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Harris determined instantly to attack maintained by a system at once so sorthem, leaving about 50 men in the fort. did and so cruel, that its history reHe led 70 small arms and 20 pikemen flects disgrace rather than honour upon to turn their left fank, hoping thus to the Dutch name. Literature indeed is make a diversion in favour of Pellew's indebted to that empire, or rather to party, which was ordered to advance those Dutchmen who were led thither as soon as this column should fire by something better than the desire of the first gun. His intention succeed wealth or of power. Holland retains ed perfectly. The enemy drew off nothing of what was gained by the two of their field-pieces to oppose wisdom and courage of Koen, and Harris, and broke their line for the Hulst, and Speelman, but the melan. same purpose. Both the British co- choly remembrance of what she has lumns gave their vollies nearly at the lost :- from the cruelties at Amboyna, same moment: a sharp fire was kept up and the massacre of the Chinese, nofor above five minutes as they were ad. thing but the everlasting infamy atvancing ; but when they were near tending upon crimes too atrocious ever enough to charge, the victory was at to be forgotten. But the writings of once decided : the governor was made Nieuhoff, and Baldæus, and Valentyn, prisoner, and the colours and guns ta, and Rumphius remain; and time, which ken. Captain Harris negociated as destroys the work of the conqueror and well as he fought. The sultan of Madų. of the statesman, will but increase their ra joined the conqueror; and when all value. Unhappily our conquest cost the French and Dutch in the island us the life of one, who, had his days had been made prisoners, and the Bri- been prolonged, would probably have tish flag was hoisted in its three dis. added more to our knowledge of eastricts, he offered four thousand men to tern literature and antiquities than all assist in attacking Sourabaya. Their his predecessors. I speak of Dr John aid was not needed. Admiral Stopford Leyden, who, for the sake of increasing directed Harris, as soon as he joined his stores of knowledge, accompani. him, to take the command of the ed Lord Minto upon this expedition, troops, and march against Gissie : ha, and fell a victim to the climate ; and ving driven the enemy from thence, he whose early death may be considered approached Sourabaya, and the capi. as a loss so great, --so irreparable, tulation of that place was on the point (for generations may pass away before of being signed, when intelligence ar another be found, who, with the same rived that Jansens had yielded up the industry, the same power of mind, and whole island, with all its dependencies. the same disinterested spirit, shall pos

The overthrow of the Dutch em. sess the same opportunities that I will pire in the East was thus completed, not refrain from expressing a wish that an empire founded by extraordinary Java had remained in the hands of the enterprize, policy, and valour, but enemy, so Leyden were alive.

VOL. IV. PART I,

CHAP. VIII.

France. Progress of the Anti-Commercial System. Birth of the King of

Rome. Exposition of the State of the French Empire. Council of Paris.

Buonaparte's System of Education Discussions upon Tyrannicide in the - House of Commons. Buonaparte's View of the State of England. His

Visit to the Coast. Affairs of Germany and the North.

