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At the Stations marked arrangements have been made to take Night Signals. The signal to call the attention of a passing vessel at night time is a series of continuous short flashes made by a Flashing Lamp. The signal to intimate that a vessel's signals have been seen and recognised is a series of long-short flashes, repeated as often as may be necessary, followed by a red flare light of 30 seconds' duration. If the signal shown by a vessel has not been understood, the lamp is kept dark until the vessel repeats her signals.
Two Black Balls hoisted horizontally at the Head of the Signal Staff indicates that the Signal Station is temporarily closed, and that no communication can be held.
Three Black Balls hoisted as a triangle at the Head of the Signal Staff indicates that telegraphic communication is interrupted, and that messages cannot be forwarded by telegraph, but will be forwarded by other means as scon as possible.
To denote telegraphic interruption at night time, the Signal Stations at the Old Head of Kinsale and Brow Head will show Three Green Lamps. arranged in the form of a triangle with apex upwards; and to call attention. to this signal a Roman Candle will be burnt if the vessel can be recognised.
The Meteorological Office sends to the Signal Stations at Deal, St. Catherine's Point, Prawle Point, the Lizard, Lundy Island, Flamborough Head, St. Abb's Head, Dunnet Head, Malin Head, Brow Head, and Old Head of Kinsale telegrams announcing atmospheric disturbances near the Coasts of the British Islands. The fact that one of these notices has been received at any Station is made known by hoisting a Cone 3 ft. high and 3 ft. wide at base, which appears as a triangle when hoisted.
The Cone point downwards means that gales or strong winds are probable ; at first from the Southward, that is from S.E. round by S. to N.W.
Should it appear likely that a gale will begin from between W. and N.W., and also that it is likely to veer towards N. or N. E., the North Cone will be hoisted in preference to the South Cone.
The Cone point upwards means that gales, or strong winds, are probable at first from the Northward; that is, from N.W. round by N. to S.E.
Should it appear likely that a gale will begin from between E. and S.E., and also that it is likely to veer towards S. or S.W., the South Cone will be hoisted in preference to the North Cone.
The Cone is kept hoisted until dusk, and then lowered, but is hoisted again at daylight next morning, and so on until the end of 48 hours from the time at which the message was issued from London.
The following Signal Stations are maintained by the Government of Canada. Orders forwarded to Lloyd's can be transmitted to vessels by means of these Signal Stations on the same conditions as through Lloyd's Signal Stations. Vessels signalling to these Signal Stations will be reported to Lloyd's in the same manner as if signalled from Lloyd's Signal Stations :-CAPE RAY (Newfoundland).
ST. PAUL'S ISLAND
CAPE ST. LAWRENCE
CONDITIONS FOR SIGNALLING ORDERS TO VESSELS.
The following are the conditions on which the Committee of Lloyd's, subject to the discretion reserved by Condition No. 1, allow the use of the Corporation Signal Stations (where in operation) for the purpose of reporting vessels and giving orders :-
I. The orders to be signalled to vessels must be sent to the secretary's office at Lloyd's for transmission to the signal station. Requests for vessels to be reported are also recommended to be sent to the secretary's office. The Committee reserve the right to decline to allow such orders or reports to be given or received whenever by reason of the inconsistent character of the orders or requests which they may have received, or for any other reason, they may think fit so to do.
II. The Committee will endeavour to establish for the convenience of shipowners, merchants, and others, a routine to insure the prompt transmission of such orders and requests for reports to the signal stations, and their staffs at the signal stations will have instructions to give immediate attention to the giving, receiving, and forwarding of such orders and reports, but no employee or servant of the Corporation, or the Committee, shall, as regards the receipt, transmission, or communication of, or omission to transmit or communicate such orders, requests for reports, or reports, be considered as acting for the Corporation or for the Committee, nor shall the Corporation or the Committee be liable for the acts, neglects, or defaults of any such employee or servant, as regards such orders or reports, or for any errors, omissions, delays, or oversight in forwarding such orders or requests for reports, or in giving or failing to give such orders or communicating or failing to communicate such reports.
III. The Committee do not undertake to advise the parties from whom orders are received in the event of the orders not being communicated to the vessel from any cause whatever.
IV. The Committee accept no responsibility for the fitness of the signalling station as regards situation, condition, or equipment for the communication or reception of such orders or reports, nor does the Committee undertake to keep open such signal stations.
V. The forwarding of an order, or of a request for report, to the secretary's office shall be equivalent to an undertaking by the person forwarding the same to indemnify the Corporation and the Committee of Lloyd's against any claims by third parties arising out of or in consequence of orders or reports given or communicated, or the acts or omissions of any servant or employee of the Corporation or the Committee, or the use of the Corporation's signal stations and arrangements in connection with such order or report. Also to pay the charge as per tariff, and any disbursements which the Committee may think it necessary or reasonable to make for telegraphic communications with shipowners or any other person on the subject of such orders or reports, but the Committee do not undertake to make any such disbursements or communications.
