fet forth with more particular circumstances, and are of longer duration as well as of larger description.
CH A P. IX.
AND the filth angel founded, and I sawa
ftar fall from heaven unto the earth : and to him was given the key of the bottomless pit.
2 And he opened the boitomless pit, and there arose a fioke out of the pit, as the smoke of a great furnace: and the fun and the air were darkened, by reason of the finoke of the pit.
3 And there came out of the smoke locusts upon the earth; and unto them was given power, as the fcorpions of the earth have power.
4 And it was commanded them that they should not hurt the grass of the earth, neither any green thing, neither any tree; but only those men which have not the feal of God in their foreheads.
5 And to them it was given that they should not kill them, but that they ihould be tormented five months: and their torment was as the torment of a scorpion, when he striketh a man. 6 And in those days shall men feek death, and
Thall not find it; and shall desire to die, and death thall flee from them.
7 And the shapes of the locufts were like unto horses prepared unto battle; and on their heads were as it were crowns like gold, and their faces were as the faces of men.
8 And they had hair as the hair of women, and their teeth were as the teeth of lions.
9 And they had breast-plates, as it were breastplates of iron; and the sound of their wings was as the found of chariots of many horses runniug to battle.
10 And they had tails like unto scorpions, and there were stings in their tails : and their power was to hurt men five months,
11 And they had a king over them, which is the angel of the bottomless pit, whose name in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, but in the Greek tongue hath his name Apollyon.
12 One woe is paft, and behold, there come two woes more hereafter,
At the founding of the fifth trumpet (ver. 1, 2, 3.) a ftar fallen from heaven, meaning the wicked impoftor Mohammed, opened the bottomless pit, and there arose a finoke out of the pit, and the sun and the air were darkened by it ; that is, a falfe religion was set
which filled the world with darkness and error; and swarıns of Saracen or Arabian locufts overspread the earth. A false prophet is very fitiy typified by a blazing Itar or meteor. The Arabians likewife are properly compared to locusts, not only because numerous armies frequently are fo, but also because swarms of locusts often arise from Arabia: and also because in the plagues of Egypt, to which constant allusion is made in thele trumpets, the locusts, (Exod. X. 13.) are brought by an east-wind, that is from Arabia, which lay eastward of Egypt: and also because in the book of Judges (VII. 12.) the people of Arabia are compared to locufts or grasshoppers for multitude, for in the original the word for both is the same. As the naVou. I.
tural locusts (4) are bred in pits and holes of the earth, fo these myitical locusts are truly infernul, and proceed with the smoke from the bottomless pit. It is too a remarkable coincidence that at this time the fun and the air were really darkened. For we learn from an (5) eminent Arabian historian, that in the seventeenth year of
Heraclius half the body of the fun was eclipsed, and " this defect continued from the former Tifrin to Ha. ‘ziran, (that is from O&tober to June) so that only a ' little of its light appeared.' The seventeenth year of Heraclius (6) coincides with the year of Chrilt 626, and with the fifth year of the Hegira; and at this time Mohammed was training and exercising his followers in depredations at home, to fit and prepare them for greater conquests abroad
It was commanded them (ver. 4.) that they should not hurt the grass of the earth, neither any green thing, neither any tree; which demonstrates that these were not natural, but fymbolical locusts. The like injunctions were given to the Arabian officers and foldiers. When Yezid was marching with the army to invade Syria, Abubeker charged him (7) with this among other orders ; “De
stroy no palin-trees, nor burn any fields of corn; cut “ down no fruit-trees, nor do any mischief to cattle,
only such as you kill to eat.” Their commission is to hurt only those men who have not the seal of God in their foreheads; that is those who are not the true fervants of God, but are corrupt and idolatrous Christians. Now from history it appears evidently, that in those countries of Asia, Africa, and Europe, where the Saracens extended their conquests, the Christians were generally guilty of idolatry in the worshipping of saints, if not of images ; and it was the pretence of Mohammed and his followers to chastife them for it, and to re-establish the unity of the
(4) Vide Gesner. de Infect. Plin. inine ipfius. Abul - Pharajii Hift. Nat. Hift. Lib. 11. Cap. 29. Sect. Dyn. 8. p. 99. Verl. Pocockii. 35. Edit. Harduin.
(6) Blair's Chron. Tab. No 33. (5) Anno Heraclii decimo septimo Abul-Pharajii Dyn. 9. p. 102, El. dimidiuin corporis solaris lumine de macini Hist. Saracen. Lib. 2. p. 6. fecit, manfitque ejus deliquium a (7) Ockley's Hift. of the Saracens. Tilrin priori ad Haziran, adeo ut Vol. s. *p. 25. non appareret nisi parum quid de lu.