WHEN Buonaparte's Conservative Se. that uninterrupted succession of causes nate was called upon to adopt the de- and effects which forms the history of cree for annexing Holland, the Hanse nations, and the destinies of their chief. Towns, and the Valais to the French That of Napoleon's was to reign and territory, Comte de Semonville address to conquer; victory belongs to him ; ed them in one of those reports which war to his age.” from time to time appear, avowing the The reporter then asserted, "that real principles and objects of his flagi. during three centuries, England, from tious government. « Those times are jealousy and hatred of France, had passed,” said the organ of the usurper, continually excited war in France itis when the conceptions of some states. self, Germany, Italy and Spain ; that men gave authority, in the public opi. a total subversion was necessary to her nion, to the system of balances, of gua. projects, and she wished for a bloody rantees, of counterpoise, of political revolution, because her own had been equilibrium : pompous illusions of ca- cruel, and because it struck with the binets of the second order, visions of same sword both the institutions and imbecility, which all disappear before the industry of France, the people and necessity, that power which regulates the dynasty.” Comte de Semonville hathe duration and the mutual relation zarded nothing by the gross ignorance of empires. Holland, like the Hanse of our revolution, and the gross falseTowns, would remain the prey of un- hood respecting his own, contained in certainty, of dangers, of revolutions, of this sentence : in France any assertion oppressions of every kind, if the ge- may be ventured by the government, nius who decides the destinies of Eu- because none can be contradicted; and rope, did not cover her with his invin France is not the only country where cible ægis. The emperor has resolved a large proportion of the people bein his wisdom to incorporate them with lieve that what is not contradicted must the immense family of which he is the be true. « At last,” he continued, head. He himself perhaps, in obeying “after ten years of a glorious struggle, this grand resolution, obeys more than the most extraordinary genius which he is aware of, the law of necessity. If nature ever formed in her magnificence, he commands the glory of times pre- collects in his triumphant hands, the sent, the events which preceded his scattered fragments of the sceptre of coming command those of his reign ; Charlemagne. The injuries of France are avenged ; frontiers compacted by navigation to seas which were unknown moderation, and traced out by nature, to them. Where still are the bounda. are the trophies raised to the happi. ries of possibility? Let England answer ness of her people, to the tranquillity of it. Let her meditate on the past ! Europe. Does the conqueror perceive Let her learn the future! France and from the height of his carnations Napoleon will never change !" united by ancient habits ? he seeks out The obsequious senate decreed an faithful princes, he creates for them address to the tyrant in reply. They common interests, he intrusts to them told him that the depth and extent of the destinies of those regenerated states his plans, the candour and generosity of which he has declared himself the of his policy, and his care for the proga protector. But where all forms of go. perity of his subjects, had never been vernment have been tried in vain ; where more strongly manifested. They afthe aggregations are too small, or des. firmed that the orders of the British titute of sufficient principles of adhe- council had not only rent in pieces the sion to form 'masses; where localities public law of Europe, but had also would infallibly subject men and things violated those natural laws, which are to the direct action of avarice, of the at- as old and as eternal (these were their tacks or intrigues of the eternal enemies words) as the globe. “Nature herself," of France, then the interest of the ema' said they,“ has placed the seas beyond pire commands the union to the victo. the dominion of man. He may pass rious nation of those portions of its over, but he cannot maintain possession conquests, to prevent their inevitable of them ; and to affect to rule an ele. dissolution. Holland and the Hanse ment which surrounds the habitable Towns being incapable of existing by globe on every side, is nothing less themselves, ought they to belong to than a daring attempt to hold the old England or to France? This is the and the new world in captivity, and to question; there is no third alternative. fix a disgraceful mark of slavery on all Our generation has succeeded to an in- mankind.” “ Such,” they continued, heritance of rivalry, always increasing " is the sacrilegious attempt, against by the importance of the interests and which your majesty unites all the efthe augmented strength of the rival forts of your power. Justly indignant powers. It is no longer two armies who Europe applauds and seconds you. combat on the plains of Fontenoy ; it Already does this restless and turbuis the empire of the seas which still re. lent government see all the nations of sists that of the continent ;-a memoá the continent leagued against her, rable, a terrible struggle, the catas- and her vessels repelled from every trophe of which, now perhaps not far port. It can only keep up its internal distant, will long occupy the attention circulation but by a fictitious medium, of future generations. If England had or its foreign trade but by smuggling. not rejected the counsels and the offers The only allies which it has on earth of moderation, what dreadful conse- are fanaticism and sedition. Persevere, quences might she not have avoided ! sire, in the sacred war, undertaken for She would not have forced France to the honour of the French name, and enrich herself by the ports and the ar- the independence of nations. The day senals of Holland; the Ems, the Weser, on which this war ends will be the era and the Elbe, would not have flowed of the peace of the world. These under our dominion; and we should not measures will accelerate that era. Since have seen the first country of the Gauls your only enemies are to be found on washed by rivers united by an internal the ocean, it is necessary for you to

render yourself master of all the ports I know it; but the issue cannot be by which the ocean has communication doubtful. My resources are real : they with the interior provinces of your are from territorial revenues ; and empire.”

those of my enemy rest only on credit, The language of the French govern, and are of course as illusory as the ment could not have been more expli- feeble basis of commercial operations, cit, if it had been intended to give the on which they are founded. I have lie to its impudent apologists and in, now in my coffers 200 millions ;—200 fatuated coadjutors in England. Buo. millions,” he repeated, stamping with naparte had declared to this country, his feet, “which shall be better employand to America, that the Berlin and ed than in purchasing sugar, and cof. Milan decrees were rescinded ; Comte fee, and cocoa ; they shall serve to sap de Semonville now proclaimed, as the the power of those who have these maxims for which France contended, only for the representatives of power. that'neutral ships should navigate free. I am not ignorant that in pursuing ly from port to port, and on the coasts my system with vigour many fortunes of nations at war; and that property will be ruined; but they will be those belonging to the subjects of bellige. only who have been imprudent enough rant powers should be free on board to make speculations beyond their neutral ships. Such, he said, were the means, or have chosen to become the declarations in which the Empress Ca- bankers and agents of England. If tharine laid down the rights of all so. I was King of Bourdeaux, or of Marvereigns, and the day was now arrived seilles, or indeed of Holland, I should when powerful reprisals would compel açt probably as others have done ; but England to return to justice. “ The I am at the head of a great empire decrees of Berlin and Milan," said the and of a numerous population, and it Moniteur, “ are not arbitrary acts ; is not for me to sacrifice the general they result from the nature of things: good to serve a few towns. All Eu. they can neither be changed, modified, rope has been too long tributary to nor suspended. Every flag which a England; her monopoly ought to be feeble and pusillanimous nation suffers destroyed, and it shall be by me. If I to be insulted and denationalized, can were only Louis XIV. she night yet no longer be recognized as neutral: it a long while contemn the force of becomes English. The Berlin and France; but I have far greater means Milan decrees will for ever remain the than the greatest of the French kings, fundamental law of France, because and all shall be employed to effect her they arise from the nature of things." fall.” In this speech Buonaparte