Those on whose behalf orders are transmitted signify ipso facto their assent to the above conditions by their request for the transmission of the order.
COALING STATIONS OF THE WORLD.
HOME PORTS.-Aberdeen, Ayr, Ardrossan, Barry, Belfast, Birkenhead, Blyth, Bristol, Cardiff, Cork, Cowes, Dartmouth, Dublin, Dundee, Exeter, Falmouth, Glasgow, Grimsby, Hartlepool, Holyhead, Hull, Leith, Limerick, Liverpool, London, Londonderry, Milford Haven, Newcastle, Newport (Mon.), Oban, Plymouth, Portland, Portsmouth, Port Talbot, Scilly, Seaham, Shields (North), Shields (South), Southampton, Sunderland, Swansea, Stornoway, Troon, Tynemouth, Waterford, Wearmouth, Wexford, Whitby, Whitehaven, Wigton, Youghal.
EUROPEAN PORTS.-Abo, Ajaccio, Alexandria, Algiers, Altona Amsterdam, Antwerp, Augusta, Barcelona, Bari, Batoum, Bergen, Beyrout, Bilboa, Bizerte, Bona, Boulogne, Bordeaux, Bourbon, BrættesnæsBremen, Brake, Bremerhaven, Brindisi, Caen, Cadiz, Cagliari (Sardinia), Calais, Constantinople, Copenhagen, Corcubion, Corfu, Corunna, Cronstadt, Dantzig, Carentan, Cette, Charente, Cherbourg, Christiania, Christiansund, Dieppe, Dordrecht, Dram, Dunkirk, Drontheim, Elsinore, Emden, Etaples, Fecamp, Fiume, Flushing, Galatz, Gallipoli, Geestemunde, Genoa, Gibraltar, Gravelines, Hamburg, Havre, Helsingborg, Honfleur, Huelva, Ibrail, Kiel, Kustendje, La Rochelle, Lisbon, Malmo, *Malta, Marseilles, Memel, Messina, Nantes, Naples, Narva, Nordenham, Odessa, Ostend, Oran, Palermo, Piræus, Port Said, Port Audemer, Pontreux, Revel, Riga, Rouen, Rotterdam, Salonica, Savona, St. Petersburg, St. Malo, Schiedam, Seville, Smyrna Stettin, Stockholm, Suez, Sulina, Syra, Tarifa, Toulon, Trieste, Trouville, Tunis, Valery, Varna, Venice, Vigo, Villafranca (Nice), Wilhelmshaven, Zaandam, Zea.
ATLANTIC PORTS (North and South).-Antigua, *Ascen sion, Bahia, Bahia Blanca, Baltimore, *Barbadoes, Beira, Belize, *Bermudas, Boston (U.S.), Buenos Ayres, Cape Coast Castle, *Cape Town, Cape Verdes (St. Vincent), Ceara, Charleston (S.C.), Chester (U.S.), Congo, Coosaw River, Curaçao, Dix Cove, Elmina, Falkland Islands, Fayal (Azores), *Fernando Po, Galveston, Gambia, Greenport, Gulfport, *Halifax, Havana, Horn Island, *Kingston (Jamaica), *Lagos, La Plata, Las Palmas Loanda, Louisberg (C.B.), Madeira, Maranham, Marcus Hook (U.S.), Martinique, Mobile, Monte Video, Mossamedes (West Coast, S. Africa). Nassau, Natal, Newport News, New Orleans, New York, Norfolk (V.), Para, Pernambuco, Pensacola, Philadelphia, Pictou, Portland (M.), *Port Stanley (F.I.), Punta Arenas, Punta Delgada, Quebec, Quetta, Rio Janeiro, Rosario, Santa Cruz (Teneriffe), St. John (N.B.), St. John's (N.F.), *St. Lucia, *St. Helena, St. Michael's (Azores), St. Paul de Loando, St. Thomas, St. Vincent, Santos, Savannah, Ship Island, *Sierra Leone, *Simon's Town, Sydney (C. B.), Trinidad, Vera Cruz, Whydah, Yarmouth (N.S.).
INDIAN OCEAN AND CHINA SEAS.-*Aden, Amoy, Bangkok, Batavia, *Bombay, Bussorah, Bushire, *Calcutta, Canton, Coconada, Colombo, Delagoa Bay, Galle, Hakodadi, *Hong Kong, Karatzu, Killindim, Kobi, Kurrachee, *Labuan, Madras, Manila, *Mauritius, Moji, Mombasa, Moulmien, Muroran, Nagasaki, *Newcastle (N.S.W.), Otaru, Penang, *Perim, Rangoon, Saigon, Seychelles, Shanghai, *Singapore, Sourabaya, Suez, *Trincomalee, Yokohama, Zanzibar.
PACIFIC (North and South) and AUSTRALASIA.— Adelaide, Acapulco, Astoria, Auckland, Brisbane, Caldera, Callao, Chiloe, Christchurch, Comox, Coquimbo, Coronel, Diego Garcia, *Esquimault, *Fri Islands, Guayaquil, Hobart Town, Honolulu, King George's Sound, Ladysmith, Leruka, Lota, Mazatlan, Melbourne, Nanaimo, *New Westminster, Otago, Portland (O.), Panama, Payta, Perth, San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle, *Sydney, Tacoma Tahiti, *Taboga, Tamsui Fechau, Tonkah, Union, Valparaiso, Vancouver, Victoria (V.I.), *Wellington.
NORTH ATLANTIC LANE ROUTES.
THE rules adopted by the steamship companies with reference to the establishment of routes in the North Atlantic came into effect on January 15, 1899. The companies adopting the rules are:- The American Line, Atlantic Transport Company, Ltd., Compagnie Générale Transatlantique, Cunard Line, Elder, Dempster & Co., Furness Line, Hamburg-America Line, HollandAmerica Line, W. Johnston & Co., Ltd., National Steamship Company, Ltd., Norddeutscher Lloyd, Red Star Line, Wilson Line, White Star Line. The following are the rules :
From January 15 to August 14, both days inclusive.-Steer from Fastnet, or Bishop Rock, on Great Circle course, but nothing south, to cross the meridian of 47° west in latitude 42° north, thence by either rhumb line, or Great Circle (or even north of the Great Circle, if an easterly current is encountered), to a position south of Nantucket Light-vessel, thence to Fire Island Light-vessel, when bound for New York, or to Five Fathom Bank South Light-vessel, when bound for Philadelphia.
From August 15 to January 14, both days inclusive.-Steer from Fastnet, or Bishop Rock, on Great Circle course, but nothing south, to cross the meridian of 49° west in latitude 46° north, thence by rhumb line to cross the meridian of 60° west, in latitude 43° north, thence also by rhumb line, to a position south of Nantucket Lightvessel, thence to Fire Island Light-vessel, when bound to New York, or Five Fathom Bank South Light-vessel, when bound for Philadelphia.
At all seasons of the year steer a course from Sandy Hook Lightvessel, or Five Fathom Bank South Light-vessel, to cross the meridian of 70° west, nothing to the northward of latitude 40° 10′.
From January 15 to August 23, both days inclusive.-Steer from 40° 10' north, and 70° west, by rhumb line, to cross the meridian of 47° west in latitude 41° north, and from this last position nothing north of the Great Circle to Fastnet, when bound to the Irish Channel, or nothing north of the Great Circle to Bishop Rock, when bound to the English Channel.
From August 24 to January 14, both days inclusive.-Steer from latitude 40° 10' north, and longitude 70° west, to cross the meridian of 60° west in latitude 42° o' north, thence by rhumb line to cross the meridian of 45° west in latitude 46° 30' north, and from this last position nothing north of the Great Circle to Fastnet, when bound to the Irish Channel, and as near as possible to, but nothing north of, the Great Circle to Bishop Rock, always keeping south of the latitude of Bishop Rock, when bound to the English Channel.
When courses are changed at the intersections of meridians any time before or after noon, you will note in your logs both distances to and from the meridians that the ship has sailed from noon to noon, and not the distance from the position at noon the day before to the position at noon the day after the meridian is crossed.
PORT DIRECTORY OF THE WORLD.
For List of H.M.'s Consular Officers see p. 200. For List of U.S. Consular Officers in the United Kingdom see p. 208,
I.-PORTS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM.
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS EMPLOYED.
Accn. = Accommodation for Shipping, &c.
AST. = Average Spring Tides,
Auth. Authority or owner of port, docks, &c.
D. = Depth of Water (generally applied to depth on bar unless otherwise stated).
HW. High Water.
LV. Largest Vessel or Vessels which have entered the port at any time. NT. Neap Tides.
G.&S W. =Glasgow & South Western.
G. E. Great Eastern
G.N. (I.)= Great Northern (Ireland).
P. = Pilotage.
R. of N. Rise of Neaps.
R. of T. Rise of Tide.
ABBREVIATIONS OF NAMES OF RAILWAY COMPANIES.
B. & N. C. = Belfast and Northern
L. & S.W. = London & South Western.
B. & M. Brecon & Merthyr.
D.W.&W. = Dublin, Wicklow & Wex
H. = Highland.
I.M. = Isle of Man.
I.W = Isle of Wight.
I. W. C. Isle of Wight Central.
L. & Y.= Lancashire & Yorkshire.
L. & N.W. = London & North Western.
Rys. Railways which connect with the harbour.
THW. Time of High Water.
f. & c. = full and change (of moon), Tr. Trade of Port.
I. = Imports,
E. = Exports.
W. Wind, i.e., the prevailing or other winds which affect the harbour, W. of E. Width of Entrance,
L.T. & S. = London, Tilbury & Southend.
M. & C. Maryport & Carlisle.
M. & G. W.
Midland and Great
N.B. North British.
N.E. North Eastern.
S.E. & C. - South Eastern & Chatham
W. & C.I.=Waterford & Central Ire-
W. L. & W. = Waterford, Limerick and Western.
W. & T. = Waterford & Tranmore.