What distress these decrees might first suffered it openly to appear that bring upon France, what privations, Russia was no longer the dupe of his what ruin upon the countries which policy, nor the subservient tool of his groaned under the yoke of his conti ambition. “1,” said he, “am, and alnental system, the Corsican heeded ways will be, the master of the Baltic. not; England he believed to be the The Emperor of Russia has not in. only bar in his way to universal de deed as yet caused my decrees to be minion, and the tyrant, who for this observed in his ports ; but ere six object had sacrificed his hopes of hea- months be past he will, or I declare pen, was not likely to be checked in his war against him. Since Tilsit, what progress by any consideration of others. prevented my march to Petersburgh? “ The struggle with England," said What I did not do, I can do yet."

be to some merchants assembled in a Whatever resistance thetyrant might 3 Council of Commerce, “is distressing, find in Sweden and in Russia, the one power relying upon its strength, the employed in devising substitutes for other upon its situation, the degraded coffee, tea, and sugar, that it was race over which he ruled continued deemed necessary, both at Vienna and to lick the hand that scourged them. Berlin, to subject all these inventions His Councils of Manufacture present to a rigorous examination and superined addressess to him on his wisdom tendence, lest the health of the people and goodness in burning British goods: should be sacrificed. For indigo, woad The Consultation Chamber of Com- was used, which had been disused in merce and Manufacture at St Quentin Europe, because indigo was found to placed at the foot of his throne the ex- be greatly preferable. Even for so compression of their gratitude forthe"mag- mon an article as ink, ingredients were nanimous thought and paternal bene- wanting ; and when a German apothevolence which dictated the burning de cary devised means of making it withcree.” « Amidst the immense interests out galls and gum-arabic, it was anand the cares of the whole world,” nounced as a happy discovery. No they said, « it belonged only to the sooner did any experiment seem to prohero who governed them to conceive mise success, than Buonaparte, with and execute this measure with rapidi- that true characteristic of despotism ty so wonderful.” It was pitiable, which leaves nothing toitself, but thinks meantime, to read of the shifts to which to produce every thing by edicts, orthe people of the continent were driven dered that a certain quantity of ground by this magnanimous thought of their should be appropriated to the cultivaruler! Peas, beans, and lupens were tion of beet for sugar, and of woad tried for coffee: the astragalus boeticus for indigo ; that this ground should was cultivated in great quantities in be in full cultivation by the ensuing Moravia for the same purpose. The year at latest ; that the minister of the leaves of the horn-beam were dried for interior should apportion to each de. tea, and scented with the roots of the partment the quantity of land thus Florence iris. One experimentalist to be laid out; and that the prefects transmitted to the minister of the in- should see to the full execution of the terior samples of sugar which he had edict. These things were boasted of extracted from raisins; another ex- in the annual exposition of the state tracted it from the undried grape; a of the empire, as if they were the efthird from chesnuts. At Brest it was fects of a flourishing science, and advandiscovered that the palm sea-weed, cing civilization, not of an ignorant and when well dried, contains sugar as well ferocious tyranny, seeking by every as marine salt, which did not indeed means to rebarbarize mankind. “ The chrystallize like that of the cane, but discovery of the needle," it was said, which had nearly as pleasant a favour, « produced a revolution in commerce ; and had moreover the advantage of be- the use of honey then gave way to that ing perfectly white: Hopes were held of sugar; the use of woad to that of inout to the French that a mode might digo. The progress of chemistry is be found of separating this sugar from operating at this moment a revolution the salt without much expence! Some in an inverse direction; it has arrived chemists made a syrup from maize to at the extraction of sugar from the serve as a substitute ;-at Rennes an grape, the maple, and the beet-root. apple syrup was prepared for the same Woad, which hadenriched Languedoc, purpose. Genuine sugar sold in Hol- and part of Italy, but which was unland at four shillings per pound. Kna. able, in the infancy of art, to support very, as well as science, was so busily the competition with indigo, resumes